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;liiiMiii.i I 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 

Quaideidy Statemeitt 

FOR 1895. 




( r * r ff c • 
« « «• 

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Baldenspergcr, P. J., Esq.— 
Beth-Dejan . . 



Bergheim,' Samuel, Esq. — 

The Identification of the City of David— Zion and Millo . . 120 

Birch, Eev. W. F., M.A.— 

The Sepulchres of David on Ophel . . .... • • 261 

The City of David— Zion not at " Goliath's Castle " . . . . 263 

The Eock of Etam and the Cave of Adullam 338 

Bliss, F. J., Ph.D.— 

Third Report of the Excavations at Jerusalem . . . . • • 9-25 

Fourth „ . „ 97-108 

Sixth „ ^„ .^ „ 305-320 

Narrative of an Expedition to Moab and Gilead in March, 1895 203 

Conder, Major C. R., D.C.L., LL.D., M.B.A.S., R.E.— 

Notes on the Quarterly Statement . . . . . • • • 8' 

The Hiematite Weight 191 

The Assyrians in Syria . . . . . . • • • • • • ■'■91 

Notes on Dr. Bliss's Discoveries at Jerusalem . . . . . . 330 

Notes on the July Quarterly Statement . . . . . . • • 332 

Dalton, Rev. Canon J. N., C.M.G.— ' ' 

Note on the First Wall of Ancient Jerusalem and the Present 

Excavations . . . . . . . . • • • • • • 26 

Note on Dr. Bliss's Lejjun in Moab . . . . . • • • 332 

Note on Colonel Watsonls Paper on tlui Stoppage of the Jordan 334 

Davis, Ebenezer, Esq. — 

Notes on the Hoematite Weight from Samaria 187 

Dickie, Archibald Campbell, Esq., A.R.I.B.A. — 

Fifih Rej)ort on the Excavations of Jerusalem . . •• •• 235 



Ewiug, Rev. W.— pagb 

Greek and other Inscriptions collected in the Haiiran, edited 

by A. G. Wright, Esq., and A. Souter, Esq., M.A. 41, 131, 265, 355 
A Journey in the Hauran .. .. .. .. 60,161,281,355 

Fowler, Eer. J. T., F.S.I.— 

St. Cuthbert's Cross. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 128 

Glaishcr, James, Esq., F.R.S. — 

Results of Meteorological Observations taken at Jerusalem for 
1887. 184 ; for 1888, 294 ; for 1889, 368. 

Murray, A. S., Esq., LL.D.— 

Greek Mosaic Inscription from Mount of Olives . . . . 86 

The Mosaic with Armenian Inscription from near the Damascus 

Gate, Jerusalem .. .. .. .. .. .. 126 

Greek Inscription from near Tripoli, forwarded by Dr. Harris 128 

Latin Inscription in the Wall of Neby Dadd, Jerusalem . . 130 

Notes on Inscriptions collected in Moab by Dr. Bliss . . . . 371 

Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M.A. — 

The Identification of the City of David 342 

Schick, Herr Baurath von — 
Reports from — 

Muristan 29,108,248 

A Stair and Postern in the Old Wall north of Jerusalem . . 30 
An Addition to the Report on the recently -found Mosaic 

outside the Damascus Gate .. .. .. .. .. 30 

Tombs, or Remainder of Third Wall . . . . . . . . 30 

Recent Discoveries on the Mount of Olives . . . . . . 32 

Beth Zur . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . 37 

Montefioreh 40 

Excavations made inside the New Gate . . . . . . 109 

An old Pool west of the City 109 

Reckoning of Time among the Armenians . . . . . • 110 

The Armenian Ci'oss .. .. .. .. .. .. HO 

Church at Deir ez Zeituny . . . . . . . . . 249 

Old Churclies in Jerusalem . . . . . . . . . . 321 

Cross at the Russian Ground near the Church of the Uoly 

Sepulchre . . . . . . . . . . • • • • 328 

Changes at Siloam . . . . . . . . • • • • 328 

Another Tomb at the Muristan . . . . . . . . . • 329 

Stone Basin found in Rock-cut Tomb . . . . • • . • 329 

Schumacher, Dr. G. — 

Reports from Galilee .. .. .. .. •• •• HO 

Simpson, William, Esq., M.R.A.S. — 

The Swastica 84 

Smith, Rev. George Adum, D.D., LL.D. — 

On Aphek in Sharon .. .. .. .. .. •• 252 

Stevenson, W. E., Esq. — 

The Stoppage of the River Jordan A.D. 1267 

Stewart, Aubrey, Esq., M.A. — 
St. Cuthbert's Cross.. 

Stuart, Rev. A. Moody, D.D.— 

Lapping of the Water . . . • . . . . . . 

"Watson, Lieut.-Col. C. M., C.M.a., R.E.- 

The Stoppage of the River Jordan a.d. 1267 

Wilson, Major-General Sir Charles, K.C.B., R.E.— 

Notes on Dr. Bliss's Excavations at Jerusalem . . 

Wright, A. G., Esq.— 
Syria and Arabia 
I. Formation of the Provinces of Syria and Arabia 
District of Damascus . . 
,, Judea 

,, .jxrabia •• ■• •• •• ■• 

II. The Boiindai'y Lines of Syria and Arabia . . 
Classified List of Dates found on Inscriptions 
List of Places as given by Ancient Authorities 

Wright, Rev. Professor T. F., Ph.D.— 

The Julian Inscri^Jtion in the Metropolitan Museum, New York 





193, 297 



u S 




Plan to illustrate Dr. Bliss's Third Eeport on tlie Excavations at 

Jerusalem . . . . • . • • • • • • • • • • " 

Antique Gate recently discovered at Jerusalem . , . . . . . . 10 

Specimen of Masonry . . . . . . . . . • • • • • 15 

Specimens of Masonry in South Wall of Ancient Jerusalem . . . . 20, 21 

Plan to illustrate Herr Schick's Notes on the Muristan ; Postern in the 

Old Wall; Mosaic outside Damascus Gate ; Third Wall, &c. . . 30 

Plan of the Top of Mount Olivet 33 

Plan and Sections of Excavations on Mount Olivet . . . . . . 3J< 

Pattern of Mosaic on Mount of Olives .. .. .. .. .. 3i 

Inscriptions collected in the Hauran . . 42-60, 131-160, 265-280, 346-354 

Sketch Map showing the Routes travelled by the Rev. W. Ewing . . 60 

Hebrew Inscription near the Ash Heaps at Jerusalem . . . . . . 83 

St. Cuthbert's Cross, Cross Pattee, Maltese Ci'oss. . .. .. .. 84 

Greek Mosaic Inscription from Mount of Olives . . . . . . . . 86 

Byzantine Church, discovered on the Mount of Olives , . . . . . 101 

„ ,, Vase and Base of Pillar found in the Ruins of . . 104 

Section of Rock-cut Tomb with Cross at Tell es Samak . . . . . . Ill 

Glass Ware with Aramaic Characters near Ras en Nakura . . . . 112 

Stone Figure of a Ram from Yazur . . . . . . . . . . 113 

Greek Inscription on a Copper Ring .. .. .. .. .. 113 

The Julian Inscription in ths Museum of Art, New York . . . . 124 

Inscription on Tomb near Damascus Gate. . .. .. .. .. 124 

Greek Inscription from near Tripoli .. .. .. .. 128,129 

Latin Inscription in the Wall of Neby Daud, Jerusalem . . . . 130 

Sculptured Head, Ahry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 154 

Arab Tribe Marks (Wasm) 163 

Marks on a Dolmen . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . 169 

The Game called " Mankalah " 171 

Figure in an Arch .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 171 

Comparative Study of the Characters of the Hsematite Weight . . 188 

Map to illustrate Dr. Bliss's Journey in Moab .. .. .. .. 204 

Madeba— Plans of Churches 206-212 

Mosaic at Madeba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 

Greek Inscription at Madeba . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 

„ „ Kerak 371, 372 

Wady Waieh 371 

Inscriptions on Roman Milestones . . . . . . . . . . 213, 214, 371 



Lej jun, Sketch of South Gate 221 

„ Plan of Military Town of . . . . • . . 222 

Plan of Roman Fort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 

„ Kaser Bsher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 

„ Palace at Mashetta 229 

„ Inner Palace at Mashetta . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 

Entrance Gate of Mashetta. (From a Photograph) .. .. .. 231 

Inner Palace of Mashetta. (From a Photograijh) . . . . . . 232 

Tower at Mashetta . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . 233 

Plan to illustrate tlie Fifth Report on the Excavations at Jerusalem . . 235 
Plans, Sketch, Sections, and Elevations . . . . . . . . . . 237-247 

Key Plan to the Specimens of Masonry . . . . . . . . . . 244 

Plan of Church of the " Convent of the Olive Tree," Jerusalem . . 251 
Map to illustrate the account of the Stoppage of the Jordan in 

A.D. 1267 .. 
Plan to illustrate the Sixth Report on the Excavations at Jerusalem 
Plan and Sections of the Baths South of Siloam . . 
Sections of the Excavations at Jerusalem . . 
Specimens of Masonry found in the Excavations . . 
Restoration of the Wall crossing Valley below Siloam . 

Plan of Jerusalem showing the situation of the Churches 
„ the Church of " St. Thomas " 
„ the Cliapel of the " Prison of Christ " 
„ the Mosque " Yakubiyeh " . . 
„ the Churcli of " Mar Jerias " 

„ "DarDisse" 

„ the Church of St. Mark . . 

Sketch of a Stone Basin 

Inscriptions collected in Moab 


309, 313 
310, 314, 315 

371, 372 



Abu Zeid, Story of, 87. 
Anmial Meeting, 373. 
Antiques, Sham, 298. 
Ajihek in Sharon, 252. 
Arabia and Syria, 67. 
Assyrians, The, in Syria, 191. 

Balance Sheet for 1894, 94. 
Beisan, Find of Grold Coins at, 89. 
Beth-Dejan, 114; Castle Vestiges oP, 

116 ; Closed Cavern, 116; Jawanie, 

Names of, 116; Names of Portions 

of Land, 117-119. 
Bridge at Lydda, 2.59. 
Bridge near junction of Wady Zerka, 

259. . ■ ' 

Bridge of Uamieh, Construction of, 


Carriage Eoad to Jericho and Jordan, 

Cases for Binding, 200. 

Casts. (See Notes and News.) 

Cave of Adullam and tlie Kock Etam, 

CI lurch of the Holy Sepulchre, Rock 
under. 297. 

City of David — Zioii and Millo, Iden- 
tification of, 120, 342. 

Dragomans in Palestine, 298. 

Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Pctra, and 

tlie Wady Arabah, 93. 
I'ountain of Siloam Dry, 1. 
Fylfot, The, 84. 

Galilee, Reports from, 110. 

fiammadion, The, 84. 

Class Ware with Aramaic Characters, 

Golden Gate, Tlie, enclosed, 90. 

Haematite Weight from Samaria, 187, 

Hauran, Inscribed Copper Ring from, 

Hauran, Inscriptions collected in the, 
41-60, 131-160, 265-280, 346-354. 

Hauran, A Journey in the, 60, 161, 
281, 355; Waters of Merom, Jisr 
Benat Ya'kiib, Jaulan, 61 ; Hermon, 
61, 63; Lake Huleh, 61, 62; 
Jewish Colony, 62 ; Old Roman 
Road, Sa'sa', View described. Camels 
very numerous, 63 ; Kuneiterali, 
63,64; Ma'arah, Fountain, Circas- 
sian Courage, 64 ; Vengeance, 
Large Encampments, 65 ; Huge 
Dolmen, Bedawin Names for Dol- 
mens, 67 ; Dolmens, el Khushniyeh, 
Gate Pillar and Marble Column, 
Ruins, Tel el Talava, Tribe Marks, 
A'yiin el Faliham," 163 ; Tell Furj, 
Tell el Faras, Fragments of Lava, 
Ancient Building, Fine View from 
Summit, 164; Tell Jokhadar, Khan, 
Ancient Road from Gilead to 
Damascus, 165; Perils of the Pil- 
grimage, 166 ; Dolmen near Tsil, 
168, 169; Rukkad, 168; Dar es 
Sheikh, Cup Hollows, 170 ; Man- 
kalali,l7l ; Explanations of Phrases, 
172 ; Sahem el Jaulan, 174 ; Ser- 
pents, Remains of Ancient Baths, 
Wady 'Allan, Beit Akkar, 175; 
Sparkling Water, Mills, 176 ; 
'Adwan, Vineyards, 178 ; Flics, 
Fountain, el Merkcz, Druses, 
Monastery of Job, 179, 180 ; Black 
Village Community, Hammain 
Ayyub, 180 ; Tell 'Ashtcrah, 
Ex]ienses of the Medafch, 181 ; 
Ruin, 182; Wady en Nar, Umm 
el Jamal, 183 ; Discovery of Trea- 
sure, 184 ; Nawa, Fragments of 
Carved Stones, 284 ; Graves with 
Inscriptions, 291 ; Charms, 355 ; 


Cufic Inscription, Barter, Latib 
full of Inscriptions, el Mill, Kefr 
Nasij, 35G ; Fellaliin in the Hauran, 
el Grhauta, Kefr Shems, es Sana- 
mein, 357 ; Kiblah, 358 ; Con- 
struction of the Tramway in the 
Hauran, 359 ; Eoman Bridge, 360 ; 
Temples at es Sanamein, Busir, 
361 ; Arabs of el Leja', 362 ; 
Ivhabab, Dar el Matran, 363 ; 
Christians, Sheikh Diab's Family, 
364; Kaniseh JjKlideh, 365; Place 
Names in el Leja', 366. 

Identification of the City of David, 
120, 342. 

Inscribed Copper Eing from Hauran, 

Inscriptions — 

Arabic on Bridge at Lydda, 259. 
Armenian near Damascus Gate, 126. 
Greek Mosaic, 86. 
Greek, from near Tripoli, 128. 
Greek and other, 41-60, 131-160, 

209, 265-280, 346-354. 
Hebrew, from near the Ashpits, 

Jerusalem, 83. 
Julian, the, 124. 

Latin, 25, 130, 213, 214, 216, 225. 
On Tomb near Damascus Gate, 124. 
Collected in Moab, 371, 372. 

Jacob's Well, Further Excavations at, 

Jaffa, Land Property at, 298. 

Jerusalem Association, 3, 298. 

Jerusalem Inscriptions, 25,124,126,130. 

Jerusalem, Collection of Antiques, 3. 

Jerusalem — 

Third Report on the Excavations, 
9 ; Gate of the Essenes, 9, 12 ; 
Zinn Gate, 11 ; Gate mentioned 
by Joscphus, 12 ; Aqueduct, 15, 
16; Masonry, 15, 19, 20, 21; 
Wall, 16, 17, 18 ; Towers, 16-23 ; 
Biirj el Kebrit, 18 ; Rubble 
Foundation, Roughly Dressed 
Stones, Smooth - faced Stones, 
Drafted Stones, 19-21 ; Latin 
Inscription at Nebi Daud, 25. 

Ancient— Note on the " First Wall," 

Muristan, 29, 108, 248 ; Tombs, 29, 
30 ; The Mosaic outside Damascus 
Gate, Tanks, Remainder of Third 
Wall, 30, 31; Recent Discoveries 
on Mount of Olives, 32-34 ; Karm 
es Sajad or Viri Galilsei Hill, 36 ; 
Bethzur, 37-39 ; Montefioreh, 40; 
Hebrew Inscription, 83. 

Fourth Report, 97 ; Wall enters 
Jewish Cemetery, Wall Again 
Found, 97; Description of Wall, 
98 ; Excavating on Mount of 
Olives, 99 ; Skeletons Found. 100 ; 
Byzantine Church, 101-105 ; 
Base of Pillar and Vase, 104 ; 
Visit to Egypt, 106. 

Excavations Inside the New Gate, 
109 ; An Old Pool West of the 
City, 109 ; Reckoning of Time 
Among the Armenians, 110; The 
Armenian Cross, 110 ; Latin 
Inscription at Neby Daud, 130. 

Fifth Report, 235 ; Wall Emerging 
from Jewish Cemetery, 235 ; 
Shafts, Tunnels, Gate, 236 ; 
Descriptions of Masonry, 238- 
247; Glass, Coins, and Iron 
Buckle Found, 247. 

Muristan, 248 ; Foundation of 
Church, 249 ; Cistern not Rock, 
Church of Deir ez Zeituny, 
Armenian Nunnery, 249 ; Porch, 
and Cistern, 251. 

Sixth Report, 305; The Line of 
Wall, 193, 297, 305, 317, 330; 
Coins Found, Main Drain, 305 ; 
Baths, 306 ; Birket, 308 ; Wall 
Picked Up Again, 309 ; Buttress 
and Rock Found, Restoration of 
the Wall, 311 ; Two Walls Found, 
One including, the other exclud- 
ing, the Pool of Siloam, Birket 
found by Dr. Guthe, 313; Speci- 
mens of Masonry, 314, 315, 319 ; 
Eudocia's or Herod's Wall, 317 ; 
Cuttnig Section S. of Neby Daud, 
Latin Graffito Found, Inferred 
Tower, Another Wall Found, 
Massive Courses, and Rubble, 319. 

Old Churches in Jei-usalem, 321 ; 
Church of "St. Thomas," 322; 
" Prison of Christ," 323 ; Mosque 
"Yakubiyeh," 324; Church of 

"Mar Jerias," 325 ; "Dar Disse," 
325 ; Church of St. Mark, 327 ; 
Cross near tlie Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, Village of Silvan, 
Changes in, 328 ; Old Pool of 
Siloam, Another Tomb Found at 
the Muristan, Rock-cut Tomb and 
Stone Basin in it, 329 

Jews' -harp, 3. 

Jordan, Stoppage of tlie Eiver, 253 ; 
Arabic Passage relating to, 256. 

Julian Inscription, 124. 

Lapping of the Water, 345. 
Lectures, Authorised, 7. 
Lejjun in Moab, 332. 
Lycida, Arabic Inscription on Bridge 
'at, 259. 

Meteorologies 1 Observations, 90, 184 
(1887), 294 (1888), 368 (1889). 

Mount of Olives, Greek Mosaic 
Inscription, 86, 100. 

Museum of the Fund, 4. 

Narrative of an Expedition to Moab 
and Gilead in 1895, 203 ; Roman 
Fort discovered, 193 ; Kerak, 203 ; 
Fort, 205 ; Stone Circles, 205 ; 
Acropolis, 206; Gates, 207; Wall, 
Pool, Churches, 208-212; Greek 
Inscription, 209 ; Columns and 
Capitals, 211 ; Roman Milestones, 
213-216 ; Oil-press, Pilaster, 214 ; 
Mojib or Arnon, 'Araier, Sai'deh, 
Lejjun, Balua', Branches of the 
Arnon, 215 ; Springs of Makhfirus, 
215, 221; Dhiban, Stone Circle, 
Zottam, 215; Arab Tribe Marks, 
Jebel Shihan, 216; Beit el Kuhn 
or Kasr Rabba, Wady ez Zaytin, 
Kerak, Tbe Governor, Contrast to 
former Receptions, 217 ; Descrip- 
tion of Kerak, 217-220; Umm er 
Resas, Lejjun, Ruin of Balua, 
Wady cd Debbeh, 221 ; Roman 
Town, 221, 222 ; Kusr Bsher, Roman 
Fort, Rujum Rishan, Wady es 
Sultan, 223 ; Latin Inscription, 
223, 225; Pool or Tank, 225; 
Magara Abu Nathi, 227 ; Greek 
Inscription, 228 ; Umm el 'Amad, 
229 ; Palaces at Mashetta, 229, 
230, 232 ; Entrance Gate, 231 ; 
Tower at Mashetta, 233; Umm 
Shetta, or Mashetta, 'Amman now 
Populous, es Salt, Jerusalem, 234. 

Notes on Dr. Bliss's Discoveries, 193, 
297, 330. 

Notes and News, 1, 89, 193, 297. 

Notes on the October Quarterly State- 
ment, 87 ; July, 332. 

Palestine Exploration Fund Museum, 

Quarterly Statement, Back Numbers 

of, 95. 
Quarterly Statement, Index to, 4. 

Railway, Beyrout to Damascus, 298. 
Raised Map of Palestine, 4, 90, 197, 

River Jordan, Stoppage of, 334. 
Rock Etam and the Cave of Adullam, 

Rock under the Church of the Holy 

Sepulchre, 297. 

Sculptured Head, 154. 

Seals, 113. 

Sepulchres of David on Ophel, 261 ; 

The City of David, 263; Zion not 

at Goliath's Castle, 263. 
Slides, 6, 93, 200. 
St. Cuthbert's Cross, 83, 128. 
Stoppage of the River Jordan, 338. 
Stone Antiqties from Yazur, 113. 
Survey of Eastern Palestine, 4. 
Swastica, The, 84. 
Syria and Arabia, 67-82 ; Formation 

of Provinces, 67 ; Districts, 69 ; 

Boimdary Lines, 73 ; Dates, 80-82 ; 

Places, 82. 

Tanturah, Fall of the Tower, 113. 
Tell es Samak, Tomb with Cross, 111. 
Tomb witli Cross, 111. 
Treasurer's Statement for 1894, 95. 
Tripoli, Greek Inscription from near, 

Treskelion, The, or Three Legs of the 

Isle of Man, 85. 

Wady Musrura, Iron Bridge over, 3. 
Weight, Haematite, 187, 191. 

Yazur, Stone Antiques from, 113. 

Zion and Millo, Identification of, 

Quarterly Statement, Janitary, 1895.] 




Up to the date of his last despatches Dr. Bliss was still tracing the line of the 
old wall, whicli he had followed for about 1,000 feet. His third report will be 
found at p. 9. 

Letters from Dr. Bliss and Herr von Schick report that the iron-bound door 
of Neby Daud, which had remained open against the wall for a number of 
years, haying been recently blown down during a severe storm, there was dis- 
closed on one of the stones behind it an inscription which seems not to have 
been before noticed. It is in Latin, and, according to Dr. Bliss's report, is a 
votive tablet to Jupiter on behalf of the welfare and greatness of the Emperor 
Trajan and the Roman people, erected by the Third Legion, which takes us 
back to the interval between the destruction by Titus and the founding of ^lia 
Capitolina. It was jJ-iitly covered with plaster and may have been entirely 
covered when the door was last opened and shut, which may account for its 
being unnoticed. It is built into the modern wall about 15 feet above the 
ground. Roman inscriptions are very rare in Jerusalem and this discovery is 
therefore of exceptional interest. A squeeze of the inscription is expected to 
arrive shortly. 

Amongst Herr von Schick's various notes is one in reference to Bethzur. 
Many have thought that there must have been tioo places of this name, one on 
the way to Hebron, and one near Jerusalem. Herr von Schick adopts this 
opinion, and puts in a claim for Et Tor on the Mount of Olives to be regarded 
as the Bethzur near the Holv City. 

In ^N'ovember Herr von Schick rejjorted that the fountain of Siloam had 
been dry for several weeks, and tlie people had to bring water from Bir Ayub to 
water the gardens with, also that during the last two or three years the water 


2. <,.<.> NOTES AND NEWS. 

of the spring has in general been much less than in former times. The natives 
thirk :£hai. thelflassiiig was taken away from the spring with the Siloam inscrip- 
tion. ,■■ Q,tlae^'s,f^y', tJjii^t the diminution maybe owing to the many new houses 
built on the higher ground north and west of the city, which have cisterns for 
collecting the rain water, and that the increased cultivation of gardens and 
planting of trees has to do with it. But Herr von Schick thinks that if these 
were the causes Bir Ayub would also have suffered, which is not the case. 

Herr von Schick continues: — "I was told that a few years ago some Jews 
were bathing in the Virgin's Fountain, when a quarrel arose with the Fellaliin 
and a Jew was injured by a stone, in consequence of which some of the Siloam 
people were imprisoned for a time, and, when they were released, an order was 
given that in future no one, whether Jew or Fellah, should be allowed to bathe 
there, so that the Fellaliin might have no further quarrels with Jews. In order 
to enforce this rule a black man was placed there as watchman. But one day 
there was no more water, and the Fellahin charged the black man with taking it 
away by witchcraft, to which the man replied that if they would pay him £40 
he would bring the water again. 

" If this story be true, which I cannot know, then the black man may have 
opened some other channel for the water, not known hitherto. As Bir Ayub has 
much water it may be that it goes there now. Is there still anywhere an 
unknown channel ? " 

Dr. Chaplin states that some years ago it was a common custom for Jews, 
and especially Jewesses, to go to the Virgin's Fountain to bathe, under the 
belief that there was some special virtue in its waters. They called the 
place "Godl's Mikveh " = Gedaliah's bath, but what particular Gedaliah was 
referred to they seemed not to know. 

We publish in this number the first jjortion of the Greek and other inscrip- 
tions collected in the Hauran by the Rev. W. Ewing, and also part of his 
personal narrative of his journey. It is proposed to publish the whole in the 
course of the year, so that all may be contained in the annual volume for 

Referring to the serpent-like figure in Baron Ustinoff's collection, described 
and figured by Herr von Schick in the Quarterly Statement for 1893, 
p. 297, the Rev. J. E. Hanauer writes that he has discovered that the object 
was found at Lydda, and thinks that it may be connected with the popular 
ideas which have been current for so many centuries respecting the dragon 
slain by St. George, the patron Saint of Lydda — and of England. Mi-. Hanauer 
refers to the fact that St. George is greatly revered by the Moliammcdans, 
who identify him with El Khtldr, the evergreen Nebi, a holy man of ancient 
times, who, having been permitted to drink of the fountain of perpetual 
youth, can never die, but appears from time to time as the messenger of 
retributive Providence, to succour the godly, to jDunish the wicked, and to 
annihilate monster (di-agon) forms of evil. 


Mr. Haiiauer also reports that a deep vault or pit was recently discovered 
under the flooring of tlie little mosque in the house of Simon the Tanner, 
at Jaffa. It seemed to be about thirty feet deep. 

A correspondent sends the following, from the " Daily News," thinking 
it may have interest for students of things connected with the Holy Land : — 
" Is the Jews'-harp a musical instrument ? The question has been raised in 
the United States, for if it be only a toy, it will be liable to another rate 
of import duty . . . The name of the instrument is, of course, an absui'd 
corruption of ' jaws-harp.' " 

It is pretty certain that this instrument has no special connection with 
Jews or the ancient country of the Jews, but the derivation suggested seems 
less probable than that from Jeu-harpe = toy-harp. In some old authors we 
have jeti-trompe, which seems to have meant the same thing. 

A correspondent from Jaflla reports that an iron bridge has recently been 
built by the Government over the Wady Musrura just where the Nablus 
road crosses the stream befoi'e its junction with the Aujeh. 

The Rev. Theodore E. Dowling, Honorary Seci'etary of the Jerusalem 
Association, repoi'ts that a course of lectures will be delivered in Christ 
Church Lecture Room, Jerusalem, under the auspices of the Association, 
during the ajjproaching travelling season. Subject to any necessary altera- 
tions, the programme is as follows : — 




February 26 ... 

Eev. A. H. Kelk, M.A 

Saturaay, March 2 ... 

Herr Baurath C. Schick 


4 ... 
4 ... 

.5 ... 

Bliss, F. J., Esq., Ph.D 

(Afternoon, 2.30 o'clock— on Mount 
Percy D'Krf Wheeler, Esq., M.U., 

F.R.C.S.E., F.E.G.S. 
Hjinauer, Rev. J. E. 


12 ... 

Zeller, Rev. J 


19 .. 
26 ... 

Percy D"Erf Wheeler, Esq., M.D., 

F.R.C.S.E., F.R.G..S. 
Bliss, F. J., E.sq., Ph.D 



E. W. G. Masterman, Esq., F.E.C.S. ... 



9 ... 

Dickson, John, Esq., H.B.M. Consul ... 

Dowling, Eev. Theodore E 

A Walk about Jerusalem. 

The Temple : Illustrated by 

Recent Excavations. 
Jews of Jerusalem. 

The City Walls and Gates 

and their Folk Lore. 
The Bedawin. 

Jewish Life in Palestine. 

The Tells of Palestine. 


Progress and Produce in 

The City and the Land — 

A Lantern Lecture. 

Tourists are invited to visit the Loan Collection of "Antiques" in the 
Association Room, which is situated opposite the Tower of David, where 
maps of Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund publications are kept for 

A 2 


The following have kindly consented to act as Honorary Local Secre- 
taries : — 

The Rev. C. £. Eanken, St. Ronans, Malvern. 

Hem-y Clark, Esq., Prospect House, Trent Street, Stockton-on-Tees. 

J. T. Atkinson, Esq., Hayesthorpe, Holgate Hill, York. 

Dr. McEwau, Prestonpans, N.B. 

Mr. Walter Besant's summary of the work of the Fund from its commence- 
ment has been brought up to date by the author, and will be published shortly 
under the title, " Thirty Years' Work in the Holy Land." Applications for 
copies may now be sent in to Mr. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Armstrong's Raised Map of Palestine is on view at tlie office 
of the Fimd. A circular giving full particulars about it will be sent on appli- 
cation to the Secretary. 

Subscribers to the Palestine Pil&rims' Text Society who have not 
sent in their application for cases for binding the translations issued by the 
Society, are reminded that these are now ready, and that the whole issues — 
Nos. 1 to 26 (up to date) — have been ai-ranged in chronological order, so as to 
make 10 volumes of equal size. 

Index to the Quarterly Statement. — A new edition of the Index to the 
Quarterly Statements lias been compiled. It embraces the years 1869 (the 
first issue of the journal) to the end of 1892. Contents : — Names of the 
Autliors and of tlie Papers contributed by them ; List of the Illustrations ; and 
General Index. This Index will be found extremely useful. Price to 
subscribers to the Fund, in paper cover, If. Qd., in cloth, 2s. Qd., post free ; 
non-subscribers, 2s. and ?>s. 

The museum of the Fund, at 24, Hanover Square, is now open to subscribers 
between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m., every week-day except Saturdays, 
when it closes at 2 p.m. 

The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
of the Fund, which already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. See list of Books, July Quarterly Statement^ 

It may be well to mention that plans and photograplis alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the offices of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 

The first volume of the "Survey of Eastern Palestine," by Major Conder, 
is accompanied by a map of the jjorlion of country surveyed, special plans, 
and upwards of 350 drawings of ruins, tombs, dolmens, stone circles, inscrip- 
tions, &c. Subscribers to the " Survey of Western Palestine " are privileged 


to have the volumes for seven guineas. The price will be raised, after 250 
names are received, to twelve guineas. The Committee are pledged never to 
let any copies he subscribed for tinder the sum of seven guineas. K. P. Watt 
and Son, Hastings House, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C., are the Sole Agents. 
The attention of intending subscribers is directed to the announcement in the 
last page of this number. 

Mr. H. Chichester Hart's " Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and the Wady 
Arabah," which forms the second volume, can be had separately. 

M. Clermont-Granneau's work, "Archaeological Researches in Palestine," will 
form the third volume. The first portion of it is already translated and in 
the press. 

The maps and books now contained in the Society's publications comprise 
an amount of information on Palestine, and on the researches conducted in 
the country, which can be found in no other publications. It must never be 
forgotten that no single traveller, however well equipped by previous knowledge, 
can compete with a scientific body of explorers, insti'ucted in the periods 
required, and provided with all the instruments necessary for carrying out 
f.heir work. See list of Publications. 

TTie Old and New Testament Map of Palestine (scale t of an inch to a 
mile). — Embraces both sides of the Jordan, and extends from Baalbek in the 
north to Kadesh Barnea in the south. All the modern names are in black ; 
over these are printed in red the Old Testament and Apocrypha names. The 
New Testament, Josephus, and Talmudic names are in blue, and the tribal 
possessions are tinted in colours, giving clearly all the identifications up to 
date. It is the most comprehensive map that has been published, and will be 
invaluable to universities, colleges, schools, &c. 

It is published in 20 sheets, with paper cover ; price to subscribers to the 
Fund, 23*.; to the public, £2. It can be had mounted on cloth, rollers, and 
varnished for hanging. The size is 8 feet by 6 feet. The cost of moimting 
is extra {see Maps) . 

In addition to the 20-slieet map, the Committee have issued as a separate 
Map the 12 sheets (viz., Nos. 5-7, 9-11, 13-15, 20-22), which include the whole 
of Palestine as far north as Mount Hermon, and the districts beyond Jordan a8 
far as they are surveyed. See key-map to the sheets. 

The price of this map, in 12 sheets, in paper cover, to subscribers to the 
Fund, 12*. Qd. ; to the public, £1 1*. 

The size of this map, mounted on cloth and roller for hanging, is 4i feet by 
61 feet. 

Any single sheet of the map can be had separately, price, to subscribers of the 
Fund, \s. 6d. Mounted on cloth to fold in the pocket suitable for travelling, 2*. 
To the public 2s. and 2s. 6d. 

Single copies of these maps in sheets, with cover, can be sent by post to all 
foreign countries at an extra charge of 1?. 

A copy of names and places in the Old and New Testament, loith their 
modern identifications and full references, can be had by subscribers with either 
of these maps at the reduced price of 2s. Qd. 


Branch Associations of the Bible Society, all Sunday School Unions within 
the Sunday School Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Wesleyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Resolution of the 
Committee they will henceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced price. 

The income of the Society, from September 22nd to December 24th, 1894, 
was — from annual subscriptions and donations, including Local Societies, 
£642 12s. Od. ; from all sources — £874 8*. 8f?. The expenditure during the 
same period was £706 3*. Qd. On December 24th the balance in the Bank 
was £316 \s. lid. 

Subscribers are requested to note that the following cases for binding, 
casts, and slides can be had by application to the Assistant Secretary at the 
Office of the Fund :— 

Cases for binding Herr Schumacher's " Jaulan," 1*. each. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement, in green or chocolate. Is. each. 

Cases for binding " Abila," " Pella," and " 'Ajlun " in one volume, 
Is. each. 

Casts of the Tablet, front and back, with a Cuneiform Inscription found 
in May, 1892, at Tell el Hesy, by F. J. Bliss, Explorer to the Fund, 
at a depth of 35 feet. It belongs to the general diplomatic correspon- 
dence carried on between Amenhotep III and IV and their agents in various 
Palestinian towns. Price 2s. Qd. the pair. 

Casts of the Ancient Hebrew Weight brought by Dr. Chaplin from Samaria, 
price 2s. Qd. each. 

Casts of an Inscribed Weight or Bead from Palestine, forwarded by Professor 
Wright, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., price Is. each. 

Lantci'u slides of the Eaised Map, the Sidon Sarcophagi, and of the Bible 
places mentioned in the catalogue of photos and special list of slides. 

In order to make up complete sets of the Quarterly Statement the 
Committee will be very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 

While desiring to give publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by oiScers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forwai-d each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 


The authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

The Rev. Thomas Harrison, F.R.G-.S., Hillside, Benenden, Staplehurst, 
Kent. His subjects are as follows ; — 

(1) Research and Discovery in the Holy Land. 

(2) Bible Scenes in the Light of Modern Science. 
(.3) The Survey of Eastern Palestine. 

(4) In the Track of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan. 

(5) The Jordan Talley, the Bead Sea, and the Cities of the Plain. 

(6) The Recovery of Jerusalem — (Excavations in 1894). 

(7) The Recovery of Lachish and the Hebrew Conquest of Palestine. 

(8) Archceological Illustrations of the Bible. (Specially adapted for 

Sunday School Teachers). 

N.B. — All these Lectures are illustrated by specially prepared lantern slides. 

The Rev. J. R. Macpherson, B.D., Kinnaird Manse, Inchture, N.B. His 
subjects are as follows: — 

(1) The Work of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

(2) The Survey of Palestine. 

(3) The City of Jerusalem. 

(4) Eastern Palestine. 

(5) Calvary and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 

The Rev. J. Llewelyn Thomas, M.A., Aberpergwm, Glynneath, South 
Wales. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Explorations in Judea. 

(2) Research and Discovery in Samaria and Galilee. 

(3) In Bible Lands ; a Narrative of Personal Experiences. 

(4) The Reconstruction of Jerusalem. 

(5) Problems of Palestine. 

The Rev. Charles Harris, M.A., F.R.G.S., St. Lawrence, Ramsgate. (All 
Lectures illustrated by lantern slides). His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Modern Discoveries in Palestine. 

(2) Stories in Stone ; or, New Light on the Old Testament. 

(3) Undergrotind Jerusalem ; or, With the Explorer in 1894. 

Bible Stories from the Monuments, or Old Testament History 
in the Light of Modern Research : — 

(4) A. The Story of Joseph ; or, Life in Ancient Egypt. 

(.5) B. The Story of Moses ; or, Through the Desert to the Promised 

(6) c. The Story of Joshua ; or, The Buried City of Lachish. 

(7) D. The Story of Sennacherib ; or Scenes of Assyrian Warfare. 

(8) E. The Story of the Hittites ; or, A Lost Nation Found. 


Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass., Honorary 
G-eneral Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund for the United 
States. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Building of Jerusalem. 

(2) The Overthrow of Jerusalem. 

(3) The Progress of the Palestine 'Exploration. 

The Eev. L. Gr. A. Eoberts, 67, George Street, Hamilton, Ontario. His 
subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Work in and around the Soly City. 

(2) Work outside the Soly City. 

(3) Popular Lecture upon the General Mesults obtained by the Fund. 

Application for Lectures may be either addressed to the Secretary, 
24, Hanover Sqiiare, W., or sent to the address of the Lecturers. 



By F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. 

The return of these crisp December days recalls to me vividly the 
corresponding season of last year when I was also in Jerusalem. But 
with what a difference ! Then I was full of anxiety about the granting 
of the permit, which seemed a far-off thing. Then I wandered over the 
fields to the south of the city, wondering what secrets they might con- 
tain, and examined every seai-}:) and stone, speculating as to the hidden 
line of wall. Now, for seven months, the permit has been in my hands. 
Now I walk over the same fields ; happy in the fact that their dim 
promises have been fulfilled ; glad to say : " Here runs the wall for over 
1,000 feet, here is a paved street, here are towers, here the long-lost Gate 
of the Essenes." 

My last report was largely concerned in describing the great outer 
scarp of defence, upon which I argued that a wall may once have been 
built, though no traces of masonry remain. 1 also announced that a true 
wall had been discovered, beginning at the fosse which separates it from 
the work of Maudslay, and running at first south-east generally parallel 
to the outer scarp. We had traced this wall for about 150 feet to its 
turn at Tower I. I gave the reasons for inferring that a gate occurred 
in the wall at a distance of 105 feet from the fosse, together with a 
general description of the masonry. 

The present autumn season has been entirely taken u]) with tracing 
the continuation of this wall to the east, and with work about the 
gate. I warned the readers of the October Statement to take my 
arguments in regard to the outer scarp as tentative. I am now of 
the opinion that there was never any wall directly upon that scarp, but 
that it acted as an outer defence to the wall found to the east of it. This 
view is made the more probable by the fact that we picked up the outer 
scarp again between Tower II and Tower III, 25 feet outside the wall, 
and running directly parallel to it for a distance of more than 50 feet. 

The gi'adual process which led to the discovery of the various periods 
of the gate was a most interesting and delicate operation. It is always 
my preference to lead the i-eader, if jwssible, along the steps of discovery, 
so that he may share with me not only the perplexity but the delight 
when matters, at first obscure, become flooded with light. However, to 
make the matter clearer, I will say at once that this gate is proved to 
represent certainly three, and perhaps foiir, distinct periods, as shown by 
the different super-imjaosed door-sills. In the sections, a — a represents 
the upper sill, h — b the rough filling below it, and c — c, d — d, and e — e, 
the sills below. 

My first hojje for finding a gate was given by the paved road which 
we found coming down from the north-east, having a sewer under it. 


This we followed in galleries, until we at last reached a block of good 
masonry at the stone / in section CD. Here we were puzzled to find our 
work in the gallery blocked by great blocks of stone, not very thick. 
We then had no idea that these were to prove to be the various sills of 
the gate (seen of course from the inside) together with their respective 
paved roads leading to them, super-imposed, of course, upon the pave- 
ment which we had been following for so long. It is fortunate that 
traces of these upper roads had disapjoeared a few feet beyond the gate, 
else our task in tracing the lowest pavement would have been difficult 

On discovei'ing the block of masonry, we supjwsed it to be part of a 
substantial house at this point. The work in the gallery becoming 
difficult, we opened up from above, making, finally, the large cutting 
represented in section AB. 

As related in my last report, we went down till we reached the rock, 
but found no traces of the pavement beyond the masonry. The place 
does not seem to me important, and we left it for a time. Later, I 
decided to give it another chance, and the wall running to the fosse was 
found. The matter was still far from clear, for the space between g and 
g' was filled up with masonry, which seemed to be continuous with the 
wall. However, whereas the course continuing north-west beyond g 
consisted of well-squared stones, with fine jointing, between g — g' the 
work was coarse, with badly-foi-med joints, and included a stone with a 
rounded face, certainly not in situ, and doubtless once belonging to a 
pilaster. More careful observation of the line a — a, the top edge of 
which projected a trifle beyond the stone g, and beyond the rough work 
on to (/', revealed the fact that the edges of the stones under the rough 
work were polished with that irregular peculiar smoothness produced 
only by the wear of feet, while the part under the stone g had not this 
polish. The conviction thus flashed ujDon ns that we had here a blocked- 
up gatewa3^ This theory at once explained the fine masonry found at /, 
at right angles with the course g, which must be the inside of the gate. 
Until we saw that the course g did not continue to g% this finely faced 
masoniy, apparentl}' a chance section across the wall, was a puzzle. 
And now that this point was clear, one difficult question remained : Why 
was the sill at a 45 inches higher than the pavement below/ / 

The theory that steps had led up to the gate was entertained and 
dismissed. We then made a more careful clearance outside the gate, and 
found the lines of slabs c — c, d — d, and e — e, whose edges all showed 
polish from wear, suggesting that all were door-sills. Measurements 
showed that it was the lowest one that belonged to the period of the 
pavement. However, further investigation seemed imperative, and we 
began by removing the rough stones which blocked the upper sill between 
g and g', finding that sill in perfect preservation. There were the sockets 
in each corner, and the holes in the middle where the bolts of this double 
gate had been fastened down. It was interesting to note that at the 
angle where the gate had turned above the socket the stone was eaten 








away in a series of furrows, A recent storm has thrown down the gate 
of Nehj Dafid (Zion Gate), and here at the angle the same furrowing 
may be ol)served. A mere glance at the over-lappiug iron sheets with 
which the door is plated reveals the cause of this peculiar attrition in the 
Zion Gateway, and suggests the natural explanation for the same 
phenomenon observed in our ancient gate. 

This upper sill is composed of three large slabs of fine hard white 
limestone with tinges of red. A glance at section CD will show that the 
surface is of two levels, that part inside the door being 4 inches lower 
than the part outside, leaving a support against which the closed door 
should rest. On section CD may be observed two stones beyond the 
stone g, with a groove 6 inches high and 4 inches deep, running along the 
top of them in the line / — i'. These stones are much worn, the groove 
being clear only in the second. Before the discovery of the gate I had 
supposed them to be later filling in. The tape measure settled the matter 
differently. The width of the u])per gate is on the outside 8 feet ; on the 
inside 9 feet 10 inches. Each door, then, would be 4 feet 11 inches wide, 
from ?■ to ^■' is just this distance; when the door stood oj^en it rested 
against these stones ; the door had evidently a sti'ong iron bar nailed 
across it, and the groove was made to accommodate the bar, so that the 
door could open directly against the wall. 

The middle stone of the three that forms this upper sill is not quite in 
line with the other two. It is noticeable that this upper gate stood 
immediately in the line of the wall, being a mere opening that must have 
been without striking architectural features. The sill is only 10 feet 
under the surface of the ground. 

The width of the lowest gate, 8 feet 10 inches, could be measured on 
the outside between the two flanking stones e' and e" which project 
6 inches from the line of wall, and 18 inches from the line of the sill e — e, 
one stone of which forms the roof of the sewer. We thus were certain of 
two periods, the highest and the lowest, and the claims of the lines of 
slabs c~c and d — d remained to be considered. It seemed at first 
impossible to examine thehi without removing the upper sill, which I was 
very loath to do. However, we proceeded cautiously to remove some of 
the rough filling (consisting of small stones and very hard mortar) 
between a — a (the upper sill) and c — c, making a hole in the centre of it 
without disturbing the upper sill. No marks were found in the slabs of 
that line. We then p)'oceeded carefully to remove the slabs inside the 
gate which seemed to belong to the various super-imposed paved roads, 
and succeeded in finding the door socket marked 2. If this belongs to the 
sill d—-d, then the part inside the door is on a level with the part outside 
the door, and not 4 or 5 inches lower, as in the case of the highest and 
lowest sills. If it belongs to the sill c—c, then the jjart outside the door 
would be 8 inches higher, than the part inside, which is rather a too great 
diff'erence. I prefer to assign it to d~d. Both d—d and c—c are polished 
by wear at the outside edge, and though we did not find a socket to 
certainly prove a fourth period, yet I think there were four. We assume. 


then, this socket to belong to d — d, bnt we did not find its fellow at the 
other corner, and as there are no bolt marks in the centre of the slab, it is 
possible that this gate had a single door. Its width was the same as that 
of the lowest gate, as the projecting stones e' and e" belong to both 
periods. We had, as I have stated, inferred the lowest gate from the sill 
c- — c between the flanking stones e' and e", but happily the last link in the 
chain of evidence w\as furnished by Herr Sandel, a German architect, who, 
while caking measurements for the plans, discovered in the last stone of 
the pavement the socket marked 3, which belongs to this lowest gate. Its 
fellow in the other corner was, of course, buried by the slab containing 
socket 2. Thus, thanks to the fact that the sills were of different widths, 
we were able to study the four periods without removing any one of the 
sills. I know of no more interesting example of a place where four distinct 
periods may be studied in the short perpendicular distance of 4 feet. 

The discovery has a most important bearing on the history of the 
south wall, for it shows that it ran along this line for a great length of 
time. The masonry, however, employed auring these four periods was 
the same. Stone /, with its fellows, above the first pavement, is quite of 
the same style with stone g and the wall going north, though stone g 
itself was, of course, placed in its present position when the upper door 
sill was built. Stone h, with the rest of the course, though not so well 
dressed at the edges, as is often the case in a hollow course, has the 
comb-pick dressing found in the work above. However, under this 
course there is another course of quite different work, which occurs all 
along the line, and three courses of which are found at Tower I. I take 
this to belong to an older period than is indicated by the lowest door-sill, 
which, of course, we cannot assume represented the first occmrence of a 
gate at this point. 

The general position, and the fact that a sewer runs under the gate, 
emptying itself twenty yards away, point to an identification with the 
Dung Gate of Nehemiah. It is also probably the Gate of the Essenes of 
Josephus, which should be looked for near the south-west angle of the 
wall, one gate being only 32 feet distant from the turn to the east at 
Tower I. 

The finding of a gate at this point explains the line taken by the 
outer scarp. From G to M it runs in general parallel to the wall, 
forming a steep defence, which at M has the perpendicular height of 
21 feet. Here the top of the scarp lies hardly more than 10 feet out 
from the wall. At M it turns at right angles as far as the i)oint O, 
evidently in order to form a large open space in front of the gate. The 
meaning of the platform O, P, E, S, U, W, projecting north-west, is 
not quite clear. The fall at tlie top of the scarp between M and P is 
18A feet, while the level of the base remai}is the same, the scarp at P 
(before the turn) being only 2 feet high at pi;^sent, but there are plain 
signs that the top was quarried away, presumably in later times, when 
the wall was considered a sufficient defence. After the turn at P there is 
an abrupt fall in tlie base of the scarp of 8 feet It has been suggested 


that the platform O, P, E, S, U, W, was the base of a barbican, but in 
this case we should expect the road to point north, which direction has 
the steep contours against it, as well as inherent probability. I think 
there may have been here an outside watch-tower at one time to command 
the Bethlehem I'oad. Another suggestion may be made : althouo-h the 
scarp in its present condition was fashioned for defence, yet it may have 
followed the general line of an earlier quarry ; though that it is not 
simply a (juarry I hope I proved conclusively in my last report. 

The road from the gate probably crossed the Valley of Hinnom at 
the point where the present path from Bab Neby Daiid crosses it, fol- 
lowing the path up the hill beyond and joining the road from Bab el- 
Khalil further on. Yusif, while following the wall from the gate to 
Tower I, noticed that the soil on a level with the lowest course was hard 
and pressed together, and he suggested that the ancient path jjassed that 
way. He is a close observer and fertile in suggestions, a tendency I 
encoui^age, for among his many theories some turn out to be of real value. 
He spends his spare time either in reading Nehemiah or in wandering 
over the fields studying exposed scarps and the contour of the land, 
planning for the work, ahead. 

We are fortunate in having a man who, besides being trustworthy 
in his work and very popular with the labourers whom he keeps under 
firm control, takes also an enthusiastic interest in the topographical 
questions of the excavations. 

As I hope that some of the many readers of these lines may visit 
Jerusalem in the near future, I will say for their benefit that the cuttmo- 
above the gate is left open. In front of the gate the space is filled up 
to the level of the upper sill, but the interior is exposed to the level of 
the first pavement, so that the various sills, sockets, width of the wall 
&c., &c., may be seen. The tunnel going north has also been left oi^en for 
a distance of 70 feet, revealing the wall. The tunnel between the gate 
and Tower I is closed, and, by the way, is not even indicated in the plan. 
From the surface we have built a stairway to the upper sill, a fact which 
I mention to prevent any possible theorising. 

In writing of the wall I shall first describe its direction with any 
especial features, and then the character of the masonry. At the date 
of my last report we had traced it from the fosse to Tower I. This 
latter consists of two distinct kinds of masonry, their faces built on 
difterent Hues. The surface of the ground above descends in a sharp 
terrace, so that the top course at the south-west corner was hardly a 
foot underground, and the fellah who leases the field told me that he liad 
often struck it with his plough without knowing what it was. From 
the south-east corner of this tower we traced the wall east, following the 
rock for 32 feet, where a small, irregular buttress occurred. At" this 
point we expected a break, for in the direct line beyond there is a trench 
several yards long, from which the proi)rietors have in recent times taken 
stone, having destroyed the traces of the wall here. So about 90 feet 
beyond the break we made another cutting, and came across the wall 


9i feet out. This was proved to be the face of Towei' II, for after 27 feet 
it" took a turn for 9h feet at right angles back again to the old line which 
there continued. From the break the destruction had continued to 
Tower II, and had included its west side. At the south-west corner 
the rock-hewn aqueduct seen at X— Y, and described in my last report, 
entered the tower. For a distance of 22 feet it is so high that a man can 
stand upright. On the slabs of the roof we found the Fund's bench- 
mark done in lamp-black, and the initials J. B. It was a singular illustra- 
tion of the chances of excavation. Sir Charles Warren, coming down 
the aqueduct from the north-east, had stood directly under this tower, 
and left his mark in the cellarage, as it were ; thousands have walked in 
the lield above the tower, while all were unconscious of its existence. 
Hereafter, when I see any especial feature of height or workmanship in 
a channel I shall want to open down from above. I, too, passed under 
one wall, yea, even at the gate, weeks before I discovered it, at the point 
where the sewer passes under it, and here the sewer was lined with three 
large beautiful blocks on each side, which Yusif warned me at the time 
must point to some especial building above, but I hardly thought of these 
ao-ain until they were once more seen when we found the gate. So I 
cannot crow over my respected predecessor I And here comes in a hapj^y 
accident. Warren certainly traced the aqueduct down to this point.' For 
not only have we his bench-mark, but he describes the place where a 
man can .stand upright; however, probably owing to some oversight, it 
is laid down on the maps only in the field beyond, stopping suddenly at 
the road. Now when I found the sewer to the north, I first took it for 
an aqueduct, and cleared it out to the east simply in order to see whether 
it joined Warrens aqueduct in the next field. We pursued it to the road 
which it struck some 50 feet north of the expected point, and its base 
was considerably higher than even the surface of the ground where the 
aqueduct was known to lie. Hence the identity of the two was impos- 
sible. But in the meantime the paving at the side had been seen at so 
many points that the paved street was first inferred, then proved, and 
then it was an easy matter to follow it back to the wall at the gate. I 
doubtless should have found the wall sooner or later, but the key which 
actually fitted the lock was furnished by the draughtsman, who years ago 
in a London office neglected to lay down the aqueduct beyond the road ! 

I have connected on my plan the aqueduct seen by us at X — Y with 
the part seen at the tower, bringing the line through the point where a 
stone-lined air-hole was pointed out to me by the proprietor, who told 
me that they found it and proved it to be dry some years ago when water 
was still conducted to the city by the low level aqueduct. I followed the 
- This appears to be the aqueduct which was traced by Lien tenant, now 
Major-General, Sir Charles Warren for 700 feet, and was found to be crossed 
and used at cither end by the present low-level aqueduct. See "Recovery of 
Jerusalem," p. 233. Letter No. IV, p. 15, of 2ad September, 1867 ; Letter 
No. VIII, ]). 20, of 2nd October, 1867 ; and Jerusalem volume (" Survey of 
Western Palestine "), p. 376.— [Ed.] 



aqueduct from the point where it passes under the tower for 66 feet 
where it got very low and narrow ; besides, the measurements from this 
point doubtless lie somewhere in the archives of the Fund. I draw on 
my jjlan a line connecting it witli the part already laid down on the maps 
beyond the road. 

This aqueduct seems to be older than the main masonry of the tower. 
The lowest course resting on the rock to the east of the aqueduct does not 
enter into the argument. But the fact that stone A is higher by a few 
inches than the rest of its course seems to be due to the aqueduct ; it is 
easier to suppose that the whole course, including stone A, was built in 
its present position to accommodate the already existing aqueduct than 
that the masonry existed before the aqueduct and that stone A was then 
raised, for this would have disturbed the whole superstructure ; it would 
have been easier to have cut it away at the bottom. 



J^- : ^ 

■=»*" .... 



J3" V - 







T T.^5^^5^ 

Directly parallel to the wall beyond Tower II, and lying 26 feet out 
from it, we found a scarp, having a perpendicular depth of 7 feet. We 
traced it east for 50 feet, from which point it still continued on, and 
probably it follows the line of the wall. Opposite the south-east corner 
of the tower it took a turn south at right angles in a line corresponding > 
to the east side of the tower. We did not find the point where it turned 
west again. The top was much quarried away, and we turned west, 
following a wrong clue in a tunnel too close to the probable turning to 
permit of a safe second tunnel. It is possible that the scaip, after 
turning west, turned back again in a line with the west face of the tower, 
and then followed the wall again west. We had last seen the main 
outer scarp at X— Y, where it was only 2 feet high and disappeared in 
the higher aqueduct. We drove in a tunnel along the rock from a 
point south of the low level aqueduct to that aqueduct, and found no 
scarp ; the small difference of level between the two aqueducts shows 
that no scarp could exist between them ; hence I believe that between 
X— Y and Tower II there was never much of a scarp. The possibility 
of a scari?, of course, depends upon certain natural conditions. 

Given a certain line of wall, and given the intention of defending it 
by an outer scarp, the carrying out of that intention depends on the °fall 
of the rock at various points. Thus, at one place there might be a high 
scarp made, at another a low scarp, and at another no scarp at all. This 
is just what we have found. 

This scarp, of course, faces south. Parallel to the wall, in a line with 


the face of Tower II, was another scarp facing north, makhig a ditch iu 
front of the wall. Whether this was intended for a fosse or was mere 
(jiiarrying did not appear. 

Twenty-six feet beyond Tower II the low level aqueduct enters the 
wall, several feet above its base. Whatever may be the date of the 
present masonry, this aqueduct is later, for the wall was broken to effect 
its entrance, and then repaired. At this jioint the breadth of the wall 
was found to be 8 feet. 

The wall was traced almost the whole distance between Tower II and 
Tower III, by tunnels worked from either end. The base of the wall 
drops 21 feet between the two towers. Tower III has six coui-ses of 
masonry still preserved, the top being not 3 feet under the surface, 
though its existence was entirely unsuspected by the proprietor. 

Beyond the tower we followed the wall to a point under the further 
end of the road. As we did not come to terms with the proprietor of 
the field beyond, we worked thei^e only one day, but saw the wall at two 
points, distant from the tower 56 and 112 feet respectively. We thus 
fell short of the inferred tower. As the west side of Tower II was 
destroyed, I was' obliged to estimate its distance from Tower I at 
112 feet. I took this figure as an estimate in making my trench for 
Tower III ; as a matter of fact, its corner was found 7 feet beyond. 
But on one day of work in the field beyond, we were much hurried, 
and in trenching for the next tower, I took the first estimate of 112 feet 
and not the proved distance of 119 feet. Of course we were lucky in 
getting on the wall 112 feet, but I never pass over the spot without a 
vain regret, and meditations on Naboth's vineyard. As the faces of the 
towers are not the same (Tower I being 34^ feet. Tower II probably 
29^ feet, and Tower III 26 feet), the distances between them may also 
differ. I hope the way will open for us to return to this field, when we 
may not oidy find the tower, but determine whether a wall branched off 
to Burj-el-Kebrit in the line laid down on the maj) of Marina Sanuto. 

From Tower I to the second point where the wall was seen in this 
field, it follows the same line exactly — 91". Accordingly, having come 
to a friendly arrangement with the fellah who owns a cauliflower field 
bevond, we opened up again in the same line, finding the wall somewhat 
to the south (hardly 10 feet) and followed it foi' 124 feet in a genei-ally 
south-east direction, with a slight variation of direction : — 19 feet, 114° ; 
57 feet, 107° ; 32 feet, 103A" ; 16^ feet, 112^°. As the upper masomy 
had entirely disappeared, only very rough foundation work remaining, it 
is possible that part of the line, u]i to the last turning, may have been 
straight above. At the point where the first bend occurs there is a 
slight re-entering angle ; 28 feet beyond this corner, the foundations of 
the wall a))pear on a scarp (set back 1 foot) 64 feet high, which continues 
for 30 feet, and then turns away from the wall. In this field the top of 
the rock is from 10 to 14 feet Ijelow the surface. Although we have 
worked for almost seven montlis, we have been very fortunate in the soil, 
which has been mainly good brown earth, excellent for tunnelling. How- 


ever, in tliis tield we had a bad example of the loose shingle which so 
often troubled Sir Charles Warren. It occurred in the tunnel near the 
beginning of the Held, pouring down like water into our boxes, and 
leaving such a cavernous space beyond, that when the tunnel was 
cleared out I could stand upright and then not be able to touch the 
top Avith my uplifted arm. In the hope that the shingle did not con- 
tinue far, we abandoned this hole and opened u]3 from above, beyond, 
where, fortunately, it came to an end. 

The turn to the direction 112^° was a lucky one, for it took the wall 
immediately down into a lower field, whereas if it had kept on in the line 
1085° i*- would have passed across an intermediate field belonging to another 
owner. Thus were we saved another negotiation. Sixteen-and-one-half 
feet beyond the turn the clue was suddenly lost, even the foundation 
work giving out, so we opened up in the field below, 105 feet beyond in 
the same line, and luckily struck just upon the juncture of the wall with 
a tower. The wall here, with the east face of the tower, is built upon a 
scarp 6| feet high, which is accordingly cut at right angles. The top of 
the rock is 17 feet below the surface. We traced the wall as far as the 
cemetery— distance, 26 feet ; direction, 111°. Only this east face of the 
tower is preserved, and that so badly that it is impossible to be sure of 
its depth, though certain indications decided me to take it at 17^ feet. 
As the rock on which it rests continues scarped in the same line for 9 feet 
more, it may be that 26i feet was the depth of the tower. At any rate, 
it is distinctly deeper than the other tower. The scarp does not turn at 
right angles to form the scarped base of the tower's front face, but the 
rock is cut away at an acute angle back into what must have been the 
foundation of the tower ; in other words, the rock had been quarried 
away. But when ? Before the tower was built or after it was destroyed .? 
The latter is more probable, as I wish to believe, though there was 
nothing to settle the question definitely, the tooling being the same under 
the masonry and in the irregular part. If before, then the well-cut angle 
in the rock at the junction of wall and scarp was a happy accident in the 
quarry taken advantage of by the builders, and the bulk of the tower 
was built across an irregular base ; if after, then the scarp was originally 
intended for the base of the wall and tower. 

To the west of Tower IV the ground has recently been pillaged for 
stones so that the exact line could not be recovered, but as the angle of 
tower and wall is in line with the bit last seen in the cauhflower-field 
above, it is probable that that line was preserved. However, on my 
plan I have indicated a diff'erent line suggested by very slight remains of 
building for a distance of 23 feet. One of the disadvantages of writing 
a report while the work is in jirogress is that certain tentative conclusions 
have to be re-considered. My plan was sent off to England last post, and 
I now think that this line of 23 feet is a trace of later building, for not 
only is there no reason for a change of direction, but this line would 
destroy tlie proportions of the west side of the tower. 

The interruption caused by the large Jewish cemetery is an annoying 

• B 


but I hope will not prove a serious one. The wall is now under the 
surface contour 2299, or 130 feet lower than the base of Burj el Kebrit, 
wliich, if the wall took a bend up the west side of the Tyropa'on valley, 
would naturally be in the line. In other words, the turn should have 
occurred higher up. All the archaeologists who have visited the spot 
agree with me that it is going to include the Pool of Siloam. Josephus 
appears to imply that Siloam was excluded, but that is against all 
common sense. Such a theory would destroy the raisoii cTHre of the 
Siloam Tunnel. The Virgin's Fountain was outside the city ; what 
would have been the use of this difficult and expensive work if it merely 
resulted in bringing the water from one jioint outside the wall to another 
point outside the wall? One wall is now pointing iu just the right 
direction to include the j^ool, and a transverse trench across the line 
produced beyond the cemetery will, I hope, reveal it again. The leap is 
a big one, but unavoidable. 

The position of Tower IV falls 25 feet short of its expected position 
on the basis of calculation given by the distances between tlie known 
towers and the length of face of Tower III. According to this calcula- 
tion it should really be the seventh tower. The fourth we fell just short 
of, as described above ; the fifth should have occurred a few yards before 
the point where we picked up the line again, and the sixth should be 
looked for on that line. 

As a matter of fact we found no sign of it, the foundation masonry 
being found continuous at the point where the tower should project, 
though curiously enough the scarp on which the wall is built up to this 
point turns out and away from the wall. As will be shown later. 
Tower IV is of a distinctly different style of masoniy from Tower III, 
and we have pointed out that its width is greater than that of the other 
towers ; these facts, with the fact of the absence of the expected tower 
iu the field above, point to the idea that the work now in situ up to 
Tower III may belong to a later construction which, though following 
the old line for some distance, branched off towards Burj el Kebrit, 
jjei-haps in the field where our work was interrupted, while the older 
line ran down to Siloam. The value of this suggestion we shall hope to 
settle one way or the other .some future day. 

The tracing of this wall has shown the danger of inferring the line 
of a buried wall along the line of a modern terrace, no matter how steep. 
We have crossed diagonally four terraces, two of them exceedingly high 
and steep. 

The total length of the wall followed from the fosse to the cemetery 
measured along the line between the towers and the faces of the towers 
is 1,050 feet. We have shown that various interruptions occurred, but 
the sum of the lengtlis of the wall actually seen is over 50 per cent, of 
the whole line. M uch of the work was underground, but parts are still 
left exposed — one corner of Tower I, part of Tower II, and three sides 
of Tower III, besides the gate and the wall to the north of it, as 
luentioaed above. I fear, howevei-, that in time these will get covered 
11 [) again. 


"We must now returu and describe the masonry belonging to different 
■parts of the wall. I recognise five distinct styles : — 

(1) linbble foundation. 

(2) Roughly-dressed stones. 

(3) Smooth-faced stones. 

(4) Drafted stones with flat centres. 

(5) -Drafted stones with projecting bosses. 

(1) Rubble Foundation. — This occurred at many points along the line 
upon the rock, to a height of about 3 feet. It consisted of rough stones 
of various sizes, built usually without any regard to courses. In the 
1 25 feet of wall traced in the cauliflower patch beyond the great break 
we found nothing but this rubble in situ ; here it was sometimes 5 or 
6 feet high, and in places was built in rough courses, though the stones 
showed no signs of tooling. Usually, however, the work was irregular, 
small stones occurring near immense rough blocks. In places the rubble 
had been j^lastered over. 

(2) Roughly -dressed Stones. — These were noticed as following a lower 
course, below the finer work and generally above the rubble, at many 
points between the fosse and Tower III. A few feet south-east of the 
gate the upper work disappears and only the rough course remains, 
slightly in advance of the upper line, till we get to Tower I. Here three 
•courses of this work are in situ, their heights being 1 foot 8 inches, 

1 foot 4-5 inches, and 1 foot 4-5 inches respectively. They are set back, 
one from the othei', but the lines are not exact ; 32 feet beyond the east 
angle with the wall an irregular butti-ess of this masonry occurs. The 
.stones in the tower are much weathered : some of them have signs of a 
draft ; they seem to have been originally dressed with a tool having an 
end 2 to 3 centimetres broad, producing a long stroke, but here and 
there signs of the comb-pick are visible. The joints are coarse, as the 
stones are not well squared, and are filled with the rudest lime, whether 
at the time of building or in reparation it is impossible to say. At 
Tower II this style occurs on the rock. 

(3) Smooth-faced Stones. — These are the characteristic stones of the 
wall from a point 34 feet south-east of the fosse to the point 112 feet 
beyond Tower III. They belong to the i)eriods of the four door-sills, as 
shown in the discussion of the gate. North of the gate the base of the 
wall rises rapidly, and the heights of several courses could be measured : 

2 feet, 2 feet 1-25 inch, 2 feet 1-25 inch, 1 foot 11-6 inches, 1 foot 1-4 inch, 
and 10-2 inches. The latter is a plinth course, built in the rougher masonry 
below, as shown in the drawing, " Wall north of Gate." The longest 
stone occurs in the breadth of the opening for the gate ; it is 6 feet long. 
The average length is about 3 feet. 

This masonry north of the gate ajjpears to be all one, but a few feet 
beyond the gate signs of a reparation became visible. This reparation 
consists in the use of a fine mortar to fill up the irregular joints and 
repair a broken corner, where a false joint is there indicated in the mortar. 

B 2 


I could not decide whether mortar had been originally used, although^ 
where the v\'all is broken at one point, mortar was certainly seen on the 
inside of one stone. Before the reparation begins the joints are not so 
fine. The stones are all well dressed by the comb-pick, which has at 
ditferent points seven, eight, and nine teeth to the inch. At the present 
day the comb-pick is used, the number of teeth to the inch varying in 
different tools. 

Between the gate and Tower I the wall was much ruined, and this- 
style of masonry appeared only for a few feet in one course. It was seen 
again at the east junction of the tower and the wall, and again at 
Tower II, from which it was traced almost without interruption to 
Tower III. At Tower II the faces of some of the stones were covered 
with plaster, which was notched in the manner of the plaster on the 
tower north of the fosse described in my last report. I have seen this 
in Byz;intine work. Beyond Tower II a jilinth course occurred built on 
the rough stones and projecting 7 inches from the wall above. Courses 
above were measured at 1 foot 8 inches, 2 feet 1 inch, and 1 foot 9 inches 
in height. A drawing is given of the wall ( immediately) west of Tower III. 
Hei'e are two plinth courses, each projecting 5 inches. The courses, 
beginning with the upper plinth, measure 1 foot 2 inches, 1 foot 10 inches,. 
1 foot 1(3-4 inches, and 1 foot 5-6 inches. Of the dressing I will speak 

The west face of Tower III is also drawn. The four courses above 
the plinth measure 1 foot 10*4 inches, 1 foot 8'4 inches, 1 foot 7 inches, 
and 1 foot 8 inches. The work is plainly one, but various styles of 
dressing occur. Nos. 5, 11, and 21 have the ordinary comb-pick dressing,, 
which may be slightly observed on the bosses of stone 1(5. The tool 
used on No. 7, though somewhat different, has also teeth ; 6, with the 
bosses of 1, is roughly flaked ; Sand 4 are indefinite, owing to weathering. 
But all the rest of the twenty-one stones have clearly the marks of what 
Dr. Petrie calls the " long-stroke picking." He thus describes it : " This 
is done with an edge or point without showing any breadth of cvit ; the 
strokes are somewhat curved and in groups of parallel cuts." According 
to him this was used earlier in Palestine than the comb-picking, which he 
thinks was introduced by the Greeks. On No. 16 we have the two- 
styles on the same stone. The drafts have the long- stroke picking, and 
the projecting faces (or bosses), though at first roughly flaked, are 
re-touched with the comb-pick. 

The wall west of Tower III shows the two styles with the comb-pick in 
the predominance. Thus we have the two styles ajipearing not only in 
the same course but in the same stone. The wall here has also been 
repaired with plaster, but there is no evidence that mortar was used 
originally. In general, the masonry described under this heading is^ 
similar to the stones in the south wall of the Haram of the time of the 
insertion of Hadrian's inscription upside down and, therefore, later than 
his time. Smooth stones, comb-picked, also were found fallen outside of 
the wall in the cauliflower patch and outside of the wall beyond Tower IV, 

ce pa^e 20 


ni^aW Is'ltt of cW« ISL 


H * I I < I 


W--H H 

H i (- 1 1 1 1 1 . ^ 

i * s f 7 t g -a e . ^d ik Si»t ■ 

i^H j^-ak of gaik 

'^Wcit Skuct^ oj- So^if^A. HC 

J\o\i'k c^a-Ci ot c'ow€t I , Su^t^ifui^tute^- 


(4) Drafted Stones toith Flat Centres. — These centres cau hardly be 
called bosses as they project scarcely one-eighth of an inch. At Tower i 
there is a superstructure in the old work, described vinder (2). The later 
tower was evidently the shorter of the two. It is broken away abruptly 
beyond the corner, but its face is built on a different line from that of the 
lower, and if this upper line were projected it would fall outside the lower 


line. The superstructure consists of three courses in situ, the two upper 
being drafted and the lowest plain. The plain course and the drafts of 
the upper courses are dressed with the comb-pick, which seems deeper 
than in the masonry noticed before, but this may be due only to a 
difference in the individual workmen. The centres are roughly flaked. 
The upper courses measure 1 foot 8 inches and 1 foot 11 inches. The 
plain course is of the same time of building as the others and differs in 
style from the other work, as just mentioned, only in the dejith of picking. 
These drafted stones have their exact counterparts in many stones built 
into the modern wall, especially near Bab Neby DaAd, perhaps taken 
from the old line. In the comparatively modern blocking-up of the 
Golden Gate there are [similar stones. They differ from the drafted 
stones (with double boss), described under (3), only in the dressing of the 
drafts. In both cases the drafts are very wide. 

(5) Drafted Stones with Projecting Bosses. — This is the style of 
masonry at Tower IV and in the wall going on to the Jewish cemetery. 
They differ from anything described above. The stones are square. 
Four courses with bosses rest on a plain course. Three of the bossed 
courses are respectively 1 foot 9-5 inches, 2 feet, and 1 foot 8 inches in 
height. The longest stone is only 3 feet long. The drafts are of irregular 
widths, ranging from 2 inches to 6 inches. The maximum projection of 
any boss is 9 inches. The drafts are comb-picked. The wall is covered 
with a fine, smooth plaster which does not include the bosses, which 
project from it, giving a curious effect. This is probably later. The 
stones are not unHke the drafted masonry of the tower beyond the fosse, 
described in the July Quarterly, except that the latter are not comb- 
picked as to their drafts. Similar masonry may be observed in the 
" so-called Tower of Antonia," north side of the Via Dolorosa, in the 
Mahkamy (Council House) near Wilson's Arch, and in many other places 


whei'e old stones are re-used. Though the wall is here built on the 
scarp, the latter (except in one or two places) has not been cut exactly 
to accommodate the stones, irregularities in the scarp being rectified by 
the insertion of small stones. 

Now that we have discussed (in tiresome but necessary detail) the 
five styles of masonry, two questions arise. First. Do these five styles 
represent different periods ? Second. Can any of the styles be dated ? 

In answering the first question, I woiild call attention to the roughly- 
dressed course of stones which so often occurred between the rubble and 
the fine work above. Rough foundation work would be expected, but 
not of two styles. Moreover, at Tower I these stones are represented by 
three courses above the rubble and under the good masonry which occurs 
in a different line. The rubble and the rough courses may belong to the 
same period, but the rough coiirses and the superstructure are evidently 
of different periods. The difference between the superstructure of 
Tower I and the rest of the smooth work is so little that a difference of 
period need not be inferred. Accordingly, I think that ujj to and 
including Tower III we have two periods : the first rejiresented by the 
roughly dressed stones, before the time of the lowest door-sill ; the 
second represented by all the upper work — this second period being of 
long duration as it included three re-buildings of the gateway, as shown 

I know that this view does not take into account the differences of 
dressing in the west face of Tower II, but I think that a plan will show 
that it is all of a piece. The long stroke- picking may be older than the 
comb-picking, Init the former evidently continued to be used after the 
latter came in. 

The description I have just given of Tower IV makes it clear that 
here we have a third period. Evidently the work is very different from 
the smooth masonry, and it differs from the rough-dressed courses in 
the clearness of the drafts, the projection of the bosses, and the 
reo-ularity of the courses. However, I shall not quarrel with those who 
would relegate it to the general period earlier than the smooth work, 
though I keep to my own view. I have already said that the smooth 
\vork may represent a later line which, perhaps, branched off to Biirj 
61 Kebrit, 

In considering the second question, " Can any of the styles be 
dated ? " I would call attention to the fact that none of the stones have 
especial characteristics, and that no ornamentation was found. Th 
masonry is all small. Smoothly-dressed stones have been used in all 
ages. The natural method is to make the length longer than the 
height. Rough bosses occur everywhere, from the huge substructure 
of the Temple to the wall of the house outside this hotel window, which' 
was built the other day. I just stepped out on my balcony and found' 
that tliree kinds of the comb-pick have been used on the wall of the- 
room in which I write. And this style Avas in use long before the- 
Christian era. 


Again I cannot infer that l)ecause the masonry is small it is neces- 
sarily not Jewish. From the huge blocks of the Haram substructure 
and of the Tower of David it is assumed that the Jewisli city wall 
should consist of the same blocks. But these were especial points where 
grander work might be expected. Even those who take the masonry 
in the Russian Church, east of the Holy Sepulchre, for part of the second 
wall, admit that it must have belonged to a tower in that wall. To be 
sure, the line of wall discovered by Dr. Merrill under this very room, 
consists of the huge blocks, but this line was near the main gate of the 
city. The wall at other points may have consisted of smaller masonry. 

I am thus forced to admit that in the appearance of the stones there 
is httle either for or against their antiquity. But there are other con- 
siderations. There is other proof that this wall is in the old Jewish line. 
Josephus gives, as the reason for the single line of wall at the south, the 
fact of the steepness of the valley. In other words, the wall occupied 
the extreme southern position possible, which is just the position of our 
wall. Had Josephus been silent I would still have identitied our line 
with that of the Jewish Kings, and of Herod, for in their various epochs 
the city attained its maximum growth in the south, and if Hadrian's 
Wall occupied a different line, this would have been inside rather than 
outside of their line, contracting not enlarging the city. From the 
extensive Roman remains found by the Augustinians and myself ovitside 
the modern wall, I am inclined to believe that Hadrian's Wall ran on 
the old line, as far at least as the inferred tower. Indeed, I am led by 
Marina Sanuto's Ma]) to believe that the Crusader's Wall also extended 
to this point, and if the smooth stones fountl fallen outside the wall in 
the cauliflower patch, and outside the wail beyond Tower IV, were once 
part of the wall, then it may be that Hadrian's Wall ran as far as the 

There is thus an immense range for the answering of our second 
question, with wide limits at any points between which these styles of 
masonry, so uncharacteristic, may be placed. A reasonable supposition 
seems to be that the smooth masonry represents the Roman and later 
periods, and the roughly dressed course with the work at Tower IV, 
earlier woi-k. Perhaps further along the line we may hit upon some- 
thing undoubtedly Jewish, for that Jewish the line is I have no doubt. 

In describing one wall I have assumed that it started at the fosse, 
but a glance at the plan (October Quarteiiy) will show that it is in a 
direct continuation of Maudslay's line of scarp from the tower at the 
school to the tower outside the burial ground. The interruption of the 
fosse going north- east is due either to an inner wall or, as I believe, an 
inner forti-ess. Between the two just-mentioned towers, Conder {State- 
ment, 1875, \x 81) found the indications that prove an intermediate 
tower. The distance between the first and second is 160 feet, between 
the second and third is 162 feet. Now the distance between this last 
tower and our Tower I is 165 feet, or jiraetically the same as the other 
distances. The distance between Towers I-II and Towers II-III is 


only 119 feet. Tower IV has been shown to differ from Towers I-III 
in masonry, but it resembles the tower outside the cemetery. Measure- 
ments taken, however, on from Tower 1 towards Tower IV, on the basis 
of 160 feet as the distance between supposed older towers, and of 40 feet 
as the breadth of such towers, do not bring it in the right place. 

In closing, I may give a brief survey of our fortunes during this 
autumn season. After closing my last report I took a few days' holiday 
on Scopus, in the charming villa of my friend, Mr. Gray Hill, of Birken- 
head, who can enjoy the glorious panorama from his Eastern home only 
during a brief spring season. On one side stretches Jerusalem, the old 
and the new. On the other side, far below, the plain of the Jordan, the 
densely blue Dead Sea, and the incomparable Mountains of Moab. It is 
the grandest view in the vicinity. But the place is a terrible one for 
winds. On Sunday, September 17th, it blew a hurricane. Our camp was 
also in an exposed spot, so I sent down my servant to visit the tents. He 
returned with a tale of destruction that I at once supposed to be 
exaggerated. I found, however, the next day that considerable damage to 
the tents had been done, and he took the opportunity furnished by 
moving the camp to a sheltered spot further along the line of wall that 
we were tracing, to put the oamp in repair. 

This new camping ground was on the edge of a cauliflower field. An 
interesting chapter could be written on the difi"erence between the market 
price of vegetables and other crops and their arch;eological price. I speak 
with feeling, for I have in my time excavated in the midst of barley, 
beans, lentils, and cauliflower. The appropriate soil for each has become 
apparent, Amorite remains being favourable to barley, while beans seem 
to thrive on Greek debris. Cauliflower is unprej udicial and universal in 
its historical tastes. The profession of the excavator is a grand training 
for many occupations besides that of a market gardener. At the end of 
our work here I shall be fitted for a successful career as a land agent in 
Jerusalem. Even in these few months I have learned the boundaries 
between the lands of diff"erent proprietors over a large area. Where one 
finds a valuable cistern, and at once has two angry men down upon him, 
each claiming the cistern because part of it extends under his land, the 
line of demarcation becomes indelibly fixed in the memory. When one 
man gives you carte-hlanche to dig away in a certain field, and then 
another man turns up to object, the fact of joint proprietorship, with the 
actual proportions of ownership, becomes clear. 

In general our difticulties with landowners have been small. We 
parted great friends with the Sheikhs of Neby DaM, who were much 
pleased with the condition in which we left their land, and who invited 
Yusif to a friendly meal at the close of the work in their lands. 

The health of the party has been, on the whole, excellent, though I 
found myself much fatigued in November, and took a few days in 
Beyrout. On my return the camp had been moved again to the point 
marked L on the Plan of Jerusalem, in the lands of the Augustinians, 
whose Superior, the Pore Germer-Durand, thus became our kind host. 


The spot is sheltered, and the tents suffered no damage during a rain of 
three days, which formed the only interruption to the work by the 
weather since the great wind. The view is charming, and at the tents 
J spend all my days, though I now consider it more j^rudent to sleep in 
town. "We have hired a couple of rooms near Silwan for storing the 
plant. During the storm the gates of Bab Neby Dafid were blown down, 
and on the place against which the east door has stood open for so many 
years an inscription was found on a stone built into the wall. After all. 
Fortune is the great discoverer. Every inch of the modern wall has been 
examined for inscrijitions, and here, just behind the door, this insci'iption 
has been waiting for the storm. How many antiquaries have passed a 
couple of feet away from it ! It reads : — 

(l)OVI . O . M . SARAPIDI 






It was partly covered with plaster, and while we were cleaning it the 
Pere Germer-Durand jjassed along, and was the first to make it out. I 
shaU have photographs and squeezes taken. It is an interesting addition 
to the very few Jerusalem Eoman inscrijjtions. It is a votive tablet to 
Jove in behalf of the welfare and victory of the Emperor Trajan and the 
Eoman peojjle, erected by the Third Legion. It is interesting to learn 
that this legion, as well as the tenth, was here between the time of Titus 
and Hadrian. 

His Excellency Ibrahim Pasha and the Government show a continued 
interest in the work. Our Commissioner, Ibrahim Effendi el Khaldi, 
continues devoted both to our interests and the interests of the Imperial 
Museum. It is pleasant to see his real enthusiasm in the archaeological 
questions we are trying to settle. I am in correspondence with His 
Excellency Hamdy Bey, the General Director of the Imperial Museum 
at Constantinople. He has shown a desire to aid our work in every way 
and he is kind enough to ask me to give my opinion, from time to time, 
on reported discoveries in Bethlehem, e^c. He has asked me to super- 
intend a small excavation he desires to have made on the Mount of Olives, 
which I hope to undertake this week. We have every reason to be 
grateful for this friendly condition of things. 

December I2ih, 1894. 



By the Rev. Canon J. N. Dalton, C.M.G. 

A SHORT note, with qiiotations from Sir Charles Warren and Sir Charles 
"Wilson, on the southern portion of the " First Wall " of Josephus, which 
Dr. Bliss is now trachig, may jjerhaps not be deemed altogether useless 
or uninteresting. We are now uncovering the midmost portion of this 
wall ; tlie first quotations that follow refer respectively to its eastern and 
to its western ends, and the subsequent ones to the wall generally. 

1. As to the south-eastern end of this wall, where it joins the Haram 
Wall, in the Jerusalem volume of the " Survey of Western Palestine," in 
the chapter on the Excavations on Ophel, at p. 228, we read, " There is 
good reason to suppose that the Sanctuary wall and the Ophel wall were 
not built at the same time. Sir C. Warren believes that the Sanctuary 
wall is shown to be the older of the two." At pj?. 230 and 231, "The 
cut stones in the wall (exclusive of the large drafted stones iised in the 
top course and in the outlying tower) resemble in character the Roman 
masonry of the second century, a.d., or even later. The rough rubble 
and the rocky scarps may perhaps represent the older part of the ram- 
part, and may be referred with considerable confidence to the time of 
Nehemiah." " Sir C. Warren was of opinion that the stones in the 
Ophel Wall were not m situ, but that they had been re-used," i). 230. 

2. As to the south-western end of this wall, on Sion, in the same volume, 
at p. 393, we find, " The rock scarp of Jerusalem was here excavated by 
Mr. Maudslay, in 1874-5 " ; and as an index that the work was of the 
same date and similar plan to that at the eastern end on the Ophel, it 
is noted, at p. 394, that here, too, was an outlying tower, and " in fiont 
of it a flat platform of rock 20 to 25 feet broad." "The Ophel wall 
appears possibly to have been built up in two or more stej^s " (or terraces), 
" with a pathway at the foot of each. The same arrangement is also 
noticeable in the case of the rock scarp in the Protestant Cemetery," i.e., 
at its western end, on Sion, p. 229. 

We should therefore expect to find similar scarps, outlying towers 
and platforms in the midmost portion of the wall, whose two ends thus 
resemble each other. The scarjj, and also the portions of such a tower, 
have been already foiind by Dr. Bliss, and are figured in the Quarterly/ 
Statement for October, 1894, p. 250. The curious outlying scarp further 
south, at the extreme south-western corner of the Avail, would appear also 
to have been the foundation for another outlying tower ; though the 
topmost portion of this rock scarjs or 2)latform has apparently been cut 
away at a later date, to furnish stones for the construction of later walls. 

It will be of vital im]).irtaiice to learn what furtlier scarp or rock 


cuttings reveal tbemselves in the further tracing of the wall eastwards 
from this point. 

3. In the second edition of " Smith's Dictionai-y of the Bible," vol. i, 
part ii, the article on Jerusalem is written by Sir Charles Wilson. Oppo- 
site to p. 1646 he inserts a plan of the city to illustrate the topography of 
Josephus. In this plan the southern or midmost portion of the '* First 
Wall" is shown, not as following the contour of the hill, or turning north- 
ward (as is usually represented in most plans) so as to join the modern 
wall again on Sion, but as striking away eastwards sti^aight down the 
slope to Siloani, just as the wall Dr. Bliss is tracing is found to be doing. 
The Dung place or Bethso is placed pretty much where Dr. Bliss has 
found what he calls the Dung gate, and another gate further east- 
ward, between Bethso and Siloam, that of the Essenes, is shown " at the 
southern end of the long street which, commencing at the Damascus 
Gate, runs southward almost in a straight line through the midst of 
Jerusalem. This sti'eet, a continuation of the great road from the north, 
must always (writes Sir Charles Wilson) have been one of the principal 
thoroughfares of Jerusalem, and it is possible that the name of the sect 
of the Essenes has been confounded with the Hebrew word Yeshanah, 
' old,' which the LXX in Nehem. iii, 6, give as a projier name (ttjv ivvkriv 
rov Alaava, or TrvKr]v ^laaavai). The ' gate of the Essenes ' would thus be 
' the old gate,' or ' the gate of the old wall.' " P. 1645. 

In the wall now being traced by Dr. Bliss there is aj^parently no gate 
at the end of such direct line, neither apparently was there in the Empress 
Eudocia's wall. But it is of the first importance to be assured that the scarp 
and rock foundations both north and south of that wall hereabouts have 
been thoroughly examined by the present excavators, and it is much to l)e 
desired that we had more both of the outer and inner scarp traced for the 
portion of the wall already uncovered. 

4. Turning now to the series of the translations published by the 
Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, and the topographical notes furnished 
bv Sir Charles Wilson therein, we find the following entries resardinff 
these southern slopes of Sion : — " The walls of ^lia probably followed 
nearly the same lines as those of the present day " (Bordeaux Pilgrim, 
p. 59). Hence the southern slopes of Sion lay outside the city walls in 
the time of Hadrian, after the old city had been razed ; though Eomau 
villas belonging to the colonists of ^lia Capitolina may possibly have 
occupied the ground ; since the tessellated pavements of such villas built 
even amid the foundations of the old walls have lately been discovered in 
the present excavations, which fact would appear to show that they d<3 
not belong to houses of an Herodian date. 

" When the city \vas re-built by Hadrian, Sion was not enclosed by 
the walls, and it apparently lay outside them in the fourth century {see 
Bordeaux Pilgrim, p. 23 ; and Jerome, in Michceam, iii, 9-12). The date 
at which it was brought within the compass of the city walls, as 
mentioned in the text {i.e., about 440 a.d.), is uncertain." (The Epitome 
of S. Eucherius, note ' on p. 8.) 

28 "riKST wall" of ancient Jerusalem. 

5. The Enipi-ess Eudocia re-built the walls of the city 438 to 454 a.d. 
It was a period of great building activity, and there seems little doubt 
but that the wall now being traced by Dr. Bliss is Byzantine work, a 
reconstruction by that Empress generally on the foundation of the older 
"First Wall" of Josephus, But besides not using the scarp of the 
outlying towers both at the south-eastern and south-western ends of this 
wall, we know that in one imjjortant particular her builders de^dated 
from the line of that old wall. The " First Wall " of Josephus excluded 
the Pool of Siloam from the city. Eudocia's wall included it within the 
city. Hence when the present excavations approach Siloam it will Ije 
still more necessary to distinguish the scarp and foundations in the rock 
of the old wall and its towers from the remains of the Byzantine wall we 
are now followinfj. 

6. " It may perhaps be inferred that at the time of Paula's 

visit (a.d. 386) the old wall on Sion was still a heap of ruins, and had not 
been re-built." (Sir Charles Wilson — Introduction to Paula, p. iv.) But 
Eucherius (a.d. 440) after the Empress Eudocia's wall had been con- 
structed notices, p. 8, " The most frequented gates of the city are three in 
number, one on the west {i.e., the modern Jaffa Gate), another on the east 
(the present St. Stephen's Gate), and the third on the north of the city" 
{i.e., the present Damascus Gate). No mention is made of one on the 
south. Though "the two streets running respectively south from the 
Damascus Gate and east from the Jaffa Gate which divide Jerusalem into 
four parts, evidently follow the lines of ancient streets." (Bordeaux 
Pilgrim — Introduction, p. x.) Significantly enough the Byzantine 
wall of the Eoipress Eudocia ran without one there, as is apparently 
evident from Dr. Bliss's tracings. 

"Antoninus Martyr," p. 21, writes : "The fountain of Siloa is at the 
present day {i.e., 560-570 a.d.) within the walls of the city ; because the 
Empress Eudocia herself added these walls to the city." For about 400 
years after this date the great church on Sion (now outside the modern 
walls on the south side of the city) is always noticed by the pilgrims as 
being "in the middle of the city," because the greater part of the 
Byzantine city covered these southern slopes of Sion within the Empress's 

7. But after 1000 a.d. this Byzantine wall seems to have been destroyed. 
Abbot Daniel, 1106 a.d., says : "In the present day Mount Sion is out- 
side the walls of the city, to the south of Jerusalem," ji. 36. Theoderich, 
1172 A.D., says : Siloam " was once within the city, but is now far outside 
it ; for the city has lost almost twice as much in this direction as it has 
gained in the parts near the Holy Sepulchre," p. 34. " Mount Sion, which 
stands to the southward, being for the most part without the city walls," 
-p. 36. In the old French description of the city of Jerusalem, written 
1187 A.D., at p. 2, Ave read : "When Jesus Christ Avas on the earth the 
city of Jerusalem was on Mount Sion {i e., within the ' First Wall ' of 
Josephus), but it is no longer there." Only a church (the great Abbey 
Church of Mount Sion) is there " outside the walls of the city," p. 3. 


8. Tlie southern slopes of Sion were thus inside the " First Wall " of 
Josephiis, outside those of Hadrian, inside those of Eudocia, for about 500 
years, since which period they have been outside the walls again for about 
another 800 years. 

9. From the foregoing considerations the practical conclusion would 
appear to result that it is of paramount importance not to be content 
with merely tracing the Byzantine wall, but that we should use every 
endeavour, during the present excavations of the southern wall, to follow 
most carefully both the inner and the outer rock scarjis of the ancient 
rampart, whether we individually are inclined to believe them to date 
from " Phoenician," Davidic, Solomonic, post Exilian, or Herodian times. 


1. Muristan. — In digging foundations for the new jjiers it was found 
that the rock shelves down towards the east, as one of the ivestern shafts 
is 9 metres deep from the flooring of the church, which is several feet 
lower than the street outside, and the eastern shafts 11 metres. It was 
clearly seen that there had been once a quarry heie. On an average the 
level of the rock at this church is 2,438 feet, whereas 70 feet to the north- 
east it is about 2,477 feet, and cropping out from the ground, the difference 
being, therefore, 39 feet, proving also from this side the existence of a rock 
platform, which I mentioned in (Quarterly Statement^ 1890, p. 20, as 
" Akra," and described as forming a kind of rocky knoll, with pei-pen- 
dicular sides.i As nearly all the cisterns had to be cleared and repaired 
for gathering as much water as possible the channels to them had also to 
be made, and by this tomhs were found, or i-ather re-found, in the 
" cloister." These were detected many years ago, so that in Sir Charles 
Warren's plan the word " tombs " is inserted in the northern and eastern 
cloister. But I had not myself seen them at the time, and, as far as I 
know, they have not been described in any record, so I think it to be my 
duty to describe them now. The tombs are built of masonry, one close 
to the other, lying across the cloister. One of them on the eastern side 
was thoroughly cleared out, and afterwai'ds the bones put back again. 
The skeleton was found undisturbed ; it was that of a tall man, the head 
lying in the east 8 inches higher than the feet. The bottom of the tomb 
is throughout a regular slope. It is covered with slabs of stones 
5 to 6 inches thick, and forms a long sunken grave 2 feet deep. One gets 
the impression they were economising with the place, putting as many 
tombs as possible into the cloister ground. The grave is only 20 inches 
wide, and if all are so, which is really very probable, then 30 graves woukl 

^ Similar to the present Skull Hill outside the town, on^y not so large in 


be found in one side of the cloister. In the western cloister similar tombs 
were found, but have not yet been cleared out, and, as everywhere on all 
sides of the cloister it sounds hollow, there is little doubt that all round 
there are such graves, in number jn'obably about 80. 

2. .1 Stair and Fosteni in the Old Wall— In the Quarterly/ Statement, 
1889, p. 63, is inserted a plan of the City of Jerusalem, in which with red 
ink are introduced many of the results of excavation, and north of the 
present city wall, west of the Damascus gate, the line of the old wall, 
marked D, forms towards the west a large projecting angle like the present 
wall, only situated further out ; and the notes in the text explain this on 
p. 63. The ground of this angle outside the wall came recently into the 
possession of the Latin Convent, " St. Salvador," situated there inside the 
wall. The Convent intend to make a large cistern in the hollowed out 
part of the newly acquired ground, and are removing the accumulation of 
earth and debris in front of the rock scarp, which proves to be there 
1(5 feet high ; finding in the debris and earth many large hewn, and even 
some bevelled, stones, and near the outer (northern) corner in the old wall 
and scarp a flight of steps going from west to east, very likely d(>wn to 
the bottom of the trench, if it may be called so, for it has no counter wall 
or scarp. The stair stones are now removed, and are about 3 feet long. 
On the top of the steps was still in. situ a threshold with the holes in which 
once the pins or hinges of the door were turning. The lintel also was 
found in the debris ; so we see there was here once a postern about 3 feet 
wide, and 5^ to 6 feet high, leading to a flight of steps going down to the 
foot of the wall, or rather of the rock scarp. By this postern one was able 
to go outside the town, although it was not a regular gateway. 

3. An Addition to the Report on the Becenthj-found Mosaic outside 
Damascus Oate. — As I went once more there I saw a stone with plaster 
on its surface, and in it engi-aved by a sharp-pointed tool some figures and 
writings— the latter damaged and no more fully legible. I made a copy 
of them, which I enclose here. I found that a short distance north of the 
mosaic, and close to the (northern) roal, there are other rock-hewn tombs, 
but not emi^tied, so I could not see the inside of them. All these tombs 
seem to me a proof that the ancient city nevei- extended so far north, and 
that this neighbourhood has always been outside the walls. 

4. Tombs, or Remainder of Third Wall?— ^h\ce 1841, when Robinson 
opened a controversy respecting the lines, not only of the " first " and 
" second " walls, but of the " third " also, many visitors have tried to fi-ud 
out the place itself, the traces of the latter indicated on his map, but 
with various and conflicting results. I myself also, when coming five 
years later to Jerus;ilem, examined carefully what Robinson had said, but 
found that only ])art of the remains which he mentions with " hewn 
stones " had been really once a strong wall, all the others being merely 
heaps of earth of no great height. In order to know whether masonry 
was under these, excavations were required which for a long time were 




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not made,' ami so the question was not decided. About 28 years ago 
Sir Charles Wilson commissioned me to look carefully on the ground for 
other remains which might indicate a continuation of the line of the wall. 
Robinson's last-mentioned remains," where his line abruptly ends, were 
about 225 feet east of the road going from the north-west corner of tlie 
city to the large ash heap (the so-called Nablus road). About 15 years 
ago a house was built in the neighbourhood, and these stones were 
removed and used for it, so that at present one may look in vain for these 
traces of old walls. It was a wall of about 7 feet thick. l\uther east 
from this place there is a cistern, and near to it some large stones,^ not 
exactly in one line, so that if they once belonged to the city wall the 
latter must have formed liere a kind of corner, as shown in the plan. 

About 550 feet east of it, and beyond the main road to Nablus ami 
Damascus, is a kind of square-shaped pool, marked " 1 " in plan, sunk into 
the level ground. The north side of this pool consists of very large and 
well-hewn stones, with " bevels " round about, so that they may be 
considered as Jewish, and would also somewhat agree with what Josephus 
says of the stones of Agrippa's third wall.^ Hence many brought these 
stones as proof that the third w\all had its course here. Robinson and 
many others have not observed them. These stones are quite different 
from those of which Dr. Robinson sj^eaks, but similar to those in the 
Temple wall, in measure as high as the highest found in Jerusalem, but 
not so long as several in the Temple wall. Their face is towards the city, 
whereas if they belonged to the city wall their face would be on the other 
or outer side ; and further, as I have by digging not found any traces 
east and west of them, I am convinced they have not belonged to a city 
wall, but to some monument. It is rather remarkable that I could not 
find in any book any notice of these stones.' 

About 20 years ago I made excavations there (as already mentioned) 
to find out continuation on either side, but immediately westward I found 
the rock, and in it rock-hewn tombs ; also in searching the north side of 
the wall I came soon to the rock, and ascertained that the thickness of 
the wall is 14 feet. I intended to dig also on the east, but then the 
]n'oprietor of the ground hindered me. It seems that thei^e is no continu- 
ation eastwards. Thinking the matter over and over again, I came to the 
conclusion that it was not a wall in the general meaning, but simply a 
tomb monument, and this " pool," if we may call it so, simply the court 
.sunk into the ground, like that at the " tombs of the kings," only much 
smaller. In the immediate neighbourhood there are more similar tanks, 
as may be seen on the plan. Once a stair went down into them, and in 

' \_See '"Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem," p. 72, and PI. XXVI, 2.— Ed.] 
- Marked " 2 " in my accompanying plan. 
=* Marked " 3 " on my plan. 
■* Josephus, " Bell. J.," v, 4, 2. 

' [TLey were examined and excavated by Sir Charles Wilson, and described 
in the " Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem," p. 72, and PI. XX YI, 1.— En.] 


one of the side walls was the small entrance to the tombs. Afterwards, 
in the Mohammedan time, these sunken courts were converted into pools 
for water, the sides being covered with masonry of small stones and then 
cemented. If this masonry were taken away again I am sure that behind 
it would be found iu each of these pools an opening to rock-cut tombs, 
and very likely found old relics. About 300 feet north of these stones- 
stood a short marble pillar (at " 4 "), which is shown in the Ordnance 
Survey Plan, where always I thought something might be found under- 
neath. Recent excavations made by the proprietor showed that there too 
are rock-cut tombs, and such are also in the place of the Dominican 
Brethren, and west of it. So thus we see that in this comparatively level 
ground are in all directions ancient rock-cut tombs, which speaks against 
the idea that the city once extended to here. 

With regard to the large stones, which are only four in number, and 
make a wall 30 feet long, I think that ovei- them were some layers more, 
forming a monument. I think, further, that if the j^ool in which trees 
are now standing, which proves that there is a good layer of earth, were 
cleared out, and the cement masonry taken away, the entrance to rock-cut 
tombs would apj^ear under this wall and north of it, as there I foixnd the 
rock near the surface of the ground. 

Jews are now residing in the neighbourhood, and cast their rubbish 
into this pool, so that in a few years it will be filled up and disappear. 

I mention all this in the hope that excavations may be made. The 
proprietors would probably give permission. 

5. Recent Discoveries on the Mount of Olives. — Having heard that some 
excavations were being made on the Mount of Olives, I went there and 
visited several places. First I went to the place of the recently-discovered 
mosaic Jiooring with an inscription. It is situated on the southern slope 
of the middle top of the mountain, on the road to Bethany, which goes 
over the top of the mountain, passing between the village Et Tor and 
the place of the Paternoster. Going eastward some 500 feet, one comes 
to the place. It is about where on the Ordnance Survey jjlan -^^^^^ the 
number 2553 stands. Compai-e also my plan and description of the 
mountain in Quarterli/ Statement, 1889, p. 174, where I have pointed out 
that the central part of the Mount of Olives has three distinct tops, which 
I show also in the enclosed plan of the locality marked 1, 2, 3. 

Here as well as in the village itself the people are erecting new houses, 
and have built seven rooms on this spot. When digging the foundation 
they found old masonry and mosaic floorings. The layer of earth from 
6 feet to 10 feet deep isvei\y hard ; it consists of an accumulation of earth, 
rubbish, pieces of pottery, small stones, &c., which have in the 
course of centuries become like rock, so that when the people work down 
and remove detached pieces the rest remains standing like walls. On 
going down to see the present state of things where they have worked 
here and there, it looks rather strange and like a ruined city. By closer 
examination one can soon decide between this debris and the real walls, 



which are standing everywhere from 1 to 5 (or even 6) feet high. Eooms, 
courts, cisterns, pools, &c., were discovered, which 1 will now describe. 
There is first an extensive flooring 32 feet long and most probably 
19 feet wide, all of white mosaic, with no coloured cubes, and very well 
preserved. The walls round about are 3 feet thick, and on an average of 
the same height. The stones are squared but small, and placed in good 
mortar. The northern wall I could not see, as earth is still lying on it ; 
but the proprietor pointed out to me the situation, asAe had seen it, when 

JVtir Houses 

Road to BfUhany 


I . I . I . I . t 



building the new house there. On the southern wall are two piers, and 
very likely there may be similar ones on the northern side. Probably 
they were intended to bear long wooden beams. In the south and east 
walls are openings or doorways. If formerly roofed it was a nice large 
hall, or when not roofed a fine open court or area. Of windows I could 
see nothing, as the walls are not high enough for that. East of this 
chamber is a smaller room, situated a little lower, and with a similar 




mosaic flooring, the little cubes being all white. In front of both inns ;i 
very well made water-channel. Further east is another room or couit, of 
which the soutliern wall is missing, and the pavement is like the others. 
In its north wall is an opening or door leading to a flight of steps, and in 
the eastern wall is a shallow, door-like recess, with a round hole going 
through the wall, as if a cock had once been fixed there for letting out the 
water from the adjoining cistern. For east of this place is a small but 
very nicely-built hir or cistern, with a sqiiare mouth in its vaulted roof, 
which is rather flat and made of hewn stones. On the top of this cistern 
there is round-about a low parapet wall, and also round the mouth — so 
that even this upj^er part might have been tilled with water to a height 
<»f 10 inches or a foot. North of this cistern is a little pool or nmsfai 
(i.e., a filtering place for the water coming down the hill-side), and on its 
eastern side is a pool of much larger size (121 feet long by 7^ feet wide), 
which has an outlet or channel in its south-western corner. This channel, 
as I suppose, was once connected with that mentioned above, but this 
is not certain. East and south of this pool and the cistern are still layers 
of earth like thick walls. Proceeding still further towards the east I 

came to more mtei'estnig remams. 

Pattern of Mosaic on Mount of Olives. 

A very nice mosaic pavement made with cubes of difterent colours, 
of which I made a drawing, and at the same time procured a photograph 
showing the inscription. This pavement is 15 feet 2 inches long and 
13 feet 10 inches wide, surrounded by a low wall abojt 15 inches thick, 
without indication of a former door. The western part of the north 
wall, which is still about 6 feet high, is plastered and formed into a kind 
of door-like recess. In the southern part of the pavement is a Greek 
inscription,' so placed that anyone wishing to read it must stand on the 
mosaic pavement itself with his face towards the south. 

I supi)0se that under the ])avement are some tombs of celebrated, or 

' See p. 86, wliero tlic inscription is reproduced, with translation by 
Dr. A. S. Murray. 

• • •• 

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at least clej-ical, meu, but an opening to them I could not find. Very 
likely it is under the broad stone bench (in part No. 2), although when 
one of the tliree large stone slabs there was removed by the proprietoi', 
no opening appeared. Very likely the passage is filled with earth, in 
order to conceal it. Or may the opening be in the plastered recess in the 
north wall ? No one can tell before the plaster is removed. 

If this place was once roofed this can only have been done with wood, 
as the walls would never have sustained a vault. Very likely it was not 
roofed in, or only partly, which certainly was the ca,se with place No. 2, 
on the west of the place of the pavement. Between the two is a stone 
bench, and near to this, the basement of a marble pillar still in situ. The 
flooring of this place (No. 2) consists also of mosaic, in white, black, and 
red marble cubes, in a pattern shown in No. 2 on Plate II. 

In front of this ante-room with its pillar, is another mosaic flooring 
in a pattern shown under No. 3. It is not made of small cubes but of 
pieces of marbles, shaped so as to foi-m the pattern. As I could see only 
a small part of this flooring, the rest being covered with earth, I cannot 
tell whether the pattern is repeated again and again throughout the whole 
pavement or only a few times in the middle of the i-oom or court. 

It is quite clear that these buildings, pavements, tombs, and inscription 
have to be assigned to the earlier Chrisfian period, and that in the 
Crusading time they were already lying waste and covered with earth, as 
no pilgrim in any of the many ages speaks of theui. Even Felix Fabri, 
more than 400 years ago, Avho mentioned everything, and who passed 
here, does not mention them. In his "Pilgrimage" he describes, i)i 
Vol. II, Part I, p. 78,' seq., just this road from Bethany to Jerusalem at 
full length, and says, amongst other things : " On this road," on which 
the Lord .Jesus went on Palm Sunday, "we found scattered about 
many small pieces of squartjd and polished marble of divers colours, 
and a friar led us out of the modern road to a place where we 
found a field all paved with polished marble of divers colours," which 
he thought was the old road paved in this manner throughout its 
whole length by St. Helena. He does not say ;mything of buildings, 
and one might think he may have seen those now recently discovered. 
But that this is not the case is clear from his having come to Bethphage 
and further on to the Mount of Olives ajter he had seen such 
a paved field. Now in the neighbourhood of Bethphage there are several 
places where mosaic jiavements are found, especially north of it, where 
there was once a large village or town, and very likely the friar brought 
the pilgrims to this site, as it is some distance from the road. That this 
was the case seems to be shown by the further words : " From hence we 
went forward and come to the ]Aa.ce where once stood the village of 

jjriests, Bethphage climbed up the ascent of the Mount of 

Olives and came to a region up which there is a steep ascent of nine 

^ According to the English translation issued by the Palestine Pilgrims' 
Text Society. 



steps." This place is still recognisable, and about 700 feet east of the 
place of the new-found mosaic. Felix goes ou to say: "When we had 
gone higher up from this place the tops of the towers of the Holy City 
began to show themselves." So he must have passed the very place, but 
does not mention the mosaics, which proves that at that time the remains 
were not only underground but unknown. 

As this inscription is in Greek, and as those found by the Eussians 
higher up on the top of the mountain are Armenian, it appears that the 
Armenians had in the early Christian time some of their many possessions 
in the Holy Land, on the top of the Mount of Olives, whilst the Greeks 
had theirs on the slope. 

When I had ended my investigations I wished to see the tomb of the 
late Russian Archimandrite Antonin ; so they brought me into the new 
Russian church (built on old foundations, as I have reported in Quarterh/ 
Statement, 1889, p. 176) and in its northern apse said, "Here, under 
this pavement lies the body of the late Archimandrite." A monument 
with an inscription will be put there later. Outside, north of the church, 
in the yard of a small convent, I saw another new tomb which has already 
a monument. Of the high tower and the Russian place in general, I 
have spoken at some length in one of my former reports, so I may go on 
to another subject. 

New House on Karm Es Sajad, or the viri Galilcn Ihll {see Plan C on 
Plate I).— In Quarterly Statement, 1889, p. 176, I explained that the 
northern top of the central part of the Mount of Olives is called so, and 
belongs to the Greek Bishop Epiphanias. 

Now about ten days ago, when looking over to the Mount of Olives, 
I observed, to my astonishment, a new house on the northern top or Karm 
Es Sajad, near where I always hoped something will one day be found. 
So I went there in oi'der to see and hear what had been found when the 
foundations for the new house were laid. There is an elevated platform 
of large size, and in the middle of it a cistern, inserted also in the Ordnance 
Survey plan xoho'^i where the word " cistern " is put to it. At the west 
end of this platform the new house has been built, not upon but in front 
of it. It is two stories high, and through the windows one has a splendid 
view of the Holy City. The wall of the platform was on three sides laid 
bare and a trench digged, but although some old masonry was found it was 
of no importance, being simply the remains of small houses. No large or 
costly stone was found, except a few hewn stones ; all the others are 
unshaped and small. Yet a few tombs sunk into the rock were found. 
As some writers and the pilgrims say that there was once on the Mount 
of Olives a fortress — some putting it on the southern top, some on this, 
the nortliern — I had the hope that in this platform will one day be recog- 
nised the old fortress or castle, which is now not the case, and we must 
look for some other site. The workmen and also the Bishop said some 
more interesting things may be found east of the platform, as no digging 
lias been done there until now. But I think the " castle " will not be 
found, as it would be too far back, Felix Fabri, over 400 years ago, 


describes this platform ius beiiif^' at the time the same as now (Vol. I, 
Part II, pp. 481 to 483, English). He says that many think there was 
here a village called Galilee, " And it is a place suitable for a castle, and 
indeed there seem to have been some buildings there once ; moreover, 
upon the top of it there is a cistern, and the whole place is delightful." 

6. Bethzur. — In Joshua xv, 58, is mentioned as one of the royal cities 
of that time, Bethzur, in connection with Halhul and Gedor. These three 
cities still retain their names after more tlian 3,000 years. Bethzur was 
fortified by Kehoboam (2 Chron. xi, 7), and after the captivity people of 
Bethzur worked at the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 16). 
In the Maccabean struggles Bethzur is repeatedly mentioned as a 
strong i^osition of the Jews, and the boundary castle towards Idumea. 
In modern times the site is known, and v/as always known, even in the 
Middle Ages, and in the " Memoirs of the Palestine Exploration," vol. iii 
pp. 311 and 324, its present condition is fully described, so that I have, 
as the result of my own visit to the place, nothing to add, except that I 
found the site so insignificant. I had expected extensive ruins of such an 
important place, but what exists to-day is comparatively rather modern. 
So I became convinced that the Bethzur of the time of the Maccabees 
occupied not only the hill on which the tower now stands, where the 
citadel may have been, but extended eastward, and stood partly on the 
high ground towards Nebi Jonas and the village of Halhul, so that the 
many springs, especially the cojjious ed Dhirweh, were inside of the 
fortifications, and that these fortifications shut up entirely the road to 
Jerusalem for those coming from the south, upon which circumstance 
rested the importance of the fortress. Owing to the many valleys going- 
out from this height it was not easy for a military force to go round it, 
as the Jews coidd eff'ectually hinder it. In so far the history of Bethzur 
is clear. 

Bat in 2 Maccabees xi, 5, it is said that Lysias (the Commander of 
the Syrian troops) " came to Judea, and drew near to Bethzui-a, which 
was a strong town, but distant from Jerusalem about 5 furlongs, and 
he laid sore siege unto it." Observing this, Judas, with a number of 
Jews, went out of Jerusalem (v. 6 — 11), "marched forwards in theii- 
armour, having an helper fiom Heaven . . . and giving a charge upon 
their enemies like lions, they slew 11,000 (footmen) and 1,600 horsemen, 
and put all the other to flight," and Lysias fled away. Now in 1 Mace, 
iv, 29, seq., we are told of a similar attack and siege of a Bethzur, situated 
(near Hebron) on the boundaries of Idumea, so both places are generally 
taken as one and the same, and the statement of Bethzur lying 5 furlongs 
distant from Jerusalem is regarded as a textual error. Schwarz • 
says (p. 78), one should read 15 miles and not 5. But the 5 mentioned 
are not miles but furlongs, and hence 15 has no value, the more so as 
the Onomasticon gives 20 miles from Jerusalem to Bethzur. According 

' " Das Heihgc Land." Frankfort-on-Main, 1S52. 


to the "Memoir of the Palestine Exploration Fund Survey " (p. 312), it 
is in reality 14 £n;iiish miles — or 112 furlongs. 

To me it seems there were at that time tivo Bethzurs, one in the 
neighbourhood of Jerusalem — where Judas smote 11,000 men and 1,600 
horsemen — and another near Hebron, where Judas fought the next 
battle with Lysias one year later (1 Mace, iv, 34), in which were slain 
of the host of Lysias 5,000 men, and no horsemen at all — and after which 
Lysias returned to Antioch, and the Jews cleansed the Temijle. But how 
could there have been two 1 It was so with many other cities in the 
country ; for instance, Bethlehem,' Bethania,^ Gilgal,'"* Mizpeh,* Eamah,'^ 
Ataroth," and many others, besides the many Gibeahs, so it may well have 
been that there Avere also two Bethzurs, the one near Jerusalem, the 
other not far from Hebron. 

Now, at what place is this Bethzur near Jerusalem to be looked for ? 
A question on which I have often meditated. 

As the name Betsur el Atikeh is borne by the ruins of a village 
situated on a hill in the Wady en Nar (or lower Kidron Valley below 
Bir Eyftb), I thought this might have been the place. But it is not a 
tit place for a castle, and is too much below the Holy City, and also too 
far distant (between 8 and 9 furlongs), so I doubted the matter, and 
thought that Abu Tor (Hill of Evil Council) might be the place, a very 
fit one for a castle and for the protection of Jerusalem. But it is sitvxated 
too near, only 2 furlongs from the ancient city. A friend of mine 
thought it might be the hill further soutb, where in the large map the 
word " Arab " stands, and which is marked " ES,s el Mukabbir "—the 
meaning of which is, " hill-top of a jiroud man " ; but it may also be 
derived from the Maccabeans. Here are cisterns and slight ruins, but 
the place is too far from the town, about 12 furlongs. 

As " 'Ain edh Dhirweh," near the Bethzur i» the neighbourhood of 
Hebron was, in the early Christian times, considered to be the " water " in 
which the Eunuch was baptised by Philip (Acts viii, 36-39), and as this site 
was later transferred to 'Ain-Hanniyeh (south-west), in the Valley of Koses 
(Wady el Werd), so Bethzur was also brought there. Some pilgrims 
a|)parently saw it in the Khirbet el Yehfid at Bittir, some nearer to the 
Ain. According to Brocardus, Bethzur was in the thirteenth century 
considered to be at Katamon, near Jerusalem, in the large map entered 
as " Kasr el Bramia." But this place is also too far from the city. 
North of the city we cannot look for Bethzur, as there was Scopus, and 
the heights there are also too far from the city, so we have, nolens volens, 
to look for it in the east, and there is the Mount of Olives, which, 
according to Josephus (" Antiq." xx, 8, 6), is 5 furlougs from the city, 

' Judges xvii, 7 ; Joshua xix, 15. 
- John xi, 18 ; Jolin i, 28 (R.V.). 
•' Josliiia T, 10 ; 2 Kings ii, 2. 
^ Joshua xviii, 26 ; 1 Siim. xxii, 3. 
'' Joshua xviii, 2.'5 ; Joshua xix, 20. 
" Josliua xvi. 7 ; N'nnihcps xxxii, 3. 


and (" Bel." V, 2, 3) had a place on it where formerly soldiers had their 
(juarters, and Titus ordered the Tenth Legion to pitch their tents 
(i furlongs from the town. So I come to the conclusion that the Bethzur 
near Jerusalem was situated on the Mount of Olives, and on its middle 
top, where now the village Kefr et Tor stands. This idea is further 
su|)ported by the following considerations : — 

(1) The distance from Jerusalem exactly agrees with 2 Maccabees xi, 5, 
namely, 5 furlongs {cf. Joseph., loq. cit.). 

(2) According to Professor 1). Schlatter, " Jason of Cyrene Restored," 
Mu7iich, 1891, p. 25, the present name, "Kefr et Tor," is the exact 
Aramaic equivalent of the Hebrew Bethzur.' 

(3) («) Some tower or village was always on the Mount of Olives, as is 

proved by its having been a Bama, or high place, as stated in 
2 Samuel xv, 32, wliere David used to pray, and at such a place 
there were always houses. 

(Ii) It is not likely that such a conspicuous and important place should 
be left unoccupied, the more so as it was 

{(■) In the district of Bethphage, or the hallowed ground, where the 
Jewish guests might lodge, cook, and eat, as if it were part of 
the Holy City itself, if they could not all find room in the City. 
So our Lord left the City in the evening, and sj^ent the night 
with his disciples on the Mount of Olives, as there were there 
houses, huts, and other lodgings (Luke xxi, 37). 

{cJ) The top of this mountain was the first beacon station, giving 
notice by fire to the country, that the New Moon had begun. 
Such a beacon station had always houses and other buildings. 

(4) Akra, the Temple, and Bethzur, are repeatedly put together as the 
three strong places of the Holy City, for instance, 1 Mace, vi, 26, and 
xiv, 7. 

(5) "When Jonathan made peace with Alexander, we read, 1 Mace, x, 
10-14 : " Jonathan began to build and repair the City. And he commanded 
the workmen to build the walls of Mount Zion round about with square 
stones for fortification. Then the strangers, that were in the fortresses 
wliich Bacchides had built, fled away ; insomuch as every one left his 
place and went into his own country. Only at Bcthmra certain of those 
that had forsaken the law and the commandments remained still : for it 
was their place of refuge." As the Akra in Jerusalem had still a Syrian 

1 "Antiq." xii, 4, 11. Hyrcanus called his palace near Hebron "Tor," 
which is equivalent to the Hebrew " Tzur." 

[The Arabic equi-valenfc of ~I1^', a rock, is ,»<>£!, Siir; but the top of tlie 

Mount of Olives is called by the Arabs ..U I et Tor, wliich means a mount. 

Many places in Palestine are so called; see Index and Name List, " Survey of 
Western Palestine." Jehel et Tor, or Tur, is also the native name for 
Mount Gerizini, Mount Tabor, and Mount Sinai.— Ed.] 


garrison, so they felt in some degree safe on the Mount of Olives, which 
would not have been the case in the Bethzur near Hebron. 

(6) The great victory of the Maccabees over Lysias is much more 
plausible if he had the strong Holy City at his back when attacking Lysias 
on the Mount of Olives, and the retreat of the enemy was much more 
difficult from there than from the Bethzur near Hebron, where they 
could flee in every direction, but here only towards the east, i.e., towards 
the wilderness. 

(7) After Christ rose false Messiahs, amongst them an Egyptian, of 
whom we read (Joseph. " Antiq." xx, 8, 6) : he " advised the people to go 
alonff with him to the Mount of Olives, and said that he would show 
them from hence, how at his command the walls of Jerusalem would fall 
down." So he made use apparently of the castle of Bethzur still standing 
there ; but the Roman Governor Felix hearing this, came against them 
with a great number of horsemen and footmen from Jerusalem, and 
attacked them, killing 400 and taking 200 alive. But their leader escaped, 
so I think that on this occasion the castle was destroyed by Felix, and 
the place lost its importance, or x'ather gave place to another veneration 
of the spot, namely, by the Cliristians, and the building of the Church of 
the Ascension. But the name Bethzur was still preserved in the village 
or cluster of smaller buildings hanging round the old wall, and the new 

(8) It may also be mentioned, that when Titus brought the Roman 
army Ijefore Jerusalem, he divided it, and put the Tenth Legion on this 
important place on Mount Olivet, at once recognising its importance in 
the siefire, and in makino' the wall of circumvallation it was made use of 
(Joseph. " Bel." v, 12, 2). It is also remarkable, that the besieged Jews 
tried one day to break thi-ough here (Joseph. " Bel." vi, 2, 8). 

In conclusion, I wish to say, that at the present village there are 
many rock-hewn cisterns, not only in the houses, but outside them, 
especially on the west side towards Jerusalem, and also on the northern 
side. These cisterns were of course once inside the fortification, and so 
the castle, if it was a square, may have measured about 600 feet on each 
side. Wherever one digs in the fields round the present buildings hewn 
Htoues are found. 

7. Montefioreli. — The estate called by this name, lying just across the 
valley immediately west of Jerusalem, has long been occupied in its 
southern portion by a number of Jewisii houses and a windmill, now 
disused. Recently, the northern portion has been laid out for the erection 
of new dwellings for Jews, one part being for Sephardim, and called Beth 
Yehudith, the other for Ashkeuazim, called Beth Nathan. Roads (streets) 
liave been run througli the pro]>erty, and the houses are built resting one another in rows. An old building which existed there is to 
be turned into a synagogue. 




By the Rev. W. Ewtng. 

Edited hy A. G. Wrioht, Esq., of Aberdeen, and A. Souter, Esq., M.A., 

of Cams College, Cambridge. 

The following inscriptions were copied in the Hauran by the Eev. W. 
Ewing, of Tiberias, and AV. R. Paton, Esq., undertook to edit them. 
Mr. Paton, however, on going abroad had to relinquish the work, and 
his readings, notes, &c., have been incorporated with much advantage by 
the editors. The few occasions where his name is quoted form no 
criterion of the amount which he had done. 

The editors desire to thank Prof. W. M. Ramsay for constant advice 
and assistance, as also Mr. Geo. Middletoji, Lecturer in Latin in 
Aberdeen University, for revising the proof-sheets. 

In continuation of the present collection, an attempt has been made to 
determine the boundaries of the provinces, Roman and Byzantine, in the 
district where the inscriptions were found. (See p. 67, et seq.) 

The translations of some of the Arabic inscriptions are due to 
Mr. Thatcher, of Mansfield College, Oxford, and Prof. Margoliouth, of 



No. 1. Oil a lintel over a door leading into a cattle slied at Tsil. 


r' l M^ x ^ I !■ I ' - III , I j:_ ■ -r r -^^rT*^*^ ! ' ' i " ~ ~-^ 

!«._.-- _ "^'.8" . 

ct\' Oco'^ o jiiovo'^ o aiici'i- 

o?. Kv/>ft, (pvka^oi' Ttji' i'aoc[oi' 

hiru riji' i^'^ocoi' KvffcfBtov. 

Cf. Wadd,, 2046, 2662«, 2696. 

The words (f)vXa^ov ttjv 'iaroBop, &c., are taken from Psalm cxxi, v. 8. 
For a description of Tsil, see G. Schumacher's Across the Jordan, 
IX 222 fi'. The town always belonged to the jirovince of Syria. 

No. 2. Broken pillar on base at Tsil. No inscription. 




The stone was freshly turned up from the middle of the street. 



No. 3. Over door of house 
near Mosque, at Tsil. 

No. 4. lu court of house, 
at T»iL. 





cl^ 6{eo'i) K\vi>io)v o noro'7 

O T OVpaVtO^ ~0\l>\ I'twr (T- 

vTrep (Twrrjpta^ ice viKij'i 

Tubv Ce<T\_7r\oT\_WjV K.Ol'fTT .... 

These a])parently are two parts of the same stone, but owing to their 
bad condition the restoration is uncertain. The names of the Emperors 
cannot be deciphered, so that it is impossible to fix the date of the inscrip- 
tion. Probably Constantine followed tcoi' SeaTrorwv ; the plural shows 
there must have been two Emperors reigning at the time, so that the date 
is a late one. 

" The one God, the Lord the only and heavenly, guard thy temple till 
the end .... for the safety and victory of our masters Constantine. . . ." 

No. 5. In wall of Sheikh's house. Sahm el Jaulax. 


'Apj^eKuLo I)/ Kocduor^-. 

for description of Sahm el Jaulan, see Schumacher, Across the Jordan, 
p. 91 ft'. It appears to have always been in the province of Syria. 



No. 6. On lintel uver doorway in deep cellar, adjoining Sheikh's house. 
Saiim el Jaulan. 

. . . . fl >j TTdlxPlj^' IjjlKIV. 

The era used here is in all probability that of Damascus, which begins 
with the year 312 B.C. The 902ud year would thus be 590 A.D., which is 
the date of the in.scription. It is remarkable to find the Seleucid era 
employed so far south of Damascus, and its use is conclusive proof that 
Sahm el Jaulan was connected with Damascus, and not with the province 
Arabia. There can hardly be any doubt that this place is the ;i-At'/xn 
VavXdvrjs of Georgius Cyprius. 

In the centre of the stone a cross is inscribed. 

No. 7. At head of grave in 'Ad wan ; dug up some five years ago. 

hiuo 'i 

C7{wi'') /(I 

Fur a descri|)tion of 'A<lwan, see Schumacher, Across the -lordan, 
J>. 119. 

No. 8. Over doorway north end of Mosque. Jasem. 

Upocd) o (y/\ H A 
I A<;,£Yi Pon / o Y 

^^wYiA/u N A Pom Ko 


^Ijl'KII f 'Al'ipOI'/hOll. 

TO fi\^ai)TVjiio}' i c/id/iior? 


A cross is inscribed on eacli side of tlie stone, which is incomplete ou 
the right hand side, if not on the left also. 

Mr. Paton conjectures in 1. 3 Tvpowiai. for Trpovolai. 

"By offering of Elias, son of Eufcropios .... by the care of 
Andronikos(?) the chapel of the martyr." 

No. 9. South end of old Mosque. Jasem. 

■H<i \^ Xf 6A£ Hf ohm^CAN T hN 

TiH^AH -J LX) ^ 

■< rCpOMT I Y 

^ N H N KC 4) y A ^ Al N Ai;; uC i t' 

I K(«V")^ 'I(»/o-o)w X{piffT)e, e\ci](Toi- -affar Tijr 


(ifuji\ Kvpic, (pvXa^oi' a\_VTov'i~\. 

The last line of the inscription is almost obliterated. 
" Lord Jesus Christ have mercy on all tlie family of Gerontios 
Amen. Lord ijuard them." 



Xti. 10. Ill court of lioiise near old Mosque. Jasem. 


? ' : K/4 1 TOY t^':i ) o;i e Y c N Ti^ c K/^ I tocn j c^A i /\ {^ 
[^ nA NT0(e>pHN £vjg^eceA' Het4:^>>cA \ a,> 

'O Ki'<i>iov f(ou Bo'/'ov o \aff:rp6yTaTos) 7rpw7o(^ii) 
-('(-/(^/iiaros) Ko'^»^9 Ar«/ Aov^ up^a^ yfuln' tV e[]/]/J>yi')y 
/lYU TOi's cioccvoi'rav Ka'c to [fc6'f o] v O/ri 
TTrt/'TO'.- cipi^vcvcaOai i^(r(pa\i<ruTO. 

Published from a better copy in Archdolog. Epigraph. Mittlml. aas 
Oesterreich^ 1884, p. 181, and in Revue Arch(k>logique, 1884, vol. iv. p. 264. 

Bonus was dux Arabi;e at the end of the 4th century (see Wadd., 
2293a). He liad apparently cleared the neighbouring desert of Avild 
beasts and robbers. 

"My Lord Bonus, most noble Comes of the first order, and Dux ruling 
us in jjeace, established the peace of the travellers and the nation for 
ever."' In Rev. Arch., M.($X) is read for pov in the first line. Wad- 
dington reads, in 2293a, fVj 4>X. BoVoj, so that this reading is probably 
the correct one. 

No. 11. Over doorway of Sheikh's house. Jasem. 
The stone is very mutilated. 


P • 

■J IS the monogram of Christ. 


No 12. Ornamentation on stone over do(jrway at Umm el 'Osij. 


Part of oinaiuental design which had jnobably formed the lintel of a 
iloor. It consists of a row of similarly formed heads separated and 
.surrounded by a geometrical pattern. 

No. 13. In stone heap near Umm el 'Osij. 

f((Jov 'Aji- 
(11)011 (.'') 

"Thaddaios son of Abdalouaros (.'') — yeazs of age." 

No. 14. In stone heap near Umm el "Osij. 

GT(aij') .... 

" Abdelathos the son of Matheos — years of ao-e." 



No. 15. In stoue heap near Umm el 'Osij. 


" The huntsman Gal- 

No. 16. 

No. 17. In Graveyard at 'Akrabah. 

Ben Omar. God 
have mercy upon him. 

null ^^ 


This was built by 
(?) Salamah son 
of Omar, on whom 
God have mercy. 

No. 18. Over court doorway near Sheikh's house, said to have been 
copied 30 years ago, and to liave recorded the fact that King David 
had built the house. 'Akrabah. 


See No. 19. 

" Naamon began (it) Heraklidas finished (it)." 



No. 19. Ill roof of adjoiuing house, upside down. 'AKRABAH(Wadd., 24136). 




N B W P? o N Jgg^ e K T 

-iTTTru Kvpiov 'Aovce2co- 
-9 MttXc/^a^oy cttoi- 
-ijrrnv tu OvpwjLiaT- 
-a (TVf.1 Koaj-iov iccu -- 
-ov (3w/iioi> eK T- 
-iou iciwu et'trc/^Gtns' ii>- 
-UKci All li.vpnf 

111 Waddiugton's copy (after that of Wetzsteiii) the date is uucertain. 
Kirchoff conjectured IH, and the later reading of the stone confirms this. 
The iusciiption belongs to the reign of Agrippa II, the 18th year of which 
was G7 A.D. This date, together with that on No. 30, establishes the 
political position of 'Akrabali. The fact of its dating by Agrippa shows 
that it must have belonged to the province of Syria as formed in 63 b.c., 
and by the use of the Seleucid era (see No. 30) at a late date, it cannot 
have been in the part of Syria united to Arabia about 297 a.d. See Pt. II. 

" In the 18th year of the reign of our Lord, King Agrippa, Aoudeidos 
the son of Maleichathos made for Zeus the Lord the doors and their 
ornaments and the altar at liis own expense, from feelings of piety." 

Nos. 20 and 21. In Sheikh's Medafeh. '"Akrabah. 



'I Ja'ai'/y9 



(TO V (?) fc. 



No. 22. Ou tlie end of a broken Sarcophagus at the fountain. 



"May Gapsara, daughter of Sebisses, who lived forty-eight years, 
be remembered."' 

Ko. 23. In wall of house. 



Att^.iKeoN/eAi/^iNfi 4 



1. Ippw /(«)' ofT[/Jo(o (or 'Pay(«i'o*?) 


3. . . 'jrcpt(pfiiL'i' 


5. l^oi'^Ta' {'Tt' f()V/fk- ijcXt'oio. II 

0. [. . -Jot' jiu'-rptov «XAo9 [j 

7. «7X((Oj' /'[/o'i'J. II 

The inscription must have been in hexameter verse, of which we have 
only parts— the ends of the lines — preserved. 

No. 24. By doorstep in same courtyard. 'Akrabah. 


'; /T£3€ vC€4)eiAHC 






TG Zci's fc0c/X7y<T[cJ 

This and the previous in3crii)tion may be jxarts of the same, but the 
reading is hopeless. 

No. 25. In wall. 



"^ - 7 [^Kvptc, iii'uTraucroi' rui'j rocXov 

j^ Toj' j Vc^^tt'^pytoi' 

[ FiVrrrpnj tiov . afu'ji' 

No. 26. Over house dooi'. 


XE r M 
Q A 

A ci'oss in the centre is flanked by the omega and alplia {cf. Schumacher, 
Ac7'oss the Jordan, fig. 101, p. 196). The meaning of the letters XE r M 
has been much debated. They are almost peculiar to Christian inscrij)- 
tioiis of eai-ly date in Syria. (For an instance from Athens, see Bull. 
Hell., II, p. 32.) Waddington (No. 2145) jiroposes as the full signification, 
Xpia-Toi 6 €K Maplas yevvTjdeis. De Rossi interprets the letters as Xpiaros 
MixarjX Ta^piTjX, an explanation which had suggested itself to Wad- 
dington also. (See Bnlletino di Archeologia Cristiana, 1890, p. 42 ; also 

Bull., 1870, pp. 18-31, 115-121.) 

No. 27. Over court dooi'. 'Akrabah. 





ei fici' (f)i\ect<; tp^co ^/ijOo/iiei'o^' 
ci cc (pOoveca SepKCo TcKojuevo^ 
A Q 

"Within a circle in the centre is a cross, from which de^jend clusters of 
grapes, recalling in style forms of the holy tree on Assyrian and Phoenician 

(The same wish registered in this inscription is conveyed by two lines 
of a metrical inscription, Wadd., 2145 ^ Kaibel 452 : — 
"Bacrcros AjSovpLoio jrovrjaaro to'ls uyaBols pev 
^appara roTy 8e koko'is ivpdpevos obvvas 
"Bassos, son of Aboiirios, made these things ; devising them as joys 
to the good, but to the evil, woes.") W. E. Patox. 

"If thou lovest, come rejoicing ; but if thou hatest, look, and waste 

D 2 



Xo. 28. In old dvke near threshin"- floor. 'Akrabah. 


This must have formed part of a metrical inscription dedicating a 
temple or church. 

Xo. 29. In wall. "Akrabah. 


COYKYr (?) €W 
KHt/ .... 

This inscription is undecipherable. 

Xo. 30. Over doorway. 'Akrabah. 

H TO yc ^n; 

KOY* -^ 


J 6 ^^ ^loYo I K 

poY0 ocpVT*^^ V9. 

TJ » 


.^ -f-' 9' 

KOV tc- 

P "Ai.i7re- 
J \/v <I>Xa- 

^( _ V'Por'(Ao? 7(1 \tO' 





llj.ll, (I- 


The 812th year of Damascus corresponds to 500 a.d. (c/. Xo. G). The 
use of this date shows that 'Akrabah remained in Syria after 297 a.d. (see 
Xo. 19, note). For the exi^lanation of the signs X M F seeXo. 26, note. 

4- is the monogram of Christ, and is repeated twice if not thrice. 

"In the 812tli year of Damascus. Ampelis, the son of Flavins, wa.s 
the architect. lUifus, the son of Magnus, v.'as the mason. The stones are 
from Eutime." 



No, 31. On a heavy stone at the end of a Sheikh's tomb in tlie grave- 
yard beside the Kasar, a building which resembles the Palmyrian tombs. 

^^^o^^^Jof Atz(t'*KiT/\o)9iA()CVfAtevNoi g 

^>H.(»T0P/MP©/MfNOlCINYntPtAT0NHOaOtM10l>^ ^ 
'I'lOMCYNnPNIThylXoxiKKM-rit i Kt ft N ui 


VTe^N/>(-nuNoE4 E iz u^oiC m€ T£ H T" 

•*•> ///' ^ 

oZ ce 7cJ BaL;YjC'''c^'/'? ept/3ic\(tKa veovai ■^wpov 
■ip'opcrji' [NjnH/Jft'vos /cat oiJuojiia Ka\oi' aCovaiv 
f(t)/^<[«]/(ci/o§ ^e ^a'o?(r< t«' ot (^I'Xoi- ijOcXe Ouftov 
c(e)//t«To [a:]o« (/)0t^iciwi(Tii' inrcpTcnov i]Ce Octpoi' 
\^^/i}p^oi' (?) ffrj' TTcinnij cWo^^^ic k(u viei Kcrin? 
TlavXivij o' oi'}'of.ia KXtjir^/a^icao <yeue9\)j's 

K-vXtttov cd Ncifiu'Po'i nei^woi(T(^i^ /Herein. 

" The inhabitants of . . . and they that dwell in the fertile country of 
Bachesethe sing the valour of Naamou and his fair name. When he had 
built for the living that which his heart desired, he built for the dead 
also a lofty and splendid circle (?) for himself, his wise wife, and his 
dear son. Paulina was her name, and she was of the race of Cleio-amidas. 
May Cylptus, son of Naamon, be among those that live for ever." 

No. 32. In the city wall, south-west, near the ground. 'Akrabaii. 


'-.c^J-.iSJil^Sj.i-ii.^^^^^^^ I 


No. 33. At Kefr Suems. 

c—i Tou €v\al3{effruT0i<) ''.\f(ou (f)Ofi . . 
. . px. cKTiaOi] -TO majiXoi' h(ic 

dWdyiv, i.e. dWaylov, usually uXKayfj. For (ttu^Xop, cf. Wadd., 2161. 

"In the time of the most reverend Amos, ruler of . . . (?), the stable 
and the stage was built." The o-ra^Xoi/ koI dWayrj were apparently an inn 
by the wayside where a change of horses was or could be matle. 

No. 34. At Kefr Shems. 

OS' M«[^f- 
ftoo i\_7r- 

" Maximus, son of Maximus, a knight, (lived) thirty -three yeai"?. 

Xo. 35. At Kefr Shems. 

[v] '{)ai'o[r'] 


" Adoiis, wife of Hosios, eighty years of age 



No. 36. At Kefr Shems. 

0,] tT- 

u)v 9 

" Agatlie died, nine years of age, in the year 

Xo. 37. Es Saxaiiein = Aere. 




Af.iepo'i MaOciov 
Kill Ovaiuo'i uce- 
X0O9 eTroiijfjai^i') -n- 
V j3w/.L0i' Qcoa \i- 

« • ^ <^ r 

09 CK TWI/ (ClWV 

t'-(oi'9) BeKc'iTOO 'Arpi- 

The date is the 10th year of Hadrian's reign, 126 a.d. Tliere is 
another inscription given by Waddington of the year 190 a.d., which also 
dates by the reigning Emperor. Also No. 46 dates by the reign of 
Agrippa. This shows that Es Sanamein, the ancient Aere, must have 
been in the province of Syria from its formation till at least 295 a.d. 
Although we have no date later than that year, Aere was apparently iu 
Arabia, being called Hierapolis {i.e. "Eppa ndXt?) in tlie Notitiie. For the 
identification of Es Sanamein with Aere, see Wadd., 2413/. 

"Ameros, the son of Matheios, and Onainos his brother, made the 
altar of the god Zeus at their own expense, in tlie 10th year of the reign 
of Hadrian Caesar." 


No. 38. ( Cf. our No. 39.) Es Saxameix, a repetition of No. 3'.>. 

^t. HT0rfT6(C/\P€ , 

OvAuTCfia TOV vlou (IVToT) T?y TV- 

No. 39. (Waddingtoii, 2413 g.) 

This inscription, together witli No. 40, and also a fragment broken off 
a .similar inscri])tion, are all on the front of the temple over the old door- 
way. Es Sanamein. 

^[ Toy tovm opp^x 



/cL^jJ«0"«S AojLll'O)' 
Ov^/UTC/XI TO I' t'l- 
OV dl'TOl' T)) Tl'- 

"^ij Toi's' Teffffa- 
/jfts Xufnrarij- 

lepdofiai is the common word in this sense. I do not know any other 
exami)le of the iise of Updo) for the middle. Liddell and Scott's Lex. does 
not recognise it. 

No. 40. In wall, left corner, front (exactly 39). Es Sanamkin. 



ToYC T€f C A p/\(tK A K n '^ 



No. 41. In wall of court. Es Saxamkix. 




M .... as miles legionis Cyreiiaicae 

niortuus? missus'? in expedjitione in regione M (or regionem ' 

[cura Ius]tini et Maitini, et Nonni 

[fratri gejrmano karissinio et 

The Legio III Cyreuaica was stationed in Syria. 


No. 42. In wall. Es Sanamein. 

[v]«e' "E\(,\)//)'«v 

No 43. In cattle court. Es Sanaiieix. 

No. 44. In Sheikh's house. Es Saxameix. 



Xo. 45. By way side. Es Sanameix. 

No. 4(5. In Slieikli's house. Es Saxameix. 

leToYCAZ ToYKAlAg/j 


</to«'s- .\^' 70(' V((J \/3' j3afTi\Jicv 'A-jpi'—Tra icvi}(\_oi>j 

. . (ijijSo'jaTo'i •J'/\(t'[i'os' /i((J oij iv'ot oiKocojiitjfTav [tj^i' (?i»J/K/i/ 

m'j' i'cii,:aci'oiv ical \cov-ai>i'ofi (.'') vat tw Ovptcfiara ca'ijrrm/ 

Tliis inscription has been fnlly discnssed by Prof. G. A. Smith in the 
Critical Bevicic, January, 1892. This copy is a little more complete than 
his. Kvpiov was written in full ; only two letters at most are missing 
before . . a^Soyiiios, which seems to have been part of a Syrian name put 
into Greek form, perhaps Maj3l3oya'ios.^ 

For the bearing of the date o)i the [)rovince see No. 37. 

' 111 an impublished inscription of Cappadocia, which will soon be published 
by V. Yorke, Kiug's College, Cambridge, the name ^lay^ojfi') occurs iu the 
dative. Prof. Ramsay had suggested 'Ma^^oyaloi; as the mutilated name, 
but it is, in all jirobability, Ma/xpoyioi;. Tlie name is a most interesting 
one. Mambug, or Mabug, is tlio Syrian name of Hierapolis (now Mambitch), 
near tlio Euphrates, in North Syria; and also the name or title of the goddess. 
From it comes tlie name for "cotton" in many Oriental languages (Turkish 
"Pambuk").--A. G. W. 

No. 47. Upside clown in wall of court. Es Saxamein. 


Tt wrou 

The letters are separated by a cross. 

No. 47«. In niche in Temple. Es Saxameix. (Wadd., i'413/i.) 




" Theodotus, the Heptakinethian, sou of Hector, along with his wife 
and children, adorned with gold the statue of Tvxn, along with the niche, 
for his native place." 

Nu. 476. Projecting from wall in Temple. Es Sanamein, 

Line 1. eiriT l]ponov [rov 'Sf^aarov 

„ 2. TO KOlV()[u^ 

,, 3. ayvws €TriT[po7T(v- 

„ 4. cr^avra Teiixrjs [koL X'V"' 


No. 48. In wall of court. El Busir. 

Tin's inscription is quite undecipheraljle. 

{To he continued.) 


By Eev. W. Ewixg. 

On the afternoon of Monday, August 15tli, 1892, under a broiling sun, 
I set out from Safed, with two attendants, viz., Mohammed el Khudra, 
a man of some reputation in that mountain city, who was supremely 
satisfied as to his own abilities to act as guide, philosopher, and friend ; 
and Abdullah, a youthful mukary, who bestowed all my goods for the 
journey on a rather lean-looking kedls/i, planting himself on the top of 
all, and sang, swore, and whistled the day in and the day out again : a 
liapp}-hearted lad, but, withal, in mortal dread of Chirkas (Circassian), 
Bedawy, and Druze, and when in their neighbourhood, ever trembling 
for the day that never came. Heading eastward, winding along through 
the groves of ancient olives that shade the northern steeps, we left the 
castle hill behind us, lying like a mighty mastitf in rej^ose, clear cut in 
white against the dark jmrple of the Jermuk range beyond. Passing 
between the two beautifully-rounded grassy hills that gviard the Damascus 
road, just where it reaches its greatest height, we plunged down the swift 
and narrow descent, with high precipitous clitt's on either hand, into the 
flat lands of the Upper Jordan valley. Eed-legged partridges, like their 
more sober cousins at home, always nearest when the gun is furthest, 
literally swarmed over the grey crags to the right ; impenetrable hedges 
of prickly ]>ear fenced the tortuous a])proaches to the village on the 
left, while women and dirty chihlren made believe to wash, puddling 
in the little stream that gurgled down the glen. In pleasing contrast 
with the monotonous brown of the surrounding country, the gardens, 
fruit trees, and young jjlantations of Ja'uneh, the Jewish colony, seemed 
to fall like a spreading cascade of emerald from the rocky side of Jebel 

Hot and shelterless are the broad stretches in the Crhor, maiked here 
and there by the dark brown i-oofs of the Arabian " houses of hair," and 
i.>y the groups of white Hecks, that mark tlie presence of the shepherd 

To face paige 60. 



•& ■' ji 

•^.j^TcV fl Pari, 



.^t>r er Rukkad^JQ„j„^^ 

^ el Mai ^ o,l,M:Y^y 

amirrutl /.-'v\' . ^^' 


Anm ex. ZeUunv 






Ikl- Mtn.uiS . „ ZTTrrf 




: \ 

OAIiatma ■\y'!'»«««'a<' Q 7 ^ , , 

eOvThaiy [soAojC-ftloNVSiAS ? '^^ 





i.f Hal' at el Mefrak 


'"""-- ciBoxrtdi, 


1 " ■ 




\6T '■ 

Lnvn el Jamdx/ 



MiuhUdiUraj r ^ ^ ^■^' 

Sketch Map 

Shewing the Routes 
Travelled by the Rev° W Ewing 

Routes. Ajrril 1830. 

._ MajrcK1831 . 

Au^'k 1892. 


i>^:j fl-^es ro Miles 

Botuidary afth.€/ frovaice, cf SyrtM' & A'ohva^ 706 A.B. 2D6 A.D. 
after 29S^I). 

Vinajil BiooUe,D*vA?:onlith 


and his gentle cliarge. Just over the brown knolls to northwai'd we 
catch glimpses of sunlight sparkling on the " Waters of Merom" ; beyond 
the long marshland, haunt of buffalo and boar, and alive with water 
fowl, both great and small, rise the sombre heights of the Jauhui, 
culminating in the gleaming shoulders of the mighty Hermon. 

Riding in the burning sun, few things help better to beguile the time 
than the tales in which the Arab soul delights, and in the relating of 
which he excels. I have often been amused and interested to see with 
what eagerness a crowd of Arabs will gather to hear a story for the 
Iiundredth time, told by a master of the art. Men get a reputation for 
telling one story well, even as among ourselves the fame of a great singer 
is often chiefly due to the manner in which he sings one song. I asked 
Mohammed for a tale, and the readj^ tongue at once responded, with not 
one, but many, all racy of the soil we trod ; for was it not just here that 
a Christian mukary returning from Damascus, overpowered with fatigue, 
had lain down to rest on this soft bank under the shady thorns, and in 
the gloom of swift-falling night, had fallen a prey to the devouring 
hyena ? And not much further on, had he not himself only just escajied 
with his life from the jaws of bear, boar, or he knew not what thing of 
horror, in the darkness, all owing to the agility of the fine horse he rode ? 
These are but the kernels of his tales : Avrought out with all the wealth 
of Oriental fancy, they lasted long. 

Long strings of camels, returning from Acre, whither they had carried 
the golden riches of the Hauran, with drowsy riders rocking on their 
backs, swung contemptuously past on their way to the fords, some distance 
south of the Jisr Bendt Fa'hlb. ♦ 

It was after sunset when we reached the bridge. Fed by liis mighty 
spi'ings the Jordan maintains a steady flow even at this advanced season ; 
dark breadths of moving waters pass between the piers and under the 
arches, swirl round in foam-capped eddies, then break off" in swift descent, 
between evergreen banks of waving oleander. In the hush of night the 
river's i-ush fills all the valley with a pleasant sound. 

"We turned northward towards a makhdda or ford, between thebridore 
and Lake IIMeh, where, near some Arab tents where we intended to 
sleep, we hoped to effect a crossing. Here my guide's local knowledge 
was invaluable. Coming opjjosite a rounded hill to the left we bore down 
upon the river, across the intervening meadow. The night was cloud- 
less, and from the moonless sky the stars streamed down their fullest 
splendour. The deej^ water here flowed softly, tall, spectral weeds waving 
gently in the night breeze. JVIohammed pulled uj) on the river's brink 
and called " 'Isa, 'Isa," in a voice hardly above a whisper. Immediately 
on the opposite bank, in the dim light, a shadowy form appeared, and the 
owner of a voice peculiarly soft for a Bedawy, agreed to meet us at the 
makhdda and conduct us safely over. As we rode onward Mohammed 
explained tbat '7sa, the chief of the local Arabs, was sharik, or partner 
of his own, who often came to Safed on business, and who would be sure 
to stretch a point to help us. Just below a slight fall the river widens 


into a broad pool, a bush}' peninsula from the other side reaching well 
into the middle. Above the reeds beyond, we could see the top of the 
soldier's tent, for here a guard was set ; but the servant of the Sultan 
was asleep ! Well up to the waist in the dark water, 'Isa's dusky figure 
approached to meet us. The bridles were removed from the horses' 
mouths ; having tied up my saddle bags as high as jjossible, and instructed 
me to sit tailor-wise on the top of the saddle, 'Isa grasped the halter, 
and led my steed into tlie water. After many windings, avoiding 
treacherous holes in the river's bed, the flood sometimes threatening to 
carry us off bodily, at last he conducted us safely to the further bank. 
While waiting for my companions, the soldier, roused from slumber, 
shivering in the night air, accosted me with a few trembling oaths. My 
dress puzzled him ; finally he became exceedingly deferential, supposing 
me to be a Basha. In this delusion he was assiduously encouraged by 
the ingenuous Mohammed ; and forthwith we took our way to the 
encampment of 'Isa — only a few straggling tents on a bare knoll, about a. 
hundred yards from the river. 

The women, disturbed at midnight, got up with great good nature, 
collected sti'aw and dry sticks for a fire, whose leaping flame soon shed 
a comfortable radiance over the faces of sheep and oxen that lay won- 
deringly around. ]\Iilk was brought and warmed ; this, with the coarse 
bread of the Beduw and honey, made a meal by no means to be despised. 

In mid-stream 'Abdullah's kedlsh had fallen, giving the poor fellow an 
involuntary bath at a most inconvenient hour. As he had no change of 
apparel, his case was all the more piteous ; but by dint of using the 
fire in a thoroughly original fashion, he was in a fairly presentable case 
when the hour for riding arrived. Accustomed to all kinds of hardship 
these sturdy men of the road make light of troubles that would over- 
whelm us. One thing grieved him — the sugar had got wet, and not all 
the care he lavished on it could jorevent it from crumbling and melting 
before his eyes. 

The horses were tethered beside us. Stretching a cloak on the ground, 
I lay down to rest awhile, imder the silent stars. The last thing I 
remember was the firelight on the features of an eager crov/d, to whom 
Mohammed was retailing the news of the world, with evident relish of 
his own eloquence. 

Before daybreak we were astir again. 

As we climbed the hills to eastward in the growing light of the 
morning, a magnificent view was obtained of Lake Hlileh and its pic- 
turesque surroundings. As we rose higher the inequalities of the plain 
seemed to be flattened out, and Arab tent and thi-eshing floor were clearly 
seen. Close by the mouth of the river the red-tile roofs of the new 
Jewish colony stood boldly out amidst incipient gardens and orchards. 
The lake itself lay like a sheet of silver, sending off between emerald 
banks, the shining thread of the Jordan. Over the marshes in the valley 
northward hung thick masses of whitish vapour, through openings in 
which we could see the green of the reeds, and patches of gleaming water. 


The serried heights of the Avestern mountains, stretching northward to 
the darker peaks of Lebanon antl southwai-d to the brow overlooking 
the Sea of GaUlee, smiled softly to the sunrise, while the snow that 
still lay in the furrows that plough the sides of Great Hermon, responded 
to the sun with flashing light, hardly less brilliant than his own. 

In the swift dawn of the Eastern day we were already far along the 
path which follows closely the line of the old Eoman road, leading from 
the bridge, by way of Kuneiteruli and >S'a' sa\ to Damascus ; the series of 
extinct volcanoes, the Jaulan hills, rising in front ; the undulating- 
plateau, torn by many a deep winding wady, and winter watercourse 
reaching to the borders of Gilead ; over the western rim of this plateau 
the mighty hollow of the (Jhor, the blue waters of Galilee reposing in 
calm beauty between the opposing heights : westward rose the mountains 
of Zebulon and Naphtali, passing southward into the gentle hiUs around 
Xazareth ; Tabor, Little Hermon, and Gilboa, and beyond the great 
plain of Esdraelon, the highlands of Samaria. 

From some of the higher points the scene presented was one of great 
interest. The rolling uplands of the Jaulan, as far as the eye could 
reach, seemed to be litei'ally alive with camels. These ]3atient ships of 
the desert, of all sorts and sizes, great and small, young and old, huge 
shaggy patriarchs, moving with unspeakable dignity, and light, sportive, 
gambolling calves, swarmed on every hand. Here, in this deep hollow, 
a regiment has taken shelter from the heat of the advancing sun ; yonder, 
a battalion crowds among the sweet grass that surrounds the spring, 
hustling and jostling each other like a mob at the door of a theatre ; 
wherever pasture, however meagre, was to be found, the brown hills wei'e 
dotted with their yellow forms. Tall columns of blue smoke, rising 
gracefully in the quiet morning, marked the encami^meuts of their 
masters. The burning suns had long since destroyed the scanty vegetation 
of the desert. These herds of camels form almost the entire wealth of 
the wandering 'Arab. To uplands, cool and breezy compared with 
the vast solitudes of sand, where " much grass " is still to be found in 
the deeper valleys, they are fain to come with the growing heat of 
summer. Thus it has been from time immemorial ; thus it seems likely to 
be for many a year to come. This annual overflow of the tides of barbarism 
from the far East sets dead against the efforts of incipient civilisation, 
indicated by an occasional patch of maize or field of wheat amid sur- 
rounding desolation. I asked M'hy no attenii:)t was made by the Govern- 
ment to put an end to it. The explanation was that the Beduw pay to 
the Government an annual tax of one mejedie per head of camel. This 
tribute, punctually delivered, represents a considerable portion of the 
revenue of the country ; so there is a very natural unwillingness to 
interfere with it. 

Reaching a slight eminence we found the valley before us filled witli 
the dark spreading tents of the children of the East. 'Abdullah visibly 
quailed at the sight of this great portable city, with crowds of uncanny- 
looking inhabitants moving about in its temporary streets. Eiding 


f<n-ward, however, we passed tliroiigh their midst, meeting with nothing 
hut civility and courtly Arab salutations at their hands, coupled witii 
iuvitatious to turn aside and spend the day with them. Eough enough 
as to exterior they certainly were, but a kindliness showed through their 
genial offers of hospitality, the sincerity of which no stranger could 

We pressed on until we reached the tumble-down village of McCarah. 
A coijious fountain springs by the wayside, from under the ruins of an 
old building. Here we were tempted to rest. My morning ablutions 
were an object of absorbing interest to the motley grouj) of villagers 
who swiftly gathered to scrutinise the travellers. A frugal breakfast 
of bread and milk, which the tatterdemalions readily brought us, 
thorouo-hly refreshed us. While we were engaged with this, we found 
the poor people were absolutely bubbling over with news, and greatly 
rejoiced to tind fresh ears to listen to their story. 

The Turks have given a home in this district to numbers of free- 
spirited Circassians who left their native mountains some years ago 
in order to live under a Mohammedan government. One of their 
strongest settlements in these parts is at Kuneiterali, on the Damascus 
road, about fifteen miles from Jisr Dendt Fa'k/tb. Bringing with them 
habits of industry, and some knowledge of agriculture, they soon 
changed the aspect of the country around their new home. They build 
<1 vices, plant hedges, make roads, prepare watercourses for irrigation : 
with wheeled vehicles, and improved implements of husbandry, they 
speedily secure returns from the soil, amazing to the ancient ignorant 
and indolent inhabitants. But unless the results of their labours were 
secured to them by some means against the troops of marauders that 
prowl around, they, too, might grow heartless and give up the hopeless 
struggle. The ordinary Fellah trembles at the approach of the Arab, 
and all that he hath he would gladly give to the wild man of the 
desert for sweet life's sake. He has little reason to labour hard simply 
to feed the robber. But the Circassian knows nothing of trembling, 
whoever approaches. They are trained to arms from their youth. Their 
weapons ai-e vastly sui)erior to those of the Arab ; and every man of 
them is a dead shot with the rifle. They have established for themselves 
a reputation for pei'fect fearlessness ; determined courage in conflict, and 
relentless severity in exacting vengeance when injured. Men think 
twice before attacking them. Even the Bedawy, from of old the terror of 
these lands, is learning to acknowledge the prowess of the Circassian, 
and to bend his proud spirit in the presence of his superior. 

Some little time before our visit, the Arabs of the great tribe of Wald 
\ll>/, coming westward, had chosen to assert their ancient riglits and 
privileges in the matter of pasture, over the whole of these wide- 
stretching domains. They resented the intrusion of the Circassians, 
whom they regarded os interloj)ers ; the cultivated fields represented 
so much land simi)ly stolen from them. To mark their sense of the 
injustice thus done them, they took two of the Circassians, whom they 


surprised alone and unprotected, and stained with their life-blood the 
soil which they and their fellows had appropriated. Tiiere the lex 
talionis is in full force. The Circassians were at once on the alert, and 
on the very nii^dit before our arrival six of the Arabs had paid with 
their lives for the cruel folly of their tribesmen. This, the villagers 
assured us, had fired the wrath of the Bednw almost to frenzy ; the 
country was practically in a state of war, which rendered it extremely 
unsafe for travellers. 

Notwithstanding friendly remonstrances, we remounted and rode on ; 
turning soon, we pursued our course in a south-easterly direction. Passing 
many enormous herds of camels, we saw, in the head of a broad valley, 
the largest Arab encampment I have ever seen. It was a veritable city 
of goats' hair ; and the hum of its busy life reached us in the distance. 
In the open spaces before the tents women were churning butter, 
swinging energetically the milk-filled skin between the legs of the tripod; 
others were making flour, grinding the wheat between two circular stones, 
the upper of which was turned by means of a wooden handle inserted 
near the edge, the grain being put in through an aperture in the centre ; 
others, again, were transforming the flour into great sheets of bread ; 
while the music of mortar and pestle might be heard from some shady 
tent, where the coffee-loving Sheikh would provide a cup of the coveted 
beverage for his friends. 

Certain green-coloured tents, of the shapes commonly used by travellers, 
stimulated a natural curiosity. They turned out to be the " shops " of 
merchants from Damascus, who make it their business to supply the 
Ai\ab with such luxuries as they can tempt him to purchai^e. Coffee and 
tobacco, which is used almost exclusively in the form of cigarettes, have 
now become really a necessity. Tea is a luxury pretty well beyond their 
reach ; a pocket-mirror, however indifferent the glass, is a treasure. 
These merchants take payment in kind, the Arabs not being over flush of 
cash ; samn, or clarified butter, is the chief article of commerce. Troops 
of donkeys, with great sweating skins of samn on their backs, may be 
seen constantly during this season, heading towards the cities, where the 
merchants realise a splendid profit. This can hardly be grudged to men 
who, going forth unprotected into the wilderness, trusting themselves 
absolutely in the hands of the barbarians, certainly put their possession 
of courage beyond all question. 

As we continued our journey Mohammed entertained me with the 
story of an adventure which befell him here in his youthful days. He 
was then Kawass to the French Consul in Safed, and rode his beautiful 
grey mare. The Arabs have always a keen eye for a good horse. 
Suddenly he was set upon by five horsemen, and but for the almost 
supernatural performances of that magnificent grey he must inevitably 
have perished. I am disposed to think there was some truth in this 
story, for it contained fewer oaths than usual, and concluded with one of 
the most fervent el hamdulillalts I ever heard him utter. 

It was approaching mid-day when the hill of Er Ruzaniyeh hove in 



sight, the black ruins which cover its summit looking very black in the 
joerpendicular rays. To the east lay a large encampment, the tents being 
ranged in a double row running from noi'tli to south. The dwelling of 
the Sheikh was sufficiently indicated by its size, covering about four times 
as much ground as those of his subordinates. Among the Arabs a man's 
dignity is frequently expressed by the number of 'A iranud, literally 
" columns," but in reality wooden jioles, required to support his 

jt.jlJl i." -- ^^ — " house of hair." One object in having a larger tent is to 

provide accommodation for strangers, whom the hospitable soul of the 
Arab can hardly endure to see passing his tent-door. They love to be 

known as men jL-cJl .J^^ — "of much ashes" — the heap of ashes by 

his " house " affording a fair index to the extent of the owner's 

The encampment was one of Turkomt^n Arabs, presided over by the 
good Sheikh Mustapha, a man of portly presence and genial manner. 
With great heartiness he bade us welcome under his roof, adding the 

usual formula in addressing me, cJ^Iaj ^o — "my house is yours." 

We found that in a like liberal sjiirit he had just assured a number of 
mukaiies that his house was theirs, and in truly oriental fashion they had 
taken possession, stretching themselves under his spreading cloth of hair 
during the great heat of the day. They cheerfully made room for the 
new comers, and after some eight hours in the saddle we were glad enough 
to rest awhile, especially as the generous Mustapha at once provided us 
with delicious fresh milk. Just before di'opping off for an hour's sleep, 
I heard my veracious attendant, Mohammed, beginning a tale of his 
master's greatness and dignity, which grew to enormous proportions 
before we had travelled far, in the telling of which, especially as it 
developed in his skilful hands, he seemed to find a keen delight. I 
remonstrated, but in vain. My business was to see the country, going 
whei-e I would ; but all minor matters of management must be left to 

him. I had to learn to answer to the title i^jj — " Baik," a dignity 
which clave to me in the wilds of barbarism, but deserted me on our 
return to civilisation ! By and bye, having heard it a few times, I knew 
when the tale was coming. A peculiar clearing of the throat, a direct 

address to the man of most consequence in the company, (jJ^joJ^ jCjkJw; \j 

— "O my master, the Baik " — forthwith I discreetly made my escape, to 
find invariably on my return a new deference in the manner of all ! 

The mnkaries were hearty fellows, bound for Safed, and they willingly 
agi'eed to carry thither letters for my friends. These written and 
despatched, we listened to the entreaties of Sheikh Mustapha, and 
resolved to spend the night with him. I wandered among the houses on 
the hill, finding many fragments, bits of carved stones, broken columns 
and old lintels, but no inscriptions to tell of their past. These fragments 


are built into the walls of the modern huts, which are used siraply as 
shelters for the cattle ; their masters prefer the open wholesomeness of 
the tent. 

Crownintr the hill which bounded onr vision eastward stood Er 
Rmnsanhjeh. Following Mustapha's dii'ections we set out to spend the 
afternoon among the ruins there. These have been fully described in 
Mr. Schumacher's book on the Jaulan. While we were yet in the midst 
of the stony waste we were agreeably surprised to meet two Safed 
acquaintances who had come hither to do business among the Arabs. 
They rode with us to the base of the hill, then turned southward to a few 
])Oor looking tents, the occupants of which were to sell them samn. 

On oar return we saw the spot where a poor Bedawy had lost his life, 
a few tatters of his garments, torn in the struggle, still lying about. 
That same night, not far from the same place, a Circassian bullet laid 
another wanderer low. Descending into Wady Ghadir en Nulias near by 
a spring we found a huge dolmen, the top stone measured roughly 
8 feet by 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 3 inches. The Beduw call these rude 
monuments of the dim past sometimes Knhitr el AwwaUn — the graves <>f 
the ancient inhabitants ; sometimes KuhAr Beni Israll — the graves of the 
children of Israel, to whom, through all the desert, is attributed great 
personal strength and irresistible prowess in wai\ 

{To he continued.) 

Br A. G. Wright, Esq. 

I. — Formation of the Provinces of Syria and Arabia. 

It was in the summer of 64 B.C. that Pompey completed his victorious 
Eastern campaign by entering Syria, and at once annexing it as a Roman 
province.' The district over which he established the authority of Rome 
extended, roughly speaking, from the Upper Euphrates and the Gulf of 
Issus to Egypt and the Arabian desert, but its exact boundaries are 
uncertain ; this is due to the fact that after dethroning Antiochus, the last 
of the Seleucid monarchs, Pompey parcelled out the land so that it was 
in part merged in large city districts and in ])art left in the hands of 
native rulers, subject to Rome, whose continual embroilments caused 
uncertainty of the exact line of frontier. 

The Syrian nationality and language extended only as far south as 
Damascus ; to the east and south-east of that city were the Ai-abs, to the 
south the Jews, while the west was occupied by the Phoenicians. In the 

' Pint., Pouip., 39 ; App., Syria, 49,70. 

E 2 


Syrian, Phoenician, and Judaean States, however, there was a large number of 
Greek towns which had been founded as a rule under the Seleucid dynasty. 
A political difference existed in the province in addition to this national 
one, since the southern part had been for a considerable time under the 
dominion of the Ptolemies, while the northern part was under that of the 
Seleucids. It is to this difference of empire that the twofold division of 
the province of Syria is due. The year 152 b.c. was followed by the 
protracted wars of the Seleucids, which resulted in the breaking up of the 
whole territory. For the Maccabpeans not only recovered their freedom, 
but also obtained a number of CVjele Syrian towns, and in many j)laces the 
larger cities established their independence, while smaller dynasties sprung 
lip in all quarters. 

It was according to these divisions of the country into districts depend- 
ing on large towns situated in them, that Pompey organised the new 
])rovince. The following are known to have been among these towns, 
either from direct authority, or from their use of the year 64 B.C. as the 
])roviDcial era : — 

In Upper Syria — 


Seleucia in Pieria. 





Bercea (modern Alep). 

Epiphania (modem Hemath). 



On the Phoenician coast — 






On the Samarian and Philistine coast — 

Turris Stratonis (Ceesarea). 








' Elded by Dionjsius. 


In Coele Syria — 
In the Decapolis — 

Laodicea ad Libanum. 

Hippos (or ^ntiocliia ad Hippuni). 


Abila Leucas. 





Gerasa (or Antiocliia on the Chrysoroas). 

Philadelphia . 

District of Damascus. 

In the last century before Christ this district was ruled from Petra, 
the seat of an Arabian (Nabattean) dynasty, to whom the people of 
Damascus had voluntarily submitted through dread of Ptolemaeus of 
Chalcis. Six monarchs of this family reigned over the district of 
Damascus, in the following order : — 

(1) Harethath (Aretas Philhellen), 95-50 b.c.» 

(2) Maliku (Malchus or Malichus), 50-28 B.C. 

(3) Obodas, 30-7 B.C. 

(4) Harethath Philodemus (Aretas II), 7 B.C.-40 a.d.- 

(5) Maliku (Malchus), 40-75 A.D.* 

(6) Dabel (Zabelus), 75-106 a.d. 

These kings, however, were merely nominal rulers, being subject and 
tributary to Rome. In the year 106 a.d., when the province of Arabia 
Patrsea was formed, Damascus was placed under direct Roman authority, 
and was united to the pro\'ince of Syria. 

District of Judcea. 

Judaea formed part of the province of Syria as organized by Pompey 
in 63 B.C. The Maccabtean dynasty, under whose dominion it had been, 
ended in the person of Aristobulus, whom Pompeius brought to Rome 
after the capture of Jerusalem, and exhibited in his triumph. Hyrcanus, 
the brother of this monarchy was left in Judsea as dpxiepevi kcu iOvnpxqs, a 
position which combined both sacerdotal and judicial powers, and which 
was afterwards confirmed by Csesar. The organisation of Judasa was 
fashioned on a plan similar to that of the whole province of Syria.* In 

^ Came into possession of Damascus iu 85 B.C. 
' His daughter was married to the tetrarch Herodes Antipas. 
^ Son of the former. He foiight iu the army of Vespasian against the Jews. 
(See Joseph., Bell. Jud., 3, 4, 2.) 
•■ See p. 68. 


the year 40 B.C. an attempt was made to restore the fallen monarchy. 
Antigonus, the last of the royal house, and son of the dethroned Aristo- 
bulus, in (iompany with the Parthians, whose aid he had obtained, made 
an attempt to overthrow Hyrcanns and place himself on the throne. At 
first his efforts proved successful, but in 39 B.C. Ventidius drove the 
Parthians from Judaea and in the following year Sosius, the legatus of 
Antonius, recaptured the whole district and put Antigonus to death. On 
the death of Hyrcanus, Antonius and Octavian entrusted the kingdom to 
the Idumoean Herodes, surnamed the Great, and a legion was quartered 
for his support in Jerusalem. The soldiers took the oath both to Ciesar 
as general and to tJie king. Herodes was responsible to Pome for the 
payment of the tribute and the disposition of the auxiliaries. His position 
was, in reality, that of a procurator (cVtVpoTros) of the Emperor with the 
title of king. 

Herodes died in 4 B.C., leaving five sons, among three of whom the 
kingdom was apportioned. None of them, however, assumed the title of 

(a) Ai'chelaus, with the title of (dvcipxrjs, held the chief division, 
namely, Judaea and the frontier districts in the north and south, 
Samaria and Idumeea. An exception was made in the case of the Greek 
towns Gaza, Gadara, and Hippos, which were hereafter merged in the 
pi-ovince of Syria. In the year 6 a.d. Archelaus was dethroned by 
Augustus on his brother's accusation, and banished to Vienna. His 
territory was taken over by the Emperor's legatus in Syria, Publius 
Sulpicius Quirinius, and was henceforward directly administered by a 
procurator cum jure gladii, wlio was subordinate to the governor of Syria, 
and bound to render him military assistance when required. From 6 a.d. 
till 41 A.D. the following procui-atores held office : — 

1. Coponius, 6 a.d. 

2. M. Ambivius, 10 a.d. 

3. Annius Pvifus, 13 a.d. 

4. Valerius Gratus, 15 A.D.-26 a.d. 

5. Pontius Pilatus, 26 A.D.-35 a.d. 

6. Marcellus, 35 a.d. 

7. Maryllus, 38 A.D.-41 a.d. 

(/3) The north-east district, including Trachonitis, Auranitis, Batana;a, 
Gaulonitisand the Itunei,was given to Philippus with the title of rerpupxv^- 
This territory formed the poorest stretch of land in the whole district. 
The town of Caesarea Paneas was built by this ruler, and dates from the 
year 3 B.C. (eros r^s TroXewj). 

After his death, in 34 a.d., his empire was incorporated in the province 
of Syria. 

(y) Galilsea which, according to Josephus, contained 204 towns, and 
Persea, fell to Herodes Antipas, who ruled as rtrpdpxrjs from 4 b.c. till 
39 A.D., and was banished in the last year of Caligula's reign to 


Some years later these three districts were reunited. Herod the 
Great, besides the three sons ah-eady mentioned, left other two : Antipater 
and Aristolniliis. The son of Aristobulus, Herodes Agrippa, or as he is 
officially named, M. Julius Agrippa, became acquainted with Caligula at 
Rome, and obtained from him in the year 37 a.d. the tetrarchy of Philip- 
pus. This was followed by his acquisition of the tetrarchy of Herodes 
Antipas in 39 a.d,, and finally, through favour of the Emperor Claudius, of 
Judtea and Samaria in 41 a.d. His brother Herodes obtained the kingdom 
of Cbalcis. In this way the whole empire of Herodes the Great was 
again administered by a single ruler. Agrippa was succeeded on his 
death, in 44 a.d., by his son Herodes Agrip2)a II, also called Marcus 
Agrippa who, owing to his extreme youth, was not invested with his 
father's tetrarchy,' but in 49 a.d. received the district of Chalcis which 
his uncle had had. Then four years later he received from Claudius the 
tetrarchy of Philippus with the title of king, and finally in 55 a.d. obtained, 
from Nero, Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilaea, and Julias in Peraea. 

Agrippa II fought on the side of Pome in the Jewish war, receiving a 
wound at Gamala. Coins of his reign are found dating as far as 95 a.d., 
but his death took place in the year 100 a.d. He was the last king of 
Jewish race. 


In the year 105 a.d., Trajan, in the person of Cornelius Palma,^ the 
governor of Syria, brought under the sway of Rome the tract of land 
extending east of Palestine to the Red Sea, and including the towns of 
Bostra in the north, and Petra in the south.^ The district thus annexed 
formed the province of Arabia in which, after that time, a provincial era 
was common, the first year of which began with the 22nd March, 

106 A.D." 

In the time of Hadrian, the town of Petra, the old residence of the 
Nabataean monarchs,^ from which the country," and later the province,^ 
took the name of Arabia Petnea, had the title 'Abpiavh Hirpa firjrpoTro^is 
on its coins ; but afterwards Bostra alone was the residence of thf 
governor of the province, and the headquarters of the legio III Cyrenaica.* 

' Hence the double date found on ours, No. 46, Gr. Smith, " Critical Keview," 
January, 1892. 

2 (Die. Cass., G8, 14.) 

^ (Ammian 14, 8, 13, huic [Palaestinae] Arabia est conserta Hsec 

quoque civitates liabet inter oppida quoedam ingentes Bostram at Gerasani atque 

* Usually expressed as stoq Trig sTrapx'*'*?; see ours Nos. 60, 66, V9, 85, Sec. 

* (See p.' 69). 

* (>'/ 'A()a$ia t) tv 'n.irp<f ; Dioscorides, De Mat. Med., 1, 91.) 

' {'Apa^ia Uerpaia; Ptolem., 5, 17 ; >} Kara. Ttjv Tlirpai' 'Apafiia; Agatb. 
Geog., 2, 6.) 

8 ride Wadd., 1927, 1933, 1942, 1944, 1945, &c., and ours, Nos. 110, 131, 
162, &c. 


This town must have received many other marks of favour from Trajan 
since it called itself via Tpaiavlj Boorpa : under Severus it was a Roman 
colony, and under Philippus had even the rank of a metropolis.^ 

In addition to these towns must he mentioned Adraa (el Dera'ah) and 
Philippopolis,- the latter of which Philippus Arabs raised between 247 and 
249 A.D. to the status of a town,^ and also made a Roman colony. 

The province was under the control of a Legatus August! pro Prtetore 
of prastorian rank,* and an im])erial procurator.* About the year 295 a.d. 
it received an addition in the shape of the districts of Auranitis, Batanea, 
and Trachonitis, and, probably, at the same time, two towns of the 
Decapolis, Gerasa and Philadelphia.^ 

In the fifth century Arabia was divided into two parts, Bostra being 
the capital of the northern division, and Petra that of the southern, 
which took the name of Paloestiua Salutaris, or Palajstina Tertia.' A 
warm discussion, however, has arisen as to the date of the division, 
owing to the fact that the Verona list* mentions the new province as 
Arabia Augusta Libanensis.-' Kuhn argues that this must be treated as 
a later interi)olation, and i)laces the se]3aration of Pahestina Tertia from 
Arabia iu the last years of the fourth or the first years of the fifth 
century.'" (Jzwalina, on the other hand, considers that wlien the districts 
of Auranitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis were added to Arabia, the northern 
part, with Bostra as capital, received the distinguishing title of Arabia 
Augusta Libanensis, while the southern part, of which Petra was the 
head, was still called simply Arabia. Then after the fourth century, when 
the southern part took the title of Palasstiua, the name Arbia Augusta 

1 Vide V/' add., 1907, notes. 

2 Aur. Vict., Caes., 28. 

•■' In thin period falls the troc irp'orov Tjyt,' iroA-fwc ; ride Wadd., 2072. 
■' Most of the governors we know of ruled Arabia as consules designati ; of. 
Wiidd., 1944, 1945, 1950. 

5 J'ide Wadd., 1794. 

6 Ammiau, 14, 8, 13, quoted above. Gerasa belonged during the reigns of 
Trajan and Antoninus Pius to tlie province of Syria {vide Wadd., 1722) ; 
Pliilailelphia had on its coins even under Alexander Severus the inscription 

<|>IAAAEA<3)EnN KOIAHC CYPIAC ^^^^ PtoUmy places both 

towns in Syria, 5, 15, 23. For discussion of this question see pp. 76, 77. 

7 Cf. Hieroel., p. 721, and Procop de Aedif., 5, 8. The Not. Dign. Or., p. 9, 
mentions under the fifteen Dioceses of the West, one Arabia and tJiree 
Palffistinffi, namely, Palffistina, Pala;stina Salutaris, and Pala-stina Secunda. 
Also in an ordinance of the year 409 a.d. (Cod. Theotl., 7, 4, 30), " per primam 
secundam ac tertiam Palffistinam." 

8 The words of the Verona list are. " Arabia item Arabia Augusta 

9 (The preceding historical sketch is adapted from Marquardt's " Eouiische 
Staats-verwaltung," Vol. I^ ; Berlin, 1881.) 

i» Kuhn, p. 715 ; also pp. 700, 701, " Neuen Jahrb. f. Philol. u. Padag. ; 
Berlin, 1877. 


Libanensis became superfluous, and the northern part was simply called 

Bormann considers that the words " item Arabia " are an interpolation, 
and that besides the province of Augusta Libanensis, which lie identifies 
with Phoenice Libani, there was only one province of Arabia.'' 

Marquartlt at first (followed by Nijldeke), punctuating as Bormann, 
considered tliat there were three provinces, viz., two provinces of Arabia 
and the province of Augusta Libanensis, which he also identified with 
Phoenice Libani.' But later, Marquardt seeing that there was no support 
for this view from any other source, gave it up, and adopted the view of 

Von Rhoden considers " item Arabia " a meaningless addition of the 
scribe, or " Augusta Libanensis " a later interpolation. ^ 

Mommsen recognized in the words two provinces, one province of 
Arabia, and one province of Arabia Augusta LiV)anensis, which he took 
to be not only the province which had Bostra as it capital, bvit also 
" Phoenice Libaui," which was formed in the year 400 a.d.^ 

Ohnesorge holds that when the provinces of the East were reorganized 
by Diocletian, and the addition made to Arabia about 295 A.D., the newly 
added part, and in fact the whole exst and north-east district, was called 
like the rest, Arabia, but afterwards, owing to its personal connection with 
the Emperor, received the title Arabia Augusta Libanensis. Under Con- 
stantiue it was called PaUestina Salutaris, and later, on the division of 
Syria Palaestina, it had the title Palaestina Tertia.^ 

II. — The Boundary Lines of Syria and Arabia. 

As has been already explained in the historical sketch of these two 
provinces, their boundary lines were quite difi'erent during the two periods 
106 a.d. — 295 A.D., and from 295 a.d. onwards.^ From lOtJ a.d. till 295 A.D. 
the boundary line of Syria and Arabia was that which was formed when 
Cornelius Palma, the legatus of Trajan, annexed the new province of 
Arabia in 106 a.d. But when in 295 a.d.^ the districts of Auranitis and 

• "Ueber das Verzeiclinis der Eom. Prov von. J. 297;" Wesel, 1881, 

' " De Sjrise Provincise Romanse partibus ;" Diss. luaug. ; Perlin, 1SC5, 
p. 27 ff. 

^ ilarquardt, I, p. 268. 

■* Idem, I-, p. 434. 

'" " De Palajstina et Arabia," Inaug. Diss. ; Berlin, 1885. 

" " Verzeichnis der Rom. Prov., Aufgesetzt um 297;" Abhandl. d. K. Akad. 
d. Wiss., Berlin, 1862. 

' " Die Roraische Provinz-liste von 297," Tail I ; Dinsburg, 1889. 

* See p. 72. 

^ This date can be fixed only approximately, but 295 A.D. or 297 A.D. is 
probably correct. See, however, \,. 77. 


Ganlanitis were taken from the province of Syria and incorporated in that 
of Arabia, the boundary line must have been correspondingly altered. 
Except in the case of a very few places which we know from other sources,' 
to have been in one or the other province at a certain time, there is no 
means of fixing these two lines except by consideration of the inscriptions 
found throughout the districts. 

These inscriptions give us a clue by the use of different methods of 
dating the year in which they were inscribed. We find that places which 
were in Syria dated by the current year of the rulintr emperor's reign, 
while places in Arabia used the provincial era, viz., 106 a.d., or, as it is 
commonly called, the era of Bostra, since Bostra was the capital of the 
new province. To the north the era of Damascus, or the Seleucid era 
(312 B.C.), was used, but only two inscrijjtions in the district under con- 
sideration have their dales so reckoned. ^ The province to which a town 
belonged at any time may thus be ascertained, provided the inscriptions 
found in it cover a sufficient period to furnish proper evidence. 

Thus a place which was in the province of Syria from its foundation 
till the year 295 a.d. can be known by its inscriptions dating by the 
reigning emperors during that period. If the dates thus reckoned 
extend past 295 a.d., then such a place cannot have been transferred to 
the province of Arabia when the addition was made to it in 295 a.d., but 
must have still remained in Syria. If, on the other hand, the date is 
reckoned by the year of the reigning emperor until 295 a.d., and after- 
wards by the era of Bostra, we may conclude that the town was in Syria 
till 295 A.D., and was then transferred to Arabia. Lastly, if a town dates 
its inscriptions botli before and after 295 a.d. by the era of Bostra, it must 
have been in Arabia from the formation of that province in 106 a.d. 

Now if all the towns in the district had inscriptions bearing dates 
which covered a long enough period to allow of their being judged by the 
above considerations, the task of finding the two boundary lines would be 
a comparatively easy one. But, unfortunately, this is not the case. While 
very many of the inscriptions have no date at all upon them, others which 
have dates belong only to such years as allow us to fix the position of 
the town during a particular period, and not during the whole time under 

From an examination of the inscriptions of Waddington in this district, 
together with those published here, the towns which yield inscriptions 
bearing dates may be thus classified : — 

' Among such plsices arc Pliilippopolis ; sec p. 76, and Dionysias. 
- These are Sahm el Jaulan (No. 6) and 'Akrabah (No. 30). 



(a) Those which use the provincial era from 106 a.d. onwai-ds. 



Sahwet el Kliudr 
Ajoun . . 
Salkhad .. 
'Orman .. 
Melah es Sarrar 
Kanaka . . 

Dates, a.d. 

139, 295, 355, 389, 538. 

171, 344, 305. 

272, 289, 263, 340, 309. 

252, 497, 322, 345, 351, 369, 377, 392, 601. 

152, 341, 358, 419, 251. 

164, 315, 411, 466, 644. 

See Wadd., 2070 e. 

See Wadd., 2070^. 


These must have been in the province Arabia from its formation. 

O) Those which use the provincial era only after 295 a.d. 


Dates, a.d. 




362, 414. 


343, 342, 350. 

Sumet el Barradan 


Meschquouq . . 


Harise . . 


Oum er Koumman 

364, 366, 468. 

El Muarraba . . 


El Hiyat 


El Hit 


Kherbet el Aradji 


El Malka 

397, 533. 

Busan . . 

322, 365, 386, 401, 341, 573, 


Saleh . . 

359, 426, 566. 





Kuteibe. . 


Naliite . . 

356, 385, 623. 

Doroa . . 


Deir Eyoub 


Nedjran. . 


Busr el Hariri . . 


Damet el Alyah 




(y) Those which date the year by reigning Emperor till 295 a.d. 


Dates, a.d. 



Reign of Agrippa I or II. 

Shuklia . . 

. • • ■ • • • ■ 





Inscription to Herod the Great. 
„ in time of Agrippa I. 


Inscriptions in honour of Antoninus. 
Caracalla and Geta. 

'Ahry .. 

96, 140, 169, 121, 155, and two inscrip- 
tions of reign of Commodus. 

Jerain . . 

r • . • • • 



. . 


Mismie . . 

162-169, 169, and inscriptions in honour 
of Commodus and Septimius Severus. 


• • • • • • - • 

69, 157, 233. 

Kliabab. . 

. . 


(8) Those which date by reigning Emperor till 295 a.d., and thereafter 
by the provincial era. 


Dates by Yeah of Empehor, 


Dates by Provincial Era, 


EI Mouschenef . . 

Inscription of reign 
Agrippa T, 171, 189 


335, 492. 

ElKufr .. 


321, 392, 583, 720, 350, 652. 

Canatha . . 

1 24, 170 

Harran . . 


. . 

397, 568. 


Inscriptions in honour 
Caracalla and Severus 


312, 515. 


69, 161 

• • 

326, 564. 

(e) There are certain places wliich cannot be included in any of the 
above lists, but must be examined separately : — 

1. Philippopolis. According to the general o])inion this town must 
have always been in Arabia, as it was founded in that province 
by Pliili])jms Arabs between 247-249 a.d. (see p. 72). Eckhel 
and Waddington identify it with the modern Shukhba (see 
Wadd., No. 2072) ; but if this is correct, it seems to lie outside 
the jjrobable bounds of Arabia before 295 a.d. Siiweida to the 


smith of Kimawat has also been suggested as a possible site, but 
is liable to the same objection. 'Orman, east of Salkhad, was 
proposed by Burckhardt as the site of Philippnpolis, an inscrip- 
tion having been found there on a monument erected by a 
BovXfvrijc ^tXiTTTrovTToXecof. The geographical position of 'Orman 
fits in with the course of the boundary lines, but Waddington 
objects to the identification on the grounds (1) that the inscrip- 
tion quoted, though found at 'Orman, may have come from some 
other place, as an exactly similar one was found by him at 
Schaqra ; (2) that the ruins at 'Ormftn are those of only a small 
town, while those at Shukhba are very extensive. 

2. Amra. An inscription (Wadd. No. 2081) found at this place 

sheds some light on the date of the addition of the districts of 
Trachonitis, Auranitis, &c., to Arabia by Diocletian. Waddington 
writes thus of it: — "The date of the inscription (295 a.d.) is 
important, inasmuch as it is the oldest example of the use of the 
era of Bostra which I have met with in the southern part of the 
Hauran. This district did not form part of the Nabataean 
kingdom nor of the first province of Arabia ; but in the great 
alteration of the province which took place in the time of 
Diocletian, Batanaea and Trachonitis were detached from the 
ancient province of Syria, and annexed to the new province of 
Arabia, which retained Bostra as its capital, but lost Petra and 
all the southern portion of the old Nabataean kingdom. The 
use of the era of Bostra at Amra in this inscription shows that 
the change had already taken place in 295 a.d." This places the 
date of the change earlier than 295 a.d. or 297 A.D., the generally 
accepted dates. 

3. Nemara. As no inscription from this place has any date, it is 

difficult to determine whether it lay in the ancient as well as in 
the new province of Arabia. 

4. Hebran. As the inscriptions here date indiscriminately by the 

year of the reigning Emperor or by the provincial era, the town 
must have lain on or near the border line of the old province of 

5. El Afineh. One inscription mentions Cornelius Palma, and must 

be of the date 104-108 a.d. The town apparentlj' was near the 
border of the old province of Arabia. 

6. Akrabah dates in 67 a.d. by reigning Emperor, and in 500 a.d. 

by the Seleucid era. Hence we may conclude that it was not 
included in the new province of Arabia. 

7. Sahm el Jaulan dates in 590 a.d. by the Seleucid era, so that it was 

probably not incorporated in Arabia in 295 a.d. 

8. Tsil. Only one inscription (Nos. 3 and 4) has a date, which is by 

the reigning Emperor: the Emperor's name cannot be determined 
with certainty, but is probably Constantiue. Tsil does not appear 
to have been in Arabia after 295 a.d. 


9. Bostra was of course always in Arabia from its foi-matiou in 
106 A.D. onwards. 

10. Aere (= Ea Sanamein). This place is in all probability to be 

identified with Hierapolis {i.e./Eppa UoXis) in the Notitiae (see 
Wadd., No. 241.3 f. Also ours, No. 158 A, where the inhabitants 
are called 'Aipljo-ioi). If this is the case, it must have been 
taken into Arabia on the reorganisation of that province by 
Diocletian, though lying somewhat to the north of what seems 
the natural boundary line. The map of the district shows what 
appears to be a lake and watercourse near the town, and surmisi)ig 
that its proximity to a source of water in an otherwise arid 
district might have justified its inclusion, 1 consulted Mr. Ewing 
as to this point. He writes : — " What appears in the map as a 
lake at Es Sanamein is in reality but a marsh, and the water- 
course was quite dry when I visited the place in August, two 
years ago. From the hill-side above Kefr Shems I followed the 
line of an old aqueduct, which Jiad evidently carried water from 
some point in the north-west to Es Sanamein. With the excep- 
tion of Sheikh Sa'ad, where there is a copious spring, the whole 
district must always have been what it is now, almost entirely 
dependent on cisterns for water supply. Es Sanamein, with its 
aqueduct, and the stream which still flowi the greater part of the 
year in the watercourse, coming down from the heights under 
Great Hermon, must have been I'ich in water com))ared with 
other places ; and on this account might well have been included 
in the province, even if somewhat removed from the direct line." 

11. Jasem has an inscription (ours, No. 10) to Bonus dux Arabiae, 

who was governor of the province at the end of the 4th century, 
hence it is possible that this town may have been included also 
in the new province of Arabia. 

We may now draw our conclusions as to the position of the various 
] (laces according to the lists in which they are classified : — 

(a) The towns in this list must have been in the original province of 

Arabia from 106 a.d. onwards. 
(/3) The towns in this list must have been in the province of Arabia 

after 295 a.d., but we cannot tell from their inscriptions whether 

they belonged to the province of Syria or to the original province 

of Arabia before that date, 
(y) Tlie towns in this list must have been in the province of Syria 

until 295 a.u., but we cannot tell from their inscriptions whether 

they remained after that date in Syria or were incorporated in 

Arabia when it was extended in 295 a.d. 
(S) The tfjwiis in this list must have been in Syria until 295 a.d., and 

then been incorj^orated in Arabia. 
(«) This class has to be considered in detail as above. 

We see then that classes («) and (S) can be placed in their 


])rovinces at the two different periods with the greatest certainty, 
but classes (/3) and (y), while for one period their position is 
certain must, for the othei' period, be allotted to the two provinces 
accordins; to the general run of the boundary line at the time as 
gatheied from classes (a) and (8). An endeavour has been made 
in accordance with these principles to fix the boundaries of the 
two periods, for the result of which the map facing p. 60 must be 
examined. The original boundary line, i.e.j that which held from 
106 A.D. to 298 A.D., is indicated by the dark line, while that which 
existed from 295 a.d. onwards is shown by the dotted line. 

The following is a classified list of the dates found on the accom- 
])anying inscriptions only : — 






< — ' 

I— ( 
1— 1 












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1— 1 

r -o 




C^ '3 




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t- t=: 

















ill. >-?• 















6 C 












I— ( 



I— 1 

T— 1 O O ^ »r, 



1 — 1 






1 — 1 











— 1 





I— t 



1 — 1 

o — r— :o ^• 
1- i~ 

1 — 1 




T— 1 


\ — 1 ^-^ 














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: : 














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: : 
















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ri3 ^ 

1) O) 



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jjj r-; CO -* 




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'u/ cq 

s a- o- i 
- b b ?< 


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b -e-.— . 

t- o t- l~ 

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The following is a list of the towns through which Mr. Ewing passed, 
and from which he obtained the inscriptions. They are in the order of 
his journey, the same order having been observed in the arrangement of 
the inscriptions : — 

Tsil fnmi whicli come Nos. 1-4. 

Sahm el Jaulan „ „ „ •"> tin^l <J- 

'Adwan .... .... ,, v )> ^* 

Jilsem .... .... ,1 ?7 u 8-11. 

Umm el Osij .... „ ,, „ 12-15, 

'Akrabah .... „ „ „ 16-32. 

KefrShens .... „ „ „ 33-36. 

Es Sanamein .... ,, ,, ,-, 37 -47b, 

El Busir .... „ „ „ 48. 

Khabab .... „ „ „ 49-59, 

Sfir V „ 60-66. 

Lubbein „ ,, ,■, 67--71. 

Jerain „ „ „ 72 and 73. 

Damet el 'Alyah „ „ „ 74-79. 

Deir Bama .... „ ,. .-, 79a and 79b. 

llarran „ ,, „ 80-8 


n 1' )) 



Nejran „ „ „ 110-116. 

Kimet el Luhf .... „ - „ 117-126. 

Murduk „ „ „ 127-132. 

Kanawat .... „ ., „ 133 and 134a 

Sia- „ , „ 135-144. 

EI Kufr „ „ „ 145-153. 

Hebran „ „ „ 154-158. 

'Orman „ „ „ 159-172. 

Busrali „ „ „ 173-181. 

IVr'au „ „ „ 175-182. 

El Manarah .... ,, ,, ,, 183. 

El Loja „ „ „ 184. 

Shnkhba ,, „ ,i 18o. 

Setfuvicli .... „ ,, ), 186. 

The remarks as to the condition or present ])Osition of some of (he 

stones on which were the inscriptions arc also derived from information 
supplied l)y Mr. Ewing. 




An old Hebrew inscription, said to have been found on a marble slab 
in a tomb near the ash-heaps north of Jernsalem, having been sub- 
mitted to M. Clermont-Ganneau, he has kindly sent the following note 
respecting it : — 

> > 

This is an epitaph terminating with the well-known fonnula, HtZ^Qj 
XT\^ (line 4), " rest his soul " ; n"l2 i*^ ^^^'^ incorrectly written n^2- 

The name of the deceased (line 1) is written 11D3, -f^^^^o'j which has 
no known counterpart in Hebrew onomastics. I suspect it is the name 
riDV' Joseph, wiitten ba^ckwards. This palseogTaphical oddity recalls 
certain cryptographic customs mentioned in the Talmud, 

I do not quite know what to make of the words that follow, ^■^ni*^ 

■^2,) " ^*5ii of Aharon." The last letter but one in line 2 is of an unusual 
shape and is very doubtful ; the second letter in line 3 might be a kaph^ 
and the daleths, of course, may just as likely as not be resches. 

1. {Joseph) son of 

2. Aharnn ...... 

4. Rest his soul. 

The doubtful words in lines 2 and 3 denote perhaps the title, function, 

or origin of the deceased. 

By AuBRKY Stewart, Esq., M,A, 

I HAVE been reading Major Conder's paper in the Quarterly Statement 
for July, 1894, and find, on p, 205, that be falls into tlic common error 
about a Maltese ci-oss. 



I have looked at the Assyrian King in tlie British Museum, and see 
that what he wears on his necklace is what heralds call a St. Cuthbert's 
Cross ; no connection with Malta. I enclose sketch. 


Sr. CtJTHBEET's Cross. 

Cross Pattee. 

Maltese Cross 


By William Simpsot, Esq., M.R.A.S. 

The Swastica, known also as the Gammadion and the Fylfot, has received 
some notice in the last two Quarterly Statements. From this symbol 
being often classed as a cross, Herr Schick having done so, it may be as 
well to give the latest knowledge that has appeared upon it. Professor 
Wright states that numbers of tliem were found in excavating the 
Hopewell Mound, in Ohio, U.S.A. ; and that no explanation of its 
connection with those found at Troy can as yet be offered by Americans. 
The finding of the Swastica in America gives a very wide geographical 
s])ace that is included by the prol)lem connected with it, but it 
is wider still, for the Swastica is fimnd over most of the habitable 
world — almost literally "from China to Peru"; and it can be traced 
back to a very early period. The latest idea formed regarding the 
Swastica is, that it may be a form of the old wheel symbolism, and that 
it represents the solar movement, or perhaps in a wider sense the whole 
celestial movement of the stars. The Dharmachakra, or Buddhist 
wheel, of which the so-called " Praying-wheel " of the Lamas of Tibet 
is only a variant, can now be shown to have represented the solar motion. 
It did not originate with the Buddhists, they borrowed it from the 
Brahmins, and it can be traced back in the Biahminical system to the 
Veda, where it is called " the wheel of the sun." I have lately collected 
a large amount of evidence on this subject, being engaged writing ujjon 
it, and the numerous passages from old Brahminical authorities leave no 
doubt on the matter. The late Mr. Ed. Thomas, who has done so 
niucli for Indian numismatics, was the first to point out in the 
"Numismatic Clironicle,'' 1880, vol. xxii, ]ip. 18-48, that on some coins 
the wheel with spokes was replaced by the Swastica. He also showed 


that ill some of the Andhra gold coins the place of the figure of the 
sun was taken by the Swastica ; and farther, that in the devices of 
the 24 Jaina Tirthankaras, in one of them, where the sun is absent, 
there is a Swastica. This is in India. To this has to be added a 
discovery by Professor Percy Gardner, who has found that some of 
the coins of Messembria, the city of Midday, in Greece, have the name of 
the town in this form MEZifi; i'l which it will be seen that the part of 
the word which means day, or when the sun shines, is represented by 
the Swastica. These details will be found in a letter published in the 
" Athenteum," of August 20th, 1892, written by Professor Max Miiller, 
who affirms that it " is decisive " as to the meaning of the symbol in 
Greece. This evidence may be "decisive" for India and Greece, but it 
does not make us quite certain about other parts of the world ; still it 
raises a strong presumption that its meaning is likely to be somewhat 
similar wherever the symbol is found. 

It is now assumed that the Triskelion, or Three Legs of the Isle of 
Man, is only a variant of the Swastica. The Triskelion, it has been 
shown by Mr. John Newton (see "Athenteum," 10th September, 1892), 
was brought from Sicily and taken to the Isle of Man by Alexander III 
of Scotland, in 1266. There are many variants besides this in which 
the legs, or limbs, differ in number ; and they may all be classed as 
whorls, and were possibly all more or less forms intended originally to 
express circular motion. As the subject is too extensive to be fully 
treated here and many illustrations would be necessary, to those wishing 
for further details, I would recommend a work just published, entitled 
" The Migration of Symbols," by the Count Goblet DAlviella, with an 
introduction by Sir George Birdwood. The frontispiece of the book is 
a representation of Apollo, from a vase in the Kunsthisiorisches Museum, 
of Vienna ; and on the middle of Apollo's breast there is a large and 
prominent Swastica ; in this we have another instance going far to show 
its solar significance. While accepting these new interpretations of the 
symbol, I am still inclined to the notion that the Swastica may at the 
same time have been looked upon in some cases as a cross. That is a 
pre-Christian cross, which now finds acceptance by some authorities as 
representing the four cardinal points. The importance of the cardinal 
points in i)rimitive symbolism appears to me to have been very great, 
and has not as yet been fully realised. This also is too large a 
matter to deal with here. All I can stata is, that the wheel in 
India was connected with the title of a Ckakravartin — from chakra, a 
wheel — the title meaning a supreme ruler, or universal monarch, who 
ruled the four quarters of the world, and on his coronation he had to 
drive his chariot, or wheel, to the four cardinal points, to signify his 
conquest of them. Evidence for other ceremonies of the same kind in 
Europe can be produced. From instances such as these I am inclined 
to assume that the Swastica, as a cross, represented the four quarters 
over which the solar power by its revolving motion carried its influence. 




With translation by A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D. 


The Greek inscription on the more recently found mosaic reads : — 


'YTTff) ni'aTrai'frr ii)^ FiVaej3iov 7ri>ctTf3uT(^ef)ov^ 
irieooooiov CiiuKi^ovou) FiVf^/ei'/oi', 'EX7r/r/(W', 

KllfpfKITfl, ^Ayadoi'/KOV Tfl'J' 


" For the re))ose of tlie Presl)yter Enseliiiis, tlie Deacon Thoodosins, 
and the Anchorites Eugenius, Elpidiiis, Eiiphratas, Agatlioiiicus." 

Tlie Anchorites, or Monazontes, are mentioned in an inscrijjtion, 
C. I. Gr., 8,607. 



1*. 277. The story of Abu Zeiil is connected with the Jordan Vulley. 
The " disli of Aim Zeid '' and tlie legend of his feast are noticed in the 
" Memoirs of the Survey of Eastern Palestine," vol, i, as I collected the 
legend from the Arabs in 1881. 

P. 288. The Jewish travellers in Palestine did not cease to arrive after 
the time of Benjamin of Tudela (IIGO a.d.). Isaac Chelo (about 1330) and 
others visited the holy places in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
Their works, and a valuable essay on the Khozars (who had Jewish kings) 
will be found in Carraoly's " Iteneraires," which should be read in connec- 
tion with the paper here published. 

Eabbi Benjamin (whose work was used in prepai'ing the n)emoi)s) is 
wrong not only about Carmel but also about Eamali (which he places at 
Eamleh) and about Shiloh, which he places at Neby Samwil. The 
Capernaum which he mentions is not that of the Gospels but the Cajier- 
naum of Geoifrey de Vinsauf, on the sea shore south of Haifa, now called 
Kefr L<hn. Kakon ( KaliXn) for Keilah is another glaring error of this 
writer, as is Gath at Ctesarea. 

G. R. G. 

QuARTERiiY Statement, April, 1895.] 




The Executive Committee hare appointed Mr. Archibald Campbell Dickie, 
A.R.I.B.A., to go out to Jerusalem and assist Dr. Bliss in the work of excava- 
tion, and in drawing plans, sections, &c. Mr. Dickie left London on March 15. 

Dr. Bliss's fourth rej)ort of the Jerusalem excavations, published in this 
number, shows that tbe wall has been traced for a considerable distance further 
since the report given in Januaiy. It is hoped to receive very soon intelligence 
of the direction which the wall takes south of the Jewish Cemetery, where it 
had already been picked up when Dr. Bliss's last letters were dispatched. 

Dr. Bliss's description of the remains of a church on the Mount of Olives, 
which he has examined and excavated at the request of His Excellency Hamdy 
Bey, is of much interest. There seems to have been a conventual establishment 
there, and it was a portion of this that Herr von Scliick saw and described in 
the Quarterly Statement for January last. 

The discovery, under the place of the high altar, of what Dr. Bliss regards 
as the reliquary of the Saint to whom the church was dedicated, is 
remarkable. . 


Besides his reports printed in the present number, Herr Baufath von Schick 

has forwarded an essay on the Church of the Ascension, with plans and 

Herr von Schick reports that further excavations at Jacob's Well have been 
made, but are at present stopped owing to some question as to the right to the 
property. The church has been found to have had three apses. 

Among other minor notes, Herr von Scliick reports tliat a find of gold coins 
is said to have been made at Beisan, and that the road to Jericho is so far 
finished that carriages can now go down and even proceed as far as the bank of 
the Jordan. 



The Golden Gate has been surrounded inside the Haram by a wall, and 
Tisitors are no longer allowed to enter it. The rubbish in " Solomon's Stables " 
has been brought up and spread out on the surface of the Haram Area, by which 
means the level at the south-easteru part has been raised some three feet. 

From the Journal of the German Palestine Society we learn that it is pro- 
posed to establish a number of stations for meteorological observations throughout 
tlie country ; one of the first class at Jerusalem, and others at Gaza, Sarona, 
Bethlehem, Nablus, and other places where reliable observers are in residence. 

There is no reason to doubt that the observations conducted for many years 
under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration Fund at Jerusalem may fairly 
be taken to represent the meteorology of the Hill Country of South Palestine, 
and those at Sarona that of the Western Plain. The observations now being 
made for the Fimd by Dr. Torrance at Tiberias are accumulating vsiluable 
information respecting the climate of the shore of the Sea of Galilee. 

The following have kindly consented to act as Honorary Local Secre- 
taries : — 

Rev. Professor George Adam Smith, D.D., 22, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow. 
James Glen, Esq., 12, Blythswood Square, Glasgow, Hon. Local Treasurer. 
Rev. Charles Druitt, The Vicarage, Charmouth, Dorset. 

Mr. Walter Besant's stimmary of the work of the Fund from its commence- 
ment has been brought up to date by the author and published under the title, 
"Thirty Years' Work in the Holy Land." Applications for coj^ies may be 
sent in to Mr. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Armstrong's Raised Map of Palestine is on view at the office 
of the Fund. A circular giving full particulars about it will be sent on appli- 
caticHi to the Secretary. 

Supporters of the Fund will be gratified to learn that this valuable work 
has met with great appreciation in nearly every quarter of the globe, and from 
many learned societies. Copies have been ordered and supplied for the Royal 
Geographical Society; tlie Science and Art Museum and Trinity College, 
Dublin; the Free Kirk College, Glasgow; Queen's College, Cambridge; 
Mansfield College, Oxford ; and for subscribers in Russia, the Netherlands, the 
United States of America, Australia, Japan, and China, besides Manchester, 
Ediiiburgli, Aberdeen, and otlier cities of our own country. 

The following are some of the opinions which have been expressed by 
competent authorities respecting the value of this Map : — 

" A Raised Map of Palestine must prove of the greatest interest to all who 
have visited or intend to visit the country, affording, as it does a picture au vol 
d'oiseau of all the physical features. Mr. Armstrong's interesting work will faith- 
fully present to tliose who have had the advantage of touring in Palestine the old 
familiar routes they have traversed, and will give to those who have yet to enjoy 


eucli a journey a clear idea of tlic sort of eounti'v tliej may expect to see. . . . 
The educational use to which tlie map will be put will be very considerable."-^ 
The Times. 

"Tliere are the seas, the lakes, the mountains, and valleys, all so perfect and 
distinct that one cau travel over the ground and visit the cities aud towns. 
With the Bible in hand the holy sites can be inspected, the historical events of 
the narration can be followed, the movements of the various tribes can be traced, 
the operations of war can be grasped and easily understood. With this Raised 
Map before him a Moltke coidd sit and plan a campaign as if it were a chess 
problem." — Daily News. 

" By the aid of such a Raised Map the untravelled student may picture the 
■sceuerj' of Palestine, under the allusions to its topography, and see where the 
roads of the country must run ; he can follow the tracks of rival armies upon 
its battle-fields and understand better the conditions attaching to rival sites." — 
Manchester Guardian. 

" It is certainly a most interesting and valuable MajD, and in no other way, 
short of a personal visit, coiild one obtain so correct an idea of the contour of 
the Holy Land." — Cambridge Tribune, U.S.A. 

" I wish another copy of your Raised Map. I am greatly pleased with it, I 
4o not think I would like to teach the Old Testament without it." — Professor 
George Adam Smith, Free Church College, Glasgow. 

" It came through in excellent order aud has been pronounced the best 
thing of the kind that we have ever seen," — The Very Rev. Dean Hoffman, 
The General Theological Seminary, New York. 

"All the professors and students expressed the most complete satisfaction 
and admired the correctness and fine execution which more than answered their 
expectation. They anticipate great practical and scientific usefulness." — Hav. 
M. LE Bachelet, Biblioth, St. Heliers, Jei-sey. 

"It is exceedingly effective and instructive; it has already excited great 
interest and evidently conveyed a vivid impression of the physical character of 
the country to many who were quite ignorant on that subject before. I expect 
to find its value constantly more apparent as points of Biblical geography arise 
in the course of instruction. I feel sure it is a most important addition to the 
apparatus for Bible instruction." — Rev. Arthue Brooks, Rectory of the 
Incarnation, New York. 

" The copy of your new Raised Map of Palestine was delivered yesterday and 
I have had it put up in my Form Room next to the Plan of Jerusalem. I am 
very much pleased with it, and I beg to congratulate you on the completion of 
so great a work. Such a map makes the study of the geography of the Holy 
Land more interesting than ever, and impresses the main features of the 
country more deeply on (he memory." — The Rev. G. Style, Giggleswick School, 

" I need not say that I am well pleased with the Map, and I must con- 
gratulate you upon the patience and skill which you have displayed in constructing 
it."— Charles Bailey, Congregational Church School, Manchester. 

" The Map arrived safely. I am very much pleased with the Raised Map 
and its colouring ; you seem to have taken great pains with it. I hope Bible 
Students and Sunday School Teachers will come and study it." — W. H. Rindee, 
Philosophical Society, Leeds. 

G 2 


" I had the case opened and found the Map quite safe ; it is a splendid piece 
of work and has given great satisfaction to the Committee." — C. G-oodteab, 
Secretary and Librarian, Lancashire College. 

" You have conferred au invaluable boon on all Scripture Students by your 
iasue of the Raised Map. I shall not rest till I have one for my School."— The 
Very Eev. S. W. Allen, Shrewsbury. 

"The Map is a beautiful piece of work and equally valuable to the 
historian, the geographer, and the geologist."— Captain F. W. Hutton, Curator, 
Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

" The Map arrived all safe . . . and has given great satisfaction to everyone 
who has seen it." — The Eev. Douglas Ferrieb, Free Church Manse, 
Bothwell, N.B. 

" The Map has come quite perfect and is much admired. You have erected 
a monument for yourself that will long endure." — Rev. Thomas M. B. 
Patterson, Hamilton, N.B. 

Subscribers to the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society who have not 
sent in their application for cases for binding the translations issued by the 
Society, are reminded that these are now ready, and that the whole issues — 
Nos. 1 to 26 (up to date) — have been arranged in chronological order, so as to 
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Index to the Quarterly Statement. — A new edition of the Index to the 
Quarterlij Statements has been compiled. It embraces the years 1869 (the 
first issue of the journal) to the end of 1892. Contents : — Names of the 
Authors and of tlie Papers contributed by them ; List of the Illustrations ; and 
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The museum of the Fund, at 24, Hanover Square, is now open to subscribers 
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The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
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It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
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The first volume of the " Survey of Eastern Palestine," by Major Conder, 
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Mr. H. Chichester Hart's " Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and the Wady 
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M. Clermont-Ganneau's work, "Archaeological Researches in Palestine," will 
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The maps and books now contained in the Society's publications comprise 
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was £453 10*. Od. 

Subscribers are requested to note that the following cases for binding, 
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Office of the Fund :— 

Oases for binding Herr Schumacher's " Jaulan," Is. each. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement, in green or chocolate, 1*. each, 

Cases for binding " Abila," " Pella," and " 'Ajlun " in one volume. 
Is. each. 

Casts of the Tablet, with Cuneiform Inscription, found at Tell el Hesy, 
at a depth of 35 feet, in May, 1892, by Dr. Bliss, Explorer to the Fund. 
It belongs to the general diplomatic correspondence carried on between 
Amenhotep III and IV and their agents in various Palestinian towns. Price 
2s. Qd. each. 

Casts of the Ancient Hebrew Weight brought by Dr. ChajDlin from Samai-ia, 
iprice 2s. Qd. each. 

Casts of an Inscribed Weight or Bead from Palestine, forwarded by Pi'ofessor 
Wright, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., price Is. each. 

Lantern slides of the Raised Map, the Sidon Sarcophagi, and of the Bible 
places mentioned in the catalogue of photos and special list of slides. 






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The Subscriptions and Donations to the work of the Fund during the year 
1894 amounted to £1,778 16*. Od., an increase of £204 2*. Od. over the amount 
received in 1893. 

From Lectures there is an increase of £110. The sale of books, maps, and 
the various publications brought in £731 8s. 9c?., as against £832 16*. 3d. 
expended on their production, to which should be added the postage. The 
amount spent on Exploration is £1,050. 

The Quarter 1^1/ Statement, wnich is issued free to annual subscribers of 
10*. 6d. and upwards, cost for printing and illustrations over £450. 


Balance m Bank. . 

Stock of Publications on 
hand. Surveying In- 
struments, Show Cases, 

In addition there is the 
valuable library and 
the unique collection of 
antiques, models, &c. 






Printing, Lithographing, 

and Current Expenses 567 13 6 

In order to make up complete sets of the Quarterly/ Statement the 
Committee will be very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 

While desiring to give publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 

The authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

The Eev. Thomas Harrison, F.R.G.S., Hillside, Benenden, Staplehurst, 
Kent. His subjects are as follows ; — 


(1) Research and Discovert/ 'in the Holy Land. 

(2) Bible Scenes in the Light of Modern Science. 

(3) The Survey of Eastern Palestine. 

(4) In the Track of the Israelites frotn 'Egypt to Canaan. 

(5) The Jordan Valley, the Bead Sea, and the Cities of the Plain. 

(6) The Recovery of Jerusalem — {Excavations in 1894). 

(7) The Recovery of Lachish and the Hehrew Conquest of Palestine. 

(8) ArchcEological Illustrations of the Bible. (Specially adapted for 

Sunday School Teachers). 
N.B. — All these Lectures are illustrated by specially prepared lantern slides. 

The Rev. J. R. Macpherson, B.D., Kinnaird Manse, Inchture, N.B. New 

svibjects will be announced in July. 
The Rev. J. Llewelyn Thomas, M.A., Aberpergwm, Glynneath, South 

Wales. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Explorations in Jtidea. 

(2) Research and Discovery in Samaria and Galilee. 

(3) In Bible Lands ; a Narrative of Personal Experiences. 

(4) The Reconsirttction of Jerusalem. 

(5) Problems of Palestine, 

The Rev. Charles Harris, M.A., F.R.G.S., St. Lawrence, Ramsgate. (All 
Lectures illustrated by lantern slides). His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Modern Discoveries in Palestine. 

(2) Stories in Stone ; or, Neiv Light on the Old Testament. 

(3) Underground Jerusalem ; or. With the Explorer in 1894. 

Bible Stories from the Monuments, or Old Testament History 
in the Light of Modern Research : — 

(4) A. The Story of Joseph ; or, Life in Ancient Egypt. 

(5) B. The Story of Moses ; or. Through the Desert to the Promised 


(6) c. The Story of Joshua ; or, The Buried City of Lachish. 

(7) D. The Story of Sennacherib ; or Scenes of Assyrian Warfare. 

(8) E. The Story of the Hittites ; or, A Lost Nation Found. 

Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass., Honorary 
General Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund for the United 
States. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Building of Jerusalem. 

(2) The Overthrow of Jerusalem. 

(3) The Progress of the Palestine Exploration. 

The Rev. L. G. A. Roberts, 67, George Street, Hamilton, Ontario. His 
subjects are as foUows : — 

(1) Work in and around the Holy City. 

(2) Work outside the Holy City. 

(3) Popular Lecture upon the General Results obtained by the Fund. 

Application for Lectures may be either addressed to the Secretary, 
24, Hanover Square, W., or sent to the address of tlie Lecturers. 




By F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. 

The present report must be necessarily a short one as my last brought 
up the account of the work to December 12th, and we closed the excava- 
tions for the winter on December 31st. Between those dates the rain 
and storms were so severe that the actual number of working days was 
only eight. But fortunately these eight days were full of interest and 
resulted in discoveries of ini])ortance. 

My last report closed with the annoying fact, that the wall, traced up 
to that time for over 1,000 feet, had entered the great Jewish Cemetery 
which extends along the slopes to the south of Jerusalem. A break in 
tlie tracing of the Avail was unavoidable, but how long that break was to 
be it was impossible to tell, as the cemetery occupies the critical ground 
to the west of Siloam, at any point of which the wall might turn to the 
north-east to make the bend around the Pool to its north, a course which 
many archaeologists believe in, thus interpreting Josephus' statement that 
the first wall at the Gate of the Essenes " turned and advanced with a 
southern aspect above the Fountain of Siloam, where it again inclined, 
facing the east." The maximum break, thus, might be 700 feet, as a 
glance at the map will show, and the minimum about 275 feet, according 
to the direction the wall might take. I knew that by making a trench 
outside the cemetery to the east at right angles to the direction of the 
wall as it enters the cemetery, we must eventually strike it again, unless, 
indeed, the wall happened to be entirely ruined at that point. But such 
a trench would have to be 450 feet long and might pass through the lands 
of a dozen difterent proprietors, all of whom must be arranged with. 
Accordingly I decided to work on the first and simplest assumption, 
namely, that the wall did not change its direction, but came out of the 
cemetery on the same line in which it entered. This line was almost on 
the line of the minimum distance across the cemetery. So I made a 
trench across the desired spot, in the field below the high terrace, which 
is the south limit of the cemetery, 350 feet beyond the spot where the 
wall was last seen at its entrance. I also placed another gang of labourers 
some 150 feet to the east, where a scarp was visible forming an angle 
which I thought might be the base of a tower. Our first gang deepened 
their trench to the rock and then extended it 30 feet further north to the 
limit of the cemetery terrace. And immediately under this terrace 
masonry was found emerging from the cemetery ! So far, so good, but of 
course the masonry might be anything. Continuation of the work, how- 
ever, put the matter beyond all doubt. It was our old wall again, with 
almost exactly the same characteristics it had when last seen above. I 
had felt sure of meeting the wall again, but to see it at the exact point 


where it entered the cemetery and to find it at the exact point where it 
emerged therefrom was beyond my highest hopes. A slight change in 
direction had occurred at some point in the cemetery, which accounts for 
our finding the wall about 30 feet north of the line. When entering it 
pointed south, 71h° east ; when emerging it pointed south, SGh" east. We 
traced it for 14 feet and then temporarily closed up the trench, as the end 
of the season had come. There it lies, ready for me to trace it further 
before this report shall have gone to press. I was thus able to take my 
holiday with a quiet mind, which I would not have had if I felt that the 
wall was still hiding from me somewhere under that extent of graves. 

The wall here is not built directly on a scarp. The rock slopes down 
irregularly, and between it and the lower course of the wall, rubble, built 
with mud, has been placed. Four courses are still preserved. The lowest 
is irregular in base ; the other three, beginning from the bottom, measure 
in height respectively 1 foot 10| inches, 1 foot 7i inches, and 1 foot 
Hi inches. These are about the same height as the courses of the wall 
when last seen above, which measure 1 foot 8 inches, 2 feet, and 1 foot 
9^ inches. The wall is here 9 feet thick. At the gate it is 9 feet, and 
beyond Tower II, 8 feet ; there it was not measured at the base, where it 
may be 9 feet. The stones, like those above, have irregular, projecting 
bosses, and comb-picked drafts of irregular width. No mortar was 
observed. The only difference between the masonry here and that of the 
work above is that the courses are slightly set back one from the other, 
whereas the face of the wall above is perpendicular, the stones here are 
not as square as the others, and they have not been at a later time 
repaired with the surface plaster which covers the drafts above. But in 
general the appearance is the same and the differences only such as may 
be observed in different parts of any modern wall. To my statement of 
the identity of the wall I am glad to add the valued testimony of the 
learned Dominican Fathers, who paid me a visit before I closed up, and 
who follow every step of the work with deep interest. 

While it is a great relief to have picked u}) the wall again, its further 
course is not quite clear. Some bend must come soon, for it is at present 
pointing along a line which falls outside of a steep scarj), on which, un- 
fortunately, there is no masonry. The Pool of Siloam is now considerably 
to the north-east of the point to which we have traced the wall. I believe 
that the wall crosses the southern limit of the Old Pool and then runs up 
Ophel to join Warren's wall. Against this militates the natural inter- 
pretation of the words of Josephus. But I cannot get over my argument 
tliat the raison d'etre oi the Siloam Tunnel was to bring water from a point 
outside the city to a point within the city. Josephus gives a general, not 
a scientific, description of the appearance of the wall. " Above " does not 
necessarily mean " to the north." One looking down from the heights of 
the " U])per City " on to a wall which crossed along the southern end 
of the Old Pool and then ran uj) the steep crest of Oi)hel, might easily 
have described it as " advancing east above the Fountain of Siloam, where 
it again inclined to the north," especially if what we call the Old Pool was 


then called by the name of Siloam. However, it is a comfort to feel that 
my business is not to follow theories, but to follow the wall. 

One thing seems sure, and that is, that my wall is to join that of 
Warren, on Ophel. I think that time might be saved next season b}' 
picking up his wall, if possible, beyond the point where he found the in- 
terruption and work south to join the work, which will still be pursued 
on my wall. 

I was much interested in Canon Dalton's notes on my work in the 
January Statement. As his views were based only on my first and second 
reports, it would not be fair to discuss them, now that moi'e material is 
before him which might lead him to modify them. For example, the 
difference between the main masonry of the wall before and after 
Tower IV ; the latter, with all the work east, being more Jewish in a])- 
pearance, is noteworthy. I am not yet piepared to agree with the dictum 
held by many, that Hadrian's wall followed the line of the present wall. 
I think that the upper masonry of my wall, up to a jjoint between Towers 
III and IV, may be the work of either Hadrian or Eudocia on older 
foundations represented by the lower rough course (or courses at Tower I) 
and the rubble such as is found in Warren's Ophel wall. I hope to settle 
later whether Hadrian's wall (if it be his) branched off or not to Burj el 
Kebrit. The masonry at Tower IV and beyond may have been older work 
repaired by Eudocia, whose re-building is at these points destroyed. I 
agree with Canon Dalton that all scarps possible should be studied, but 
those not in connection with actual walls should be regarded with 
certain degree of scepticism. For . example, the steep west slope of the 
" Upper City " shows a series of scarps on the various terraces, any one 
of which resembles the scarp for a wall, but all of which could not have 
been such wall-bases. 

I concluded my report on December 12th with the remark that I hojjed 
that week, at the request of Hamdy Bey, to superintend a small excava- 
tion in the Mount of Olives. Accordingly, for five or six days I had a 
small gang of men at work there. The work might well be called the 
cream of excavating. Usually, before anything valuable can be found, 
the excavator has to accomplish the long and weary task of removing the 
overlying debris. In this case almost all this tedious work had Ijeen 
done before, and it was left to me only to carry out the hints which were 
given by what had already been uncovered. On pp. 32-36 of the 
January Statement, Herr Schick shows how, in digging for foundations for 
new houses on the slope some 500 feet to the south of the Eussian Tower, 
the owners of the land discovered various chambers, mosaics, and cisterns. 
His plan represents the condition of things in September. I visited the 
mosaic inscription and secured a photograph, also in September, but 
I did not take particular note of the other remains. Comparing his plan 
with the state of the place as I found it on December 14th, I find that a 
few changes had taken place, as the owners had somewhat increased their 
Excavating, with the result that some new things had been uncovered and 
some of the former chambers had been buried again, probably by the 


iiewly removed debris. I can make this clearei- by comparing my plan 
witli his. To the north of his chamber, at the west of the Bir, he marks 
a flight of steps, this had been buried again when I made my plan. I also 
saw no trace of the small pool north of the " Btr," nor did I observe the 
large pool to the east of the " Bir," though I have taken the liberty of 
adding this to my plan, as well as the " New House," which I did not 
measure. Further excavations had shown that the chamber with the 
inscription extended further towards the north, the wall which he 
naturally took for its north limit being only a thin partition in the middle 
of the chamber. To the west of this chamber he marks another mosaic 
" No. 2." On my plan this is seen to belong to the north aisle of the 
church. When I began work, this had already been uncovered west from 
what Herr Schick calls the " broad stone bench " (above the " tombs " in my 
plan) for a distance of some 45 feet, together with the wall to the north 
between it and the "Bir" pool, &c., which, according to my measure- 
ments, come somewhat north of the place they occupy in Herr Schick's 

Such, then, was the condition of things when I began my work. My 
primary object was to find the tombs of the men who, according to the 
inscription {see January Quarterly, p. 86) were buried near the spot. 
At the same time I determined to follow out the suggestions given by 
the partly excavated walls. I had not then seen Herr Schick on the 
matter, but it seemed probable to me, as it did to him, that they were to 
be found under the " broad stone bench." We removed one layer of slabs, 
only to find another layer below. But these turned out to be the covers 
of two tombs. The one to the south had, I think, been opened before. 
It was 5 feet 11 inches long and 2 feet broad. It was dug in the clay and 
lined with slabs which were plastered. The tomb to the north had never 
been opened. It was of the same width, but longer, being 6 feet 5 inches. 
In the south-west corner was a vase of glass, slightly broken at the 
top, owing, probably, to the falling of the plaster. Remains of two 
skeletons were found. These were very much decayed, but two spinal 
vertebrae were found, and jjortions of the finger bones, &c. The heads 
were evidently to the west. From the narrownes's of the tomb it looks as 
if the bodies had been first buried elsewhere and removed here as skeletons. 
The proprietors told us that other tombs had been found under what 
would have been the south aisle of the church. 

On the morning that I began work, however, it had not been guessed, 
either by others or myself, that we were on the site of a large church. 
The place was puzzling : the inscription suggested a mortuary chapel, but 
-wliy sliould it face to the south ? But before noon a meaning for the 
•whole thing suddenly flashed upon me. And it turned out, with a few 
modifications, to be the true meaning. I based my plan of searcli for this 
-church on four facts : (1) the chambei- with the inscrii)tion ; (2) the long 
mosaic to the west of it, with its thick wall to the north ; (3) the base of 
the column, still in situ, with two similar bases found lying near, but not 
.in situ ; and (4) tlie indications, which are described by Herr Schick, of a 




different sort of pavement, in coloured marbles, to the south of the column- 
base. With my mind's eye I saw the inscription chamber as the north 
transept, the long mosaic as the north aisle, the base of the column as one 
of a series dividing aisle and nave, and the marble pavement, which was 
] foot higher than the aisle-mosaic, as the floor of the chancel. 

With this plan in view, T had now definite spots to place my diggers. 

First we found the end of the long mosaic with the door in the west 
wall, with steps leading down into the aisle, and curiously enough a tomb 
just outside the door. We then found a line of slabs 2 feet 3 inches wide 
between aisle and the probable nave, upon which the column base rested, 
.and inferred the other columns. In trenching for the apse we found the 
east wall of the church, and soon the foundation stones of the north part 
of the apse appeared. We also cleared the marble pavement and found 
that the pattern followed the circular line of the apse. We thus 
recovered the central east and west axis of the church. But I was 
anxious to recover the south wall, for though the plan of the church was 
now clear I wished for the satisfaction of seeing all the walls that were 
left. The church, however, was badly situated for the preservation of its 
south part. Built on the side of the hill, the debris in which it was buried 
formed a slope above it. Above the north end of the inscription chamber 
the debris must be over 15 feet deep, while over the floor of the nave it is 
only 9 feet, and over the place for the south aisle it is barely 2 feet. In 
fact the Bethany road probably once ran through the south aisle itself. 
Moreover, I think it possible that if any indications here remained they 
were unwittingly destroyed by the previous excavations. However that 
may be, our trenches failed to reveal any traces of the south part of the 
church. In my plan the unbroken lines indicate the parts actually seen, 
and the dotted lines the parts inferred. 

In general it may be seen by a look at the plan that we have here a 
church in the midst of a conventual establishment. I do not need to add 
anything to Herr Schick's clear description of the buildings to the north. 
From my plan it will be seen that there was building to the east as well, 
with a white mosaic. As my time was limited I did not pursue the work 
At this end any further. At the north of this mosaic with wall may be 
..seen water channels for the roof drainage. 

I shall now give details of the church. Its inside length, west and 
east, measured along the aisle and inscription chamber from west wall 
to east wall, is 72 feet 4^ inches. The rectangular distance from the 
north wall to the central east and west axis, as determined by the apse 
.jind marble pattern, is 21 feet 7 inclies, giving 43 feet 2 inches as the 
whole width. Ilie aisles are 9 feet 10 inches broad, the lines of slabs for 
the columns 2 feet 3 inclies, leaving 19 feet 5 inches as the width of the 
nave. The east and west walls are only 3 feet thick, but the north wall 
appears to be thicker, though this was difficult to determine owing to the 
chambers built against it. The walls appeared to me to be of very rude 
construction, much nuid and mortar having been used with the stones 
and the whole plastered over. I was struck on seeing similar walls 


around the Byzantine mosaic near the Damascus Gate by the fact that 
such a beautiful piece of work should be enclosed by so rude walls. At 
the Mount <>f Olives I felt the same wonder. 

In tlie inscription chamber the thin partition is built over the 
patterned mosaic. The thickness, which I have exaggerated on my plan, 
is in reality only 4 inches. Hence it could not have reached to the roof. 
It was apparently once lined with marble shibs. A similar thin partitiini 
also separated this chamber from the north aisle. This was probably the 
sacristy of the church. My reason for not inferring a chamber of equal 
depth at the south is found in the slope of the hill which does not allow 
space for it. As said above, I first supposed this to be a transept, but my 
finding the east wall and the apse so far in disproved the idea. 

The mosaic of the north aisle has a pattern, within a border, evidently 
meant to represent j^eacocks' feathers. Like the mosaic of the last-men- 
tioned chamber, it is made of small cubes of stone — red, black, and white. 
It extends for 2 feet 3 inches under the " stone bench." The tombs may 
be seen to extend partly under the mosaic. Owing to the great amount 
of accumulation above them, these mosaics have been perfectly preserved. 

The line of slabs between aisle and nave is also completely in situ. I 
.send a photograph of one of tlie column bases. The proprietors had ex- 
cavated most of the aisle but left the earth lying above the nave, as a 
valuable olive tree stands there. I made a cutting to find what the jjave- 
ment of the nave might be, but at that point it was gone. 

The chancel pavement is about 1 foot higher than the aisle and on a 
level with the sacristy. The pattern drawn by Herr Schick occurs in the 
line of squares to the west. The line which I have drawn to indicate the 
termination of the elevated chancel, about half way between the two 
pillars, was suggested by the remains of a stej). This pavement was laid 
in marble of red, yellow, green, and white. I send the facsimile in colours 
of all that remained, measured and i)ainted by Mr. Sandel. A matrix of 
potsherds had been laid in the native clay and the pavement placed on 
that. The cleaning of the pavement was a delicate operation, as the pieces 
were very loose, many of them missing, and it was necessary to employ 
iniich care lest the pattern be lost. Part of it I cleaned with my small 
])enknife ! From the painting it will be seen that the central large circle 
in the second line is filled in irregularly with bits of wliite marble. Mr. 
.Sandel suggested tliat there might have been in this circle some picture 
or Christian symbol destroyed by the Sanxcens, wlio then rudely lilled up 
the place. 

Just about in the centre of the apse-circle we made a most interesting 
discovery. On my plan it is represented by a rectangle. It was a cutting 
in the clay, lined with marble slabs, the slab to the east having an ojjen- 
ing, against which another slab rested, forming a sort of door. Its west 
.slab lay on tlie north-and-south diameter of the apse-circle, and its centre 
was only 1 inch south of the east-and-west diameter of the circle. Hence 
it occupies a position under the pUice of the high altar. It was covered 
with slabs of limestone. In other words, it ajjpeared as a sunken marble 



box with a limestone covering. The inside measurements of the box 
were 1 foot 2"5 inches east and west, 1 foot 875 inches north and south 
and 1 foot 75 inch deep. Part of its interior was occujaied by a square 
stone 3"75 inches high. The other part was raised to the same height by 
.several small slabs. Resting on this tiny platform were the two objects 
which I photographed, placing them on the base of one of the columns 

wliich divided aisle and nave. Tliey were not in tlie centre, nor 
placed parallel to the sides of the box. No. (]) is a ])lain vase or 
vessel of s(jft limestone. It has a square to]) aiid bottom, and sloping sides. 
At the top it is 5'8 inches square, at the bottom 5"2 inches. It is 5'2 inches 
high. The sides are one-half an inch thick and the dejjth inside is 
35 inches. It is quite without ornamentation. No. (2) is difficult to 


describe, but the best idea can be gathered of it from the photograph. 
It has a resemblance to a tiny base of a pillar, but I do not think that 
is what it is. It is 7"7 inches high and its base is 4 inches square. It 
was found placed on its side, with the line of its top parallel to one side 
of the vase which it almost touched. The vase was found standing 
squarely on its base. 

The slabs which covered this sunken " box " were found broken in, but 
I concluded that this was due to the weight of accumulation and not to 
violation. For, notwithstanding their unsymmetrical position relative to 
the "box," the objects had evidently been placed as we found them. 
Owing to the breaking in of its cover, the " box " was filled with earth, 
and the vase as well. There was nothing in it besides. 

The position of the "box" directly under the place for the high altar, 
marks it as the reliquary of the saint to whom the church was dedicated. 
The vase may once have contained some small bones, or a clot of blood. 
The opening at the east end, which has a slab laid against it, is 8'5 inches 
high, and as the vase is only 5'2 inches high, it is quite possible that there 
was some means for getting at the opening from the floor of the church, 
so that on feast days the precious relic could have been taken out for 
exhibition to the people. 

The proprietors showed me a dooi' sill, with sockets, holes for bolts, 
&c., measuring 6 feet 10 inches on the inside which they said they found 
in situ. The place they pointed out came in the south wall of the church. 
The chambers to the north are from A\ to 6 feet higher in level than the 
aisle of the church, and the mosaic outside to the east is 5 feet lower than 
the aisle. I should mention that both the inscription chamber and the 
chamber near the " New House " have circular depressions in the mosaic 
at one corner, 1 foot 6 inches across, meant to collect the water while the 
mosaics were being washed. This feature occurred in the mosaic near the 
Damascus Gate. 

From the form of the church, the character of the letters in the 
inscription, the manner of mosaic, and the material of the walls, I 
conclude that we have here a conventual establishment of early Byzantine 
times, perhaps the fifth or sixth century. Herr Schick gives good reasons 
for supposing that the place was ruined and buried at the time of the 
pilgrimage of Felix Fabri. At any rate it is an interesting discoA'ei-y. 
The place was so far from my field of work at the wall that I doubt if I 
should have made the discovery had it not been for the suggestion of 
Hamdy Bey, to whose interest, thus, we owe the recovery of the church. 
This enthusiastic Director-General of the Imperial Museum shows a 
constant readiness to assist us in every way, and personally I feel most 
grateful to him. 

Our work on the Mount of Olives was a pleasant change, and it was 
agreeable to have so good results in so short a time. The proprietors 
received us cordially. Here, as elsewhere, I felt the value of the presence 
of Ibrahim Effendi, ovir Commissioner. His ancient family is well known 
about Jerusalem, and the proprietors received him as an honoured patron. 



They took greut interest iu the progress of the woi-k, and kept serving 
coffee not only to us but to our workmen. The last two or three days we 
were working both here and near Siloam, so my hands were quite full. 
But the glorious air and views quite compensated me for the additional 

On January 3rd I closed the works and ran down to Cairo. "We had 
lost so much time by rain that it seemed best to call a halt. As my trip 
gave me some interesting archaeological experiences, I may be pardoned if 
I refer to some of these before closing this report. 

One day was rich in reminiscence. Finding that Dr. Petrie was too 
far away for a visit, I thought that the next best thing to seeing him 
would be to see the spot whei'e he had taught me so much. So one day 
with a friend I took train for Wasta, and soon I found myself once more 
crossing the valley of the Nile with my eyes fixed on my favourite 
Pyramid — the Pyramid of Meydfxni — that had presided over my beginnings 
in the art of digging. We arrived about noon, and at once climbing the 
slope of debris that buries the lower part of the Pyramid, we took our 
lunch. It was the perfection of days, and brought out to perfection the 
simple elements that make the eternal beauty of an Egyptian landscape. 
On the one hand, the yellow desert, sparkling with myriads of tiny black 
psbble? — on the other, the brilliant green valley, dotted with mud villages, 
rising like islets from the verdure, warmed by the sun to a rich, chocolate 
T)rown ; then, beyond this, the Nile with its white sails ; then, another 
strip of green, suddenly ending, as it begins, with the yellow desert. 

From this high point of vantage I reviewed all my experiences of four 

years before. Here, just below, I had seen Petrie mark out a trench on a 

])erfectly flat surface and set a man at work to find a wall ; and what was 

the indication ? Simply that his keen eye had observed that the tiny 

desert pebbles ceased here in a long, straight line parallel to the Pyramid 

side. In three hours we returned, and the wall about the Pyramid had 

l^een found ! Then I looked into the great cutting he had begun before 

] left, in search for a Temple at the east side, and remembered the skill 

with which he removed the great stones which were lodged in the debris. 

Beyond I could see the place where he had followed the mud-brick walls 

of the buried Mustapas. Still further away to the south lay the Koman 

camp where he had given me my first lessons in the history of pottery. 

And there was a pleasant satisfaction which I know Dr. Petrie will share 

with me in my being able to recall how each lesson had borne distinct 

fruit. Within a month after leaving him I was sorting pottery and 

tracing buried brick walls at Tell el Hesy. At Jerusalem I too have 

been guided to observe slight surface indications, with the result of finding 

the long-lost wall. Even the great cutting, with its dangerous stones, 

was parcelled in my Jerusalem work, when I cleared out the fosse full of 

great stones fallen from the tower. 

Then we visited the tomb of Ka-Hotep, where I had studied Petrie'a 
book on Tell el Hesy. Here I was shocked to find the damage the 
Ijeautiful painted bas-reliefs had suffered during the last four years. 


Though very smaH, it is one of the most beautiful tombs in Egypt. Later 
I called the attention of Brugsch Bey, the director of the museum, to it, 
and I am pleased to say that he promised to have a door put to it. 

Brugsch Bey kindly gave me a letter to M. de Morgan, and another 

day with tlie same friend I piiid him a visit at the Pyramids of Dashftr. 

He received us cordially, showed us his plans, ami I was most struck by 

his enthusiasm and clear, scientific methods. He sent a man to show us 

through all the excavations. He has at present 300 men at work, and is 

making his way into the heart of two pyramids. It was interesting to 

note the place where the famous jewels had been found. 1 confess that 

two conditions of his work filled me with envy — he directly represents 

the Government, and his work lies where there are no landowners. What 

a privilege to work where archaeology can be purely archasological, and 

where a cabbage crop and a cauliflower field do not complicate the 

matter. Then, too, he works in the blessed Wilderness ; but this 

l)rivilege I had for two happy years, and I hope it will be my lot again to 

lead the desert life. My mind, that day, was full of comparisons. 

Excavating near a city is necessarily attended with great difficulties, but 

we are fortunate that in our present mission these have been minimised. 

Another contrast between digging in Egypt and digging in Syria 
was brought out vividly by a visit to the museum. The dry climate and 
the preserving sand have filled those great halls with their treasures. 
The regiments of soldiers, about ten inches high, of jiainted wood, each 
soldier as individual as if he were carved fi'om life, bearing in tlieir hands 
the spears of battle, the colours as fresh as the day, thousands of years 
ago, when they were painted — could the like of these, which were recently 
found in a tomb of Assiout, ever be found in a Syrian tomb ? Our 
worthy chainuan, Mr. Glaisher, will point to his meteorological tables for 
an answer. It is not lost time, when we are despondent about the lack of 
finds in Syria, to indulge in these reflections. The Syrian civilisation 
may have been far richer than we can ever know. 

At 'Heiwan I saw something that had a direct bearing on my Jerusalem 
work. In wandering over the hills at the back of this desert health-resort, 
I came upon some men at work in a large limestone quarry. This was 
situated in a small ravine ; the stone had been cut away at either side, 
leaving two perpendicular, tool-marked cliffs facing each other. I was 
looking down frani above, and struck by the likeness to my ow^n " Outer 
Scarp," I descended for a more careful examination. In my report in 
the Statement for October, 1894, p. 248, I gave several reasons to disprove 
that my scarp was a quarry. The 'Heiwan Quarry showed my reasons to 
be invalid. Here were the same unbroken lines, but much longer even ; 
here were the same smooth faces, worked with the long chisel marks, and 
standing to even a greater height. The w^ork of the men showed the 
l)rocess by which the " scarp " was being deepened before my eyes. A 
small groove was made along the base of the scarp, this was deepened for 
a couple of feet and widened for a few inches ; then the mass of rock thus 
separated was cut up and taken off. The scarp preserved its unbroken 

H 2 


slightly rounded face, only it was a couple of feet deeper than before, 
I even noticed the same short turnings which occur in my scarp, at 
F, I, K, &c. 

On p. 13 of the Statement for January, 1895, I made another remark 
about the scarp. I said : " Another suggestion may be made : although 
the scarp in its present condition was fashioned for defence, yet it may 
have followed the general line of an earlier quarry." I am now prepared 
to alter that remark, and say : Although the scarp was clearly used for 
a defence outside the wall, it evidently follows the line of a quarry. The 
question is merely one of priority. Was it an old quarry whose steep 
sides and convenient lines were taken advantage of as an outer defence 
when the wall was bailt % Or was it the quarry from which the stones 
of the original wall were cut, worked with the design of leaving an 
outer defence, generally parallel to the wall, and leaving a platform 
outside the gate ? 

The " inner scarp," that uncovered by Maudslay, shows more evident 
design in its working, as it has the two tower bases, the one on which 
the school is built and the other which I uncovered just outside the 
cemetery. But whatever the intention, the scarp was produced by the 
rock being quarried away. It is merely a question of Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee. In the fosse which belongs to this inner woik I have 
pointed out the blocks of rock which remain in the unfinished work, 
just as they might remain in an unfinished quarry. 

February I8tk, 1895. 


1. Muristan. — The old church on the Muristan had no proper foundations, 
hence its decay ; whereas the Church of St. Anne, founded on rock, which 
was built at nearly the same time, is still standing. In the place where 
the old entrance stood, in the northern wall, with a round arch over it, 
with figures of the twelve months, tombs were found, their bottoms only 
about 8 feet under the surface of the road on the north, or about 4 feet 
under the surface of the flooring of the former church. These tombs 
are, of course. Christian, although no cross or anything of the kind was 
found : they are built into tlie rubbish with small stones, and covered 
with flat stones. The bones are still there, and one skeleton measured 
2 metres or 65 feet long. In number they are half a dozeji, but there 
may be more not yet discovered. The aichitect, Mr. Groth, agrees with 
me that befoie the later church was built there had been already one 
there before, built in an easier way, and covered with a wooden roof and 
tiles, the walls of which they had to strengthen at the time when the 
church was arched. To the new strengthening parts they made founda- 
tions 5 to 6 feet deeper than the foiniei- ones, but not deep enough to 
give the building stability. It is hoped that in a few months the founda- 


tion work of the church now being erected (or restored) will be finished, 
having occupied Ij years' time, and involved an immense expenditure of 

2. — Excavations inside the New Gate. — Inside the town, at its north- 
western corner, just inside the New Gate, was till recently a void piece 
of ground,' the greater part belonging to the Greek Convent. One of the 
Greek monks is now, with consent of the Convent, building there along 
the road a row of shops, and behind them some other apartments, maga- 
zines, stables, cisterns, &c., and over these rooms to be let for lodgings. 
When digging for foundations they found several walls, running chiefiy 
from north-west towards south-east, but of no special interest. But in a 
line with the present city wall, behind the School Brethren, and running 
from west to east, was found a much stronger wall 8 feet thick, consisting 
of large but not well-dressed stones, resting ou a pavement, which con- 
sisted of large and thick flag-stones fitted together very exactly, so that 
one became convinced that it was rather ancient and older than the wall 
mentioned. It is about 8 feet ixnder the present surface, and vmder it 
the rock was found, and in some places the flag-stones were missing, and 
the rock cut there to a smooth level with the pavement. I got the 
impression this pavement had been once the flooring of a somewhat laige 
court which was surrounded by buildings. About 45 feet more north, or 
nearer to the gate, another still stronger wall was found. The southern 
wall stood on the pavement, but the northern seemed to be at the end (jf 
it ; but I could not decide this properly on account of the rubbish. There 
were also found a few carved stones once belonging either to capitals on 
square piers or pilasters, or perhaps forming a kind of cornice in a st-me- 
what grander building. Such stones nvAy be seen used again on the 
inside of the present city wall — west of the spot I speak of, and near the 
south side of the mosque standing there in the very corner of the modern 
wall. Hence, when the present city wall was built in 1542 by Sultan 
Soliman, the said building had been already destroyed. 

I send a drawing of a fragment of a tile with a lettered stamp on it. 
In itself it has no great value, but it may help to decide other questions. 

3. An old Pool west of the City. — The new Jewish colonies are extend- 
ing along the Jafla road and west of the city out to the valley in which 
the Convent of the Cross is situated. I had, in connection with these 
colonies, to measure and divide into shares several pieces of ground south 
of the Jaftaroad, extending downwards towards the Convent of the Cross, 
and observed a little way down the valley a level piece of ground, which 
I found to have been once a round pool, encircled for two-thirds of its 
extent by rocks, of considerable height towards the hillside, and walled up 
towards the valley below with very ancient, but now greatly dilapidated, 
masonry of square stones. The average diameter of this pool is nearly 
400 feet, the thickness of the layer of earth on its bottom unknown, but 

^ See Ord. Survev Plan ttg'uuj ^°<i Quarterly Statement, 1889, p. 62. 


I ordeie 1 a man to make a shaft in the centre, in order to ascertain the 
depth and the condition of the bottom, whether cemented or not. In 
the rock towards the north-west is a cleft, as if it had been once the 
source of a spring, but now dry. On the eastern height, not far from the 
pool, is a ruin and a cave, or rather a simken court in the rock, and on 
one of its sides is an opening like that of a Jewish rock-cut tomb. People 
told me that some time ago sarcophagi were found in it, and removed. 
On the western height is a cistern, and further down another one, 
and also a ruin. The people have no proper name for the place, but 
call it simply the " Hosseini's Pool." Hosseini is the name of a noble 
family in Jerusalem, so this name is rather a modern one. I am wonder- 
ing that we have not any notice of this pool, either in the Bible or in 
profane writings. 

4. Rechonwg of time among the Armenians.— It is perhaps not generally 
known that the Armenians have their own peculiar mode of reckoning 
dates. They count from the date of the first Armenian, who, they say, 
lived in the time of Shem, 4,386 years ago. Also they use a second 
reckoning, starting from the year 551 a.d. I became acquainted with 
this by noting on an inscribed slab the dates 1834 and 1283, which I 
thought indicated that the stone was put into its present position in the 
year 1834, and was then 551 years old. But the Secretary of the Convent 
told me this is not so, but the date 1283 indicates that according to 
the Armenian reckoning which corresponds to 1834 a.d.' 

5. The Armenian Cross.— With reference to Major Conders objection 
to the opinion that the Jerusalem Cross came from the Armenians 
{Quarterly Statement, 1894, p. 206), the Secretary said to me, "Whatever 
others may have had, I know that always, in all the centuries, the 
Armenian Cross had one beam longer than the others. That the Latins 
have it also, is no proof that we had it not." 

By Dr. G. Schumacher. 

The excavations on ancient sites carried on by native explorers with the 
object of finding articles of value, extended not only over the district 
between the seashore and the Jordan, but also over Jolan and 'Ajlun ; 
during a period of more than two years the Turkish Government placed 

1 In tlie jcar 351 A.D. a certain Andreas, of Bvzantiiun, drew up an Easter- 
table for 200 years. Towards the end of that period it was found to deviate 
considerably from the astrononiienl indications, and a new adjustment had to 
be made. This was done in 551 a.d., and ever since then the Armenians have 
reckoned from that jcar. See Idelcr, " Lehrbuch der Chronologic," Berlin, 
1831, p. 439.— [Ed.] 


no obstacle to these proceedings, especially as the diggers confined them- 
selves to. the opening of old tombs and the anti(|uities they found there, 
such as ancient glass ware, earthenware lamps and tear bottles, jars, 
coins Roman aud mediaeval, bracelets and other ornaments of compara- 
tively little value. But as " I'appetit vient en mangeant," the explorers 
commenced a regular trade with European and native antiquarians. 
Their operations extended, especially along the brow of Mount Carmel 
between Haifa and Caesarea, which is honeycombed with ancient I'ock 
liewu tombs, excavations were made on a large scale, and small boatt 
anchored along the coast to smuggle away the results. At length the 
local Governors have been instructed to stop these excavations entirely. 

Regarding the tombs opened, their plans differ very little from each 
other : an entrance, with semi-circular top, of 2| to 3 feet in height and 
1 foot 8 inches to 2 feet wide, generally closed by a slab of limestone, led 
to a square room of 10 to 15 feet each way and about 6 feet in height ; 
in each of the three perpendicular walls opposite to and adjoining the 
entrance we find loculi and kokim pierced into the soft rock. Amongst 
the fifty-four tombs opened on the site of Teu'ameh, near Tell es Samak, 
the greater number contained but two loculi under arcosolia in each wall ; 
others only one, and isome three. 

In a few instances the entrance, instead of being on the side of a 
rock cliff, was formed by a shaft leading from the flat surface of the rock 
vertically 4 feet or more down to the door of the sepulchral room. 
In such cases no stone door was discoverable, the shaft having been 
closed on tlie surface {see sketch). The shaft showed a square section of 
about 3 feet each way. 


Tctni ; i :<o 

1 I 


(.__■_•_ rf_ i-S' 

Section of Eock-Cut Tomb. 

On the eastern slope of Tell es Samak, a tomb was closed with a 
marble door, 2' 2" X 1' 10" and 3 inches thick ; having 

a cross ^f^ ^ 

engraved on its front. Any number of marble fragments were excavatfl 
at Tell es Samak, a proof of wealth. 

1. Glass Ware. The most interesting article brought to me is a 
round piece of green glass, with Aramaic characters on its sides. I 
consider it to luu'e been a weight, and enclose a wax impression of the 


letters. One end of the glass was broken, and the piece htted on again 
by a thin solution of gum-aralnc ; this j^rocedure will not have affected 
the original weight considerably ; the gum may just rebalance the weight 
of the few very small glass chips missing. The glass is supposed to have 
been found in a tomb near Eas en Nakftra, 8 miles north of Acre, near 
the sea-coast ; it has diameters of 3| inches and 3f inches, not being 
precisely round, and an equal thickness of ^ of an inch English, its 
periphery is rounded off ; the two flat sides bear on the obverse the 
following characters (A of sketch), and on the reverse (B of sketch), the 

other lines on the reverse seem to have been produced in preparing the 
glass. In compai"ing these characters with Professor Euting's "Tabula 
Scripturse Aramaicee," and with Levy's excellent book on Jewish coins,' 

the obverse seems to represent the Hebrew letters ^, 1, and ^, and on the 
reverse there seems to stand the letter y. 

The exact weight of this glass is 275'20 grammes, or 3,492'29 English 
grains (taking the English pound at 453,592 grammes = 5,760 grains ; 
1 gramme therefore equalling 12"69 grains). According to Levy (op. cit., 
]). 156), the weight of a shekel of Simon varies between 14"33 grammes 
as a maximum and 13'46 grammes as a minimum ; our weight bein^ 
27520 grammes, represents therefore the twenty-fold of a shekel of 
13 "76 grammes, or four of the Syrian (or Hittite) " Netzegs," of 5 shekels, 
described by Professor Flinders Petrie, in " An ancient Hebrew weight 
from Samaria," Quarterly Statement, 1890, pp. 267, 268 ; but our Netzeg 
would be equal to 873 grains instead of 627, the weight determined by 
Professor Petrie. 

To judge from the look and the characteristic silver skins appearing 
on its surface this ancient glass must be o-enuine. 


2. Several fragments of other ancient glass of a dark -green colour 
have been shown to me. They contain inscriptions and stamps iu 
Arabic and Cufic characters, most of them illegible to me ; they also 
represent weights of an early Arabian period, but being fragmentary 
] cannot determine them. I inclose impressions of the inscriptions, 
which partly seem to recite Koranic sentences, pai'tly represent stamps 
of some high official. They are noted as found near K'aktin, in the plain 
west of NS,blus. 

1 Dv. M. A. Levy, " Geschichtc der Jiidischcn Miinzen," 18G2, pp. 13G, 137. 


3. Stone antiques jrom Vdztlr. — I inclose the sketch of an interesting 
stone idol, 7g inches long, which w;is found by the German colonists in 
ploughing laud near the village Ydzilr, situated a few miles east of Jalia 
on the Jerusalem road. The idol —for this it must have been — shows a 
ram's head and horns and sort of a tail, but no feet nor any other limb ; 
the work, although very primitive, is not without skill ; it is made of a 

bluish-grey hard limestone, weighs 1,082 grammes, or 2"38 lbs., and is 
doubtless genuine. 

4. Seals. — I inclose an impression of a hfematite ancient Arab seal 
which I read : " billah muzatiar ben 'Alad } (hu)," 

or 'Allan I 

[^L or] A^ ^^ >li,<= 

which, for its ancient characters, is interesting. The dots are omitted on 
the seal. I am doubtful about the reading of the last word, but I 
interpret : " Through (the mercy of) God, muzaffar (the victorious) Son of 
^Aldd (the severe), it is he " (or : he is it). According to Weil, " Geschichte 
dev islamitischen Volker," p. 423, the Muzafferides were in the fourteentli 
centur}' (1380) tlie princes of the Persian Irak and Chuzistan. Whether 
this seal had an}" connection with that family can hardly be answered. 

A second impression also I transmit, an impression of Greek characters 
engraved on a copper ring, which was found in the Hauran, near Kelr 

Ail V 

5. Tant'Arah. — It will probably interest your readers to learn that 
"el burj," the so-called " tower" of TantCirah, situate about a mile noitli 
of the present village on the rock precipice bordering the ancient site and 
sea, collapsed oti the 15th of January, nothing remaining of this important 
landmark, so familar to all acquainted with the neighbourhood of Ctesarea, 


but a heap of cMiris aud foiindation walls. ( Vide my report in Quarterly 
Statement, 1887, p. 84, and Memoirs S.W.P., Vol. II, p. 7.) 

6. Beisan. — In sinking trial pits for the railway company last 
December, the Italian workmen struck an underground channel, cut into 
the soft rock on the iiorthern baiik of the Jalud river, opposite Beisan. 
The channel or cistern was plastered, 5 to 6 feet high, and 3 to 5 feet 
wide, and had a total length of more than 100 feet. It leads around a 
slope, and had an outlet towards the hill plateau, Tell el Mastabeh, above 
it. The top of the cistern was round. No antiquities were foufid. 
Below the ruins of the ancient bridge, Jisr el Maktua', opposite Tell el 
Husn, near Beisan, the Mudir of the imperial farms has constructed a new 
handsome stone bridge at the crossing of the liigh road leading from the 
Jisr el Mujami'a to Beisan. The bridge has two spans of 16 feet 6 inches 
each, leaving sufficient waterway for the Jallid river. The town of 
Beisan, since being created the head place of the Sultan's farms in the 
Jordan Valley, is rapidly growing ; paved streets, a suk or market ]3lace, 
barracks, Government mansions, and a large khan have been built, and I 
am told tliat the construction of twenty magazines for storage of grain 
and an inn ("locanda"), to meet the requirements of native tourists, have 
already been sanctioned by his Majesty. The extensive garden adjoining 
the Mudir's residence contains hundreds of poplar trees and rare 
specimens of oranges and other Syrian fruit trees. The sanitary con- 
ditions of Beisan have not much improved, but the large plantations of 
Eucalypti will doubtless lead to a reduction of the fevers now prevailing. 

About twenty yards to the south of Khan el Ahmar (Beisan) I have 
been able to trace the columns of a large basilica or temple. The main 
axis runs due east and west, the eastern end is not tiaceable, hence no 
apse discoverable, but the western abutment shows five aisles, viz. : two 
on the north of 13 feet 3 inches width each, a central nave of 26 feet 
6 inches, and two southern aisles of 13 feet 3 inches width ; prostrate 
columns and corinthian capihxls are scattered about the place, and to 
judge from the mouldings and other ornaments built into the walls of 
Khan el Ahmar, this building, erected in the thirteenth century, must 
have been built of the materials of the basilica or temple. 

By P. J. Baldensperger, Esq. 

Some notes about this larg3 village may be of interest to readers of 
the Quarterly Statement. They were collected on the spot, and some 
.supplementary notes added. 

The modern name Beth-dejan is evidently derived from the ancient 
village or town of Daghoon, situated about a mile and a half west of the 


present village on the way to the modern settle uient of Eishon I'Zion, 
founded in 1881 by Russian-Jewish refugees. The modern village may 
have been peopled some 150 years ago. Daghoon was inhabited by 
Moslems, whilst Beth-dejan, whicli then had another name, was inhabited 
by Christians, probably of the Greek Church. The Christians were 
industrious, making baskets and mats, whilst the Moslems chiefly lived 
by robbery, having a good situation for that j^wi'P*^**^) between the high 
roads between Jafia and Jerusalem and Jaffa and Gaza. In consequence 
of their vagabond life snails infested their gardens and lands, whilst 
the lands of their Christian neighbours were thriving, but the Christians 
had to strive hard against their oppressors. One day, probably during the 
governorship of Jezzar Pasha, two men met at the limits of the lands — a 

slight elevation — called Abu Sweda, Ij^j ^^ »jl, the place of the plum tree, 

now marked by a Nubk tree, called also Sidr. The men had to settle a 
frontier dispute, and the Christian being stronger killed the Moslem, in 
consequence of which the Moslems fell on their Christian neighbours 
unawares, killed and dispersed the men, excepting such as turned Moslems, 
and kept the women for themselves. They then abandoned their village, 
Daghoon, to the snails, and settled in Beth-dejan, to which jjlace they 
gave this name. The churches were tuined into mosques, and the 
industries changed hands ; the modern mosque of Sidua Sa'ad el-Ansar, 

,L3J^'i iXst-o u Jlx^, is very probably a corru]3tion of Nas&ra=iChristians. 

Some very fair faces are still found in Beth-dejan, and are probably 
of crusading descent. Although I have collected these notes in Beth- 
dejan, the inhabitants, as well as those of Deir-Abban, pretend to know 
nothing about the story. 

The population of Beth-dejan may amount to 2,500 souls, there being 

500 paying men-z.e., paying the tax— j^Ar. 'Adad, "numbering." The 
village is situated about half a mile east of the Jerusalem carriage road, 
and west of the railway. It is about five miles from Jaffa. The 
inhabitants are very industrious, occupied chiefly in making mats and 
baskets for carrying earth and stones. They own camels for carrying 
loads from Jaffa to Jerusalem, cultivate the lands, and work at buildings, 
&c., in Jaffa or on the railway works. The women flock every day to 
Jaffa, and on Wednesdays to Ramleh— to the market held there, with 
chickens, eggs, and milk. They have a very bad reputation, see Quarterli/ 
Statement, October, 1893, p. 309. 

The Jewish colony of Rishon I'Zion also affords the Dejanites plenty 
of work, in planting vineyards and as domestic servants. 

Tlie lands of the village do not all belong to the villagers. In con- 
sequence of the introduction of legal Government deeds — Koshan, ^.\jlS 

— introduced early in the seventies of this century, many of the villagers, 
to escape the trifling tax for tlie legalisation of deeds, had their lands 
given to the Effendis of Jaffa, so that many villagers have now no land 


at all, but work the lands of the Effendis and share tlie produce. 
About one-third of the lands belong to the Effendis, one-third to private 
villagers, and one-third to the villagers in general. This refers only to 
the arable lands. The olive trees and enclosed gardens are private 
property, and extend in a broad line westward away over the Jerusalem 
road, towards a watch tower built for protection in the time when 
Mustapha Abu Ghosh reigned e?i maitre over almost all Judea. An olive 
tree here, near the road, is shown where General Buonaparte sat, in 1798, 
overlooking his army encamped in the groves. 

The village is situated on a hill, or rather on the slopes. The vestigec 
of a castle crowned the top of the hill, but it is now almost covered by 
houses. Below the Kala'a is a closed cavern. T was not admitted, for 
fear of " stirring the spirit," for, of course, the cavern is haunted, marsude, 

ijt^j^, and contains a treasure, like every such place. The owner would 

not even talk about it, fearing lest the intrusion of a stranger might prove 
fatal to him and his family — examples of which are plenty ! 

The village has five Jawame, *_,<^^, pi. of «.^lr?-, or prayer- 
houses : — 


East, Sidna Sa'ad el Ans§,r ,1-^'^^ <^'^ liJ^-v-.- 

In centre, Jame el Sheikh Marzuk L-> • '« "« ^J^^^ %-^<^s>' 

West, Jamu Ahl el Ghad u Sa'ad ... . . , 

waSe'ed '^:^*-= J -^*~-- J ^^"^^ J^^ f*^ 

North, Jamu Muhamet el Zawani ^j^.jj^ Jk^..5j,c •*-,<[>- 

East, in the cemetery, Sheikh , .-. 

Ethman ' ^^-^^-s^ -^r*^ 

Besides these five prayer-houses, the centre one of which is mostly 
used for ordinary prayers, a grave of a Sheikh was discovered a few years 
ago beside the road. The owner of the field had a dream : someone 
threatened to choke him. He awoke, and when he saw it was a dream 
slept again. He dreamed again, but did not heed. A third time he was 
threatened, and then asked, " Who are you 'I " So his visitor revealed 
himself as Sheikh Imhamad, the son of Sidna Sa'ad el Ans^r, and bade 
him dig in such a place, and he would find the grave. On the morrow he 
took several witnesses, and on digging discovered the grave, which is now 
honoured, and lias a lamp lit at it every evening. There is at present 
only a stone to mark the grave, but it will by-and-bye become a real 
Jamc. The villagers have water from a byara, or Persian wheel-well. 
To the north-west of the village i.s a largo swamp during winter and 
spring, where the animals of the village drink, but when summer comes 
this swamp causes malarial fever. The inhabitants sometimes fall sick 
en masse. 



Every portion of land, whether belonging to private pers(»ns or to the 
village in general, has a name ; an undulation of land, slope, hill, lowland 
and so on, suggesting the denomination. The following names mav prove 
interesting, as showing how they are chosen from the nature of the soil 
the form, the situation, and so forth. 

North, and extending to Yasdr, we find them thus : — 
















Abu '1 Karadeesh 



Abu Sliman 








i I* Am: 

Seasoning jilace. 

The conditions. 

The habituated (?) or the 
naked (?). 

(Sunara) is a fishing hook. 
Sanura is a cat or a Prince. 

Wickerwoik basket. 

The vetches (?) 

The islands. 

The arched. 


Space between two ribs — 
or span. 

The walled. 
The centraL 

The centre ones. 

The earthenware fragments. 
The northern ones. 

The barley-bread place. 

A plant " Golden rod." 

The congratulating place. 

Father of Solomon (also a 
nickname for the fox). 



Towards the east 
Bast Abu Shkeef 




Abu '1 'Ejoul 



A^Li »;1 l::,^^^: The marsh of the cavern. 
l::J^j^\ J*i-i> The field of mulberries. 
C:jIjW1 The inns. 

Place of Narcissus. 
The place of calves. 
jj^l>l.oJ' Tlie intemperate (smoker). 
Jl The hawthorn tree. 

i iw. !^ t,A The place of heads. 

The man who told me these names says that in this place, called " ])l;ice 
of heads," a sarcophagus with two heads was formerly seen, but is now 
buried, as it hindered the ploughing. The place is about midway between 
the Jatfa road and Safurieh, beside the road leading from the main road 
to the village. 

Towards the west : — 

tU-lKH The place of sickles (?). 








Muktal-'Ali Agha 


The i;pper part of the pit. 
The eastern marsh. 

-JjLi) The spanned. 

The place of holes (of 

ilxjlJu^n The doubled. 

aa.' ^ 1 »^ 

lijOytll LiJ The western marsh 

The killing-place of Ali 

BirketHadj Ehmad a.4j^^ ^S=>- l::^ .j 
Suttfthh Zji^ 

cOIjl) Humming place. 
Haj Ehmad's pool. 
Plain surface or roofs. 


The fifth party. 
Torch place. 



Towards the south : — 
Abu Swt'cle 

Abu Hattab 



Wad Sa'douii 



Hikr 'Eed 





South-west : — 





Shakhloub Saleh' 





The plum tree place. 
The wood. 
Piles (?). 

Sa'doun's valley. 

The flying (a lofty tree ou 
a hill). 

ijtjS~<, The Hyena's cave. 

Juc: _C^ 'Eed's field. 

J -i" M * ' n '^^s eastern vale. 

;jl,l, The divorced. 

IsA • '^^^^ increased. 


j^x*J' y 

The pebble hill. 
The sparrow's hill. 
The oak depression. 
The charging place. 
The ashy place or hill. 
Saleh's overthrow. 

Many of these names are modern, many belonging to the site of some 
wood, building, or wall, long ago disappeai'ed. A very few have names 
dating probably very far back, so that the very name is incomprehensible ; 
the Congratulating place, for example, must have been where the villagers 
and their next neighbours usually met on festivals of some kind. The 
Wood, of course, once has been, so the Oak depression. Bissar and 
Kalimbe seem strange names. 




By Samuel Bergheim, Esq. 

It is, I believe, generally accepted by all interested in this subject 
that :— 

1. Jebns, the Jerusalem at the time of David, consisted of two 

parts : — 

{a) The stronghold — which was not inhabited by the Israelites ; 
(6) The other division, where some Israelites (Benjamites) dwelt 
together with the original inhabitants — the Jebusites. 

2. That the stronghold was taken by David, and became the City of 

David, and called Zion. 

3. That Zion and the City of David are one and the same place. 

4. That Millo was in and formed part of the City of David or Zion. 

The main question then is : — 

Where was this stronghold, and, therefore, where the City of David 
called Zion 1 

So many arguments and views have been put forward, some supported 
by weighty reasons both scientific and historical, that it would seem 
almost presumptuous for me to start a fresh theory. But I would, as an 
old resident at Jerusalem — and basing my convictions on certain facts — 
venture to ask for a small space in the Quarterly Statement to explain my 

Neither names of places nor customs have undergone much, if any, 
change. This is a well accepted fact, and I therefore need not occupy 
space to prove it. 

We are distinctly told : — 

1. That the City of David was the stronghold, and called Zion. 

2. That this Zion was the highest of all the hills of or in Jerusalem. 

3. That Zion was called the upper city. 

I. — The north-west corner of Jerusalem contains the foundations of an 
ancient fort, castle, or tow^er, shown on the Ordnance Survey Map as 
Kala'at al Jalful, and this name is rendered there "Goliath's Castle." 

The translation of "al Jalftd" as Goliath is absolutely erroneous. 
JalM does not mean Goliath, nor can the two names bear the same 

Jaiftd means strong, mighty, impregnable, aTid should be so translated. 
Kala'at al JalAd — the castle of the strong — the impregnable castle — or 
alone, al Jalftd — the stronghold. 

The f|uarter or street round this Kala'at al JalAd is called Harat al 


JawalJ.c — the street or quarter of the people or inhabitants of the 
stronghold, or, literally, the (jiiarter or street of "the strongholders." 

The strougliold had a fosse (Heb. tzinnor) on its west side. This 
fosse has been identified {see Plan of North-west Corner, Quarterly 
Statement., 1892, p. 18). 

The City of David, Zion, occupied two hills — or rather two knolls on 
one hill — one on which the stronghold was situate being higher than the 
other on which the rest of the city was built. That part of the city which 
occupied the higher hill was called the upper city, the other, occupying 
the lower, was called the lower city. The upper part round the Harat 
al Jawaldeh is still called El Hara el Foka — the upper street or quarter, 
in contra-distinction to the lower part now occupied by the Church of 
the Sepulchre, the Muristan, the Coi^tic Convent, &c., and still called 
El Hara e' Tahta — the lower street or quarter. 

The hill of Zion is described as the highest of the hills of Jerusalem. 
The upper knoll on which al JalAd stands is 2,580 feet above the level 
of the Mediterranean Sea, and is actually the highest point in the city. 

One side of the hill is described as scarped or precipitous. The soutli- 
western side of the hill below al Jalud is still called "El Wa'riyeh" {see 
Ordnance Survey Map), which means the scarped, rocky, oi precipitous, 
and the declivity is certainly very great even now, over 50 feet in a 
stretch of less than 500 feet, and the level of the ground at present is 
over 100 feet above the site of the original street, 

Zion is described as occupying the north and also the north- \vest 
portion of the city. Al JalM answers to this description. 

The lower knoll of Zion was levelled or reduced in height during the 

O O 

Hasmonean period. This lower knoll, at the foot of which is the present 
Church of the Sepulchre, is still called Khot el Khankeh. Moslem 
tradition of recent times ascribes the name to a mother of one of the 
Sultans, a Valido Khan, who is supposed to have endowed a college there, 
and it has since been called Khankeh. 

This exi)lanation is not of sufficient value to require attention, but it 
is remarkable that the word Khankieh means a knoll or prominence that 
has been cut down, lowered, or levelled. Khot el Khankieh, i.e., " the 
site of the place or prominence that was levelled." 

David built a wall round Zion enclosing Millo, which formed the 
lower portion of Zion, and was afterwards called the lower city, but at 
the same time formed part of the city itself, that is of Zion the City of 

This wall was frequently repaired and strengthened by successive 
kings of Judah. It had on its north-west end a gate called Gennath, 
leading to the upper market place, and to the descent to Silla. 

This gate is placed by most writers on the topography of Jerusalem 
(amongst them such well-known authorities as Major Conder and 
Mr. Schick), and I think quite correctly, near the present Jaffii Gate. 
It led to the gardens and also to the stairs leading up to or down from 
the City of David to Silla, or vice versa. 


It is a fact worth noting that the street leading straight down fronr 
this point is still called Sueket 'Allon— the street of the ascent, and 
that it is remarkably steep. The word 'Allon is not an Arabic one, but is 
a transformation or corruption of the Hebrew, Waaloth, or 'aloth, ascent 

— stall s. 

This street of 'Allon, starting at Gate Gennath at a level of 2,528 feet, 
goes down in a straight line to the edge of the hill above the Tyropeou 
Valley to a level of 2,450 feet, and then across the valley (formerly, 
no doubt, over a causeway or viaduct— Wilson's Arch) to Bab el 

The name of this gate of the Temple or Haram enclosure has been 
wrongly translated. Silsileh does mean a chain, but only so because a 
chain resembles running water in its continuity. The right translation 
should be —fountain — running water — a water conduit. 

This water conduit does exist, even to the present day, under this gate,, 
as shown in the Ordnance map, and the word Silla is evidently from the 
more ancient one, sehl — flow, flowing. M'Silla seems to be Ma Silla, 
the water of the flowing — the water conduit. 

Joash was slain at Millo, in or near the stairway 'Aloth or 'Alon— 
leading to Silla M'silla — the water conduit. 

II. — Millo. To strengthen Millo a second wall was built inside the 
City of David. 

Between the two walls Hezekiah made a pool called by Josephus 
Amygdalon, " of the stronghold." This inner pool was fed or supplied by 
a pool which he made outside the City of David by a conduit, which 
entered the city at the west side} 

The present pool, called the Upper of Gihon and Ma Milla in Arabic,, 
is connected by a conduit with the pool between the two walls, and, in 
fact, is its source of supply. 

This water conduit is shown on the Ordnance Survey Maj). Ma 
Milla is supposed by some to derive its name from an early Christian 
saint of the name of Mamilla, who built a church near the ijlace. The 
words are, however, so thoroughly local that this is not worth a second 
thought. The saint probably built a church near the pool, and took her 
name from the locality. Ma Milla should, I think, be correctly translated 
as the "Water of or for Milla," or Millo, the transposition of " a " into 
" <) " being a common one. 

' That the stronghold (" house of the mighty "), the sepulchres of David 
and some of his successors, aud the pool that was made (Hezekiah's), were 
contiguous, is clearly shown in Nchemiah ch. iii, v. IG. 

The walls of Jerusalem were rebuilt in Nehemiali's time in sections or 
apportioned parts, one following the otlier ("after him builded," "from," 
" to "), and the pari that Neheniiah, the son of Azbuk, undertook to build, and 
did build, enclosed the stronghold (house of the mighty men), tlie pool that., 
was made, and tlic sepidchres of David. 


This outer pool, then, was made to supply the one made by Hezekiah 
inside the walls. The latter being situate in Millo, the appellation given 
to the former Avould be quite natural. Birket Ma Milla. i.e., the pool of 
the water for Millo. There should, therefore, be no difficulty in 
recognising the present Birket Hamani al Batrak as occupying part of 

It was near this conduit connecting the two pools, that the Assyrian 
Eabshakeh stood and talked to the men on the wall, near the Fuller's 

Taking these facts into consideration, there seems to me little room 
left for doubt that the City of David, viz., Zion, including Millo, occupied 
the north-west portion of the City of Jerusalem. 

The first wall, I believe, started at al Jahid, then on to the end of 
the scarped side opposite the so-called Tower of David, or Hippicus, near 
the present Jaffa Gate, and then in a straight line down the 'Alon to the 
south-east corner of the Muristan, and then onwards in a straicht line to 
the present Damascus Gate, and then round, along, or just outside the 
present north wall to al JalCid. 

Recent excavations show the remains of such a wall, near al JaKid, 
marked C on jilan illustrating recent discoveries, near the top of 'Alon, 
marked B on plan, in the Khan el Zeit below the Church of the 
Sepulchre and the Coptic Convent, marked F, and outside the present 
north wall above the Damascus Gate, marked D. 

The second wall to strengthen Millo was inside the first wall, see 
Conder's Map of Ancient Jerusalem ; also Schick's {Quarterly Statement, 
July, 1893, p. 191). 

The tombs of David and Solomon, as well as of the Kings of 
Judah buried with them, would necessarily be within the first wall 
enclosing the City of David. The ancient Jewish tombs now enclosed 
within the present Church of the Se]nilclire (and within the first wall as 
indicated) off"er in every way the required features ; and little, if any, 
room can be left for doubt that they are the veiy sepulchres of David, 
and some of his fuccessors. This view is, I am gratified to find, held by 
Major Conder. 

The theory, then, as to the tomb of Christ being within the present 
Chui cli of the Sepulchre, becomes untenable.* 

^ See Plan of Jerusalem to illustrate recent discoveries, published by the 
Palestine Exploration Fiind. 

I 2 



By the Eev. Professor T. F. Wright, Ph.D. 

At the meeting of the American Oriental Society, lield March 29-31, 
1894, Professor Isaac H. Hall, Curator of the Metropolitan Museum, gave 
an account of a small bronze object which lie likened to the head-end of a 
tenpenuy cut nail. Upon the larger end is a figure resembling an 
equestrian soldier. The length of the object is 3 "7 centimeters. A hole 
passes through it. An inscription covers the four sides, two of the sides 
having one line each, and the other two having two lines each. Professor 
Hall read thus — 







Professor Hall put this into modern type and sepai-ated the words 
thus : — Ayios Kvpios \ IvXidua | tw 8ov\ou \ irov raJ (fioporjri \ 6 KaroiKSiv 
ev3oT}dLa I TO) v\jri(TTa ^orjdt. He spoke of the difficulty in the word 
<})opo7]Ti, suggesting tliat it probably means " supporter " or " f urtherer," 
and saying that he took ra vylriaTco as a dative of manner or degree. 

A possible translation was this : " Holy Lord, who dwellest in help, 
help most loftily Julianus the supporter of thy servant." 

In closing his note Dr. Hall said, " For what ]iurpose the object was 
made or used, or what more nearly was the purport of the inscription, I 
cannot determine." 

UjDon reading this note in the proceedings of the Society, I noticed 
with much interest that the inscription apparently contained a quotation 
from the Ninety-first Psalm, which begins in the Greek, 'O kutoikcov iv 
^orjdfia rod v^'icttov. Psalm 90-1 in LXX, our 91st. 

I knew that a tomb near the Damascus gate of Jerusalem bears the 
inscription — 


which must be read as acjuotation of that verse. See Qiiartcrli/ Statement, 
Palestine Fun<l, 1890, pp. 1")8 and 306. And see the inscription, No. 2G~2, 
of Waddington. This seemed to give a clue to a part of the inscri])tion. 

Tbe inaccuracy of all sucli iuscrijjtions is remarked upon by every 
writer as due to the fact that Hebrews used a language, in writing which 
they had little facility. 

As to the difficult word (f)opor]Ti, T believe that it ma)'' be regarded as in 
the same construction as the linal (ioi]6i. That word we must, of course. 


reiuler by " help," imperative. This is the commonest word in such inscrip- 
tions. No doubt it is a reference to a phrase found in Psalms Ixxix, 9, 
cix, 26, cxix, 86, and elsewhere. In Waddingtou's collection of 
Syrian inscriptions 1 have noted in forms of petition ^orjdrjTco, fiot)6(i, 
ISoridav, ^ofiBuiv, (^orjdos, 8(i>i]6i, 8or]6r)aoi, fio-qOoi, epor'jdrjaev, ^ode'aas, ^orjBrjarj, 
IBofidatu, (3u)Tjd, ldoT]6a>, and so on in many other places. 

Why the Seventy introduced this word in translating Psalm xci, 1, 
is not plain, but they did so, and thus the word occurs twice here without 

The simplest rendering of the whole is to make cpoporjTi eciuivalent to 
(f)op€a> in 2 Aor. imi)., ="be favourable" : — " Holy Lord, be favourable to 
Julian, thy servant ; tliou that dwellest in the secret place of the Most 
High, give him aid."' 

If we modify the translation in order to make use of tw in 36, we 
must follow Dr. Hall more closely and say : — " Holy Lord, to Julian who 
has been favourable to thy servants, give aid ; thou that dwellest in the 
secret place of the Most High." 

As to the use of the object it is undoubtedly an amulet, to be worn 
upon the neck suspended by a cord through the hole. 

People also wear a blue bead suspended from the neck to defend them 
from the Evil Eye. Seals were often so hung, and are so worn to-day. 
See Kopp's Falceograp/ta Critica on Amulets. 

If we seek to go any nearer to this Julian we must think first of the 
emperor, commonly called the Apostate. It is a striking fact that Julian 
should have so favoured the Jews that they might well pray for him. To 
him, upon his ascending the throne and renouncing the Christianity of 
his uncle, Constautine, the Jewish religion appealed as a national cidt, 
abounding in sacrifices such as he delighted in. When he learned that it 
could not be restored unless the temple wei'e rebuilt, he gave orders that 
this be done, and in a letter to the nation he expressed pity for their 
misfortunes, condemned their opjiressors, praised their constancy, declared 
himself their gracious protector, and expressed the hope that, after his 
return from the Persian war, he might come to Jerusalem and worship the 
Almighty God. Sec Gibbon, Milman, Neander, Graetz. 

This letter was received with delight, and crowds gathered to rebuild 
the temple. At the same time they persecuted the Christians, called by 
Julian "the Galileans." Julian was almost worshipped, and could his 
request, " Address your fervent prayers for my empire to the Almighty 
Creator of the universe," have gone urdreeded 'I 

The temple was not rebuilt. The purpose of the Jews was thwarted 
by portentous events. Julian never returned from the Persian war. He 
reigned less than two years, and died in 363. But for some months at 
least he was undoubtedly an object of Jewish prayer. Is this equestrian 
soldier the em])eror ? Is the mark of which Professor Hall speaks as 
resembling a lion some legion -emblem of dragon, or wolf, or boar >. 

But " Julian," as may be seen from the inscriptions already collected, 
was a common name in Palestine and Syria. On two graves near Beyrout 


the name is found. At Bozrah, over Jordan, a Christian bishop of that 
name was famous. At the same jalace there is an inscription to the 
honour of a cavalry officer of that name. Another Julian was governor 
of Syria under Antoninus Pius, and he miglit be thought of as possibly 
our man. There was, however, a commander of cavalry at Palmyra by 
this name. Finally, there is a monument near Antioch to a Julian of the 
eighth legion. 

Had this inscription been found npon a tomb we should be obliged to 
exclude all Julians but the one resident near that place. As it is the case 
of an amulet, and as the cost of it would put it out of the reach of 
common people, I am inclined to think that we are in possession of a 
relic of the time of the Emperor Julian and of the temporary enthusiasm 
which was roused among the Jews over the promised restt>ration of their 

Cambrtdoe, Mass., U.S.A. 


By A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D. 

The mosaic recently found at Jerusalem and published in the Qitcrterly 
^Statement (1894, pp. 258-259), does not seem to me Byzantine, as 
I>r. Bliss is inclined to sui)j)Ose (p. 261). In the drawing of the birds I 
do not find vhe degradation of forms so charactei'istic of Byzantine art. 
On the contrary, there is much that reminds me of a late classical spirit, 
such as we expect in the period between Constantine and Justinian 
(a.d. 321 — 56U). The general design of a great plant or tree growing out 
of a vase recalls a mosaic from Carthage now in the British Museum, 
which can hardly be later than the early ])art of the Gth century, while 
again, the birds enclosed among the branches remind one in a measure 
of the early Christian sarcophagi. The domed building within one of 
the spaces suggests the Church of the Holy Se])ulchre, and is not unlike 
the rejn-esentation of it given on coins of a king of Jerusalem in the 
1 2th century, though its outline is far more classic and refined on the 
mosaic. It is true that the habit of enclosing animal forms within circles 
formed by foliage was very frequent in Byzantine work, but equally 
it had been there derived from late classic times when drawing was far 
purer, and more like that of the new mosaic. The difiiculty at present 
is to reconcile tliis view of an early date with the Armenian inscription, 
which forms apparently an original part of the mosaic. 

With reference to this ditficuky, a distinguished Armenian scholar, 
the Rev. S. Baronian, of Manchester, has, in a very courteous letter to 
myself, discussed the various possibilities. He points out that the 


Armenian ali)liabet was invented early in the 5tli century (about 406 A.D.). 
and that paUeograpliically tlie present inscription would, from the 
simplicity and grace of the characters, suggest a comparatively early 
stage in the history of that alphabet. Next, referring to another mosaic, 
with fragmentary Armenian inscriptions, found at Jerusalem in 1871, 
and also decorated with figures of birds and grapes, Mr. Baronian 
observes that in this instance the inscription indicates the tomb of 
Schouschanic, mother of Artavan. He proceeds : " Schouschanic (which 
means ' a little lily ') was a name used and known in our history during 
the 5th century. More important, however, is the name of Artavan. 
In general, the manner of designating a person in such inscriptions was 
to add the names of the parents ; here the opposite method of adding the 
name of the son shows that the latter must have been a well known per- 
.sonage in the East, and that, in fact, it must have been he who had erected 
the tomb. From these considerations I venture to accept as very 
probable the opinion of the Bp. Astouadzatour Ter-yohannesiantz, who, 
in his ' Chronological History of Jerusalem,' more especially that of the 
Armenian convent of St. .James in that city (Ed. '.Jerusalem,' 1890, 
2 vols., in Armenian), says that this Artavan was the Artabanes of 
Procopius ('Vand.,'iv, 28), and Jornandes ('Success.' 149, 3), the slayer 
of Gouthar in Africa (a.d. 546), foi- which act he received from Justinian 
the governorship of Africa, where he officiated for some time. This 
Artabanes is described by Procopius ('Persian Wars,' ii, 3) as an 
Armenian, and a son of John the Arsacide." So that the ago of Justinian 
would suit the inscription, and as that age was famous for its mosaic 
work, as Mr. Baronian remarks, we might be prepared to accept that 
date for the mosaic. 

Should, however, the style of the mosaic point to an earlier period, 
Mr. Baronian suggests that this view might find some support in the 
name of " Esvaghan," which occurs on another Jerusalem mosaic 
discovered some years ago, if Bp. Astouadzatour is right in claiming this 
" Esvaghan " as identical with the king of that uame mentioned among 
others by the historian Moses of Chorene (" Hist.," iii, 54), where he 
states that Mesrob, the inventor of the Armenian characters, had gone 
on a visit to that king at his request, and had invented a special alphabet 
for the nation. That would go to show that the Armenian inscriptions 
on the Jerusalem mosaics may very well be nearly contemporary with 
the first introduction of the alphabet. Mr. Baronian quite allows that 
there are certain difficulties with this name of Esvaghan as it occurs in 
the mosaic. But these difficulties, I gather from his letter, would be 
surmounted if we could positively, on the strength of the workmanship, 
assign the mosaics, as I am at present inclined to do, to about the time 
of Justinian, or a little l)efore that. 

The word for word translation of the inscription as given by 
Mr. Baronian, is : " For memory and salvation— of all the Armenians 
whose names knows Lord." 



With Explanation by A. S. Murray, LL.D. 

€Tovs rj^v' firivos 'Att'K'Xciiov C< iyevvl]CT} 
Kovpas >) K(u ^AvTL-yova Ovydrrjp Arjfxr]- 
TpLov rov K(u EvTi\ov rapeixoTTuAov 
p.r]Tpiis ^Ayd6r] ^cdKpdrovs' ol T^^v- 
TTji yovdi dvfOriKav pv7]prjs X"P'-^ 
^ijaaaav eTTj 6' pernXKa^aa-av 8u\ 
Tov ^p.v TQV . . . 'ATreXXt/iov e 
6avnT0 ... 

" In the year 438, the month Apelbeos 27th day, was born Kouras, 
called also Antigona, daughtei- of Deraetrios, called also Eutichog, a 
dealer in salt fish, and of her mother Agathe, daughter of Socrates. Her 
parents have erected this to her memory, she having lived 9 years, and 
liaving died in the year 447 (the month) Apellreos 5th day . . . ." 

The year 438 of the Syrian or Saleucid era, which began in 312 b.c, 
would be about 126 a.d. in our reckoning. The girl whose epitaph this is, 
lived, the inscription says, nine years. The last line of the inscription had 
referred to her death, possibly in some way expressive of the grief it had 
caused, but only a few letters remain. The name Eutichos, or Eutiches, 
is a late form of Eutychos, or Eutyches. Instead of the accusative in 
line 0, the grammatical construction reiiuired the dative, but sucli slips 
were quite common in those days ; as was also the fonuula with which 
a second name was introduced 17 koX or tov kui, which I have translated 
" called also." In some instances we find the full formula 6 KoKovpevoi. 

By Eev. J. T. Fowler, F.S.A. 

Hkrk in Durham we do not know the cross with a round in the centi'e 
represented as " St. Cuthbert's " in the Quarterly Hlatmient for January, 

By the above term we understand two ditierent tilings : — 

1. A close representation of the pectoral cross found on the body of 
St. Cuthbert in 1827. 








2. A ci'oss formee quadrate, that is, with the four arms somewhat 
expanded from the centre to the ends, and with a square in the 
centre, as in the arms granted to the University of Durham at 
the time of its foundation. This cross is derived from one on 
the ancient seal of the Prior and Convent, which is not niucli 
nnlike the actual pectoral cross in general form. 

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, 



{•Januanj " Quarterh/ Statement,'' p. -25.) 


pro salute et victoria 

imp(eratoris) nervae trajini caesaris 

oPTUMi aug(usti) germanici dacici 



To Jupiter Sarapis, Best and Greatest, for the safety and the victory 
of the Emjjeror Trajan and of the Roman people, a standard bearer of 
the Third Legion (Cyrenaica) has made this. 

A. S. M. 




By the Eev. W. Ewixg. 

Edited by A. G. AVright, Esq., of Aberdeen, and A. Souter, Esq., M.A., 

of Cuius College, Cambridge. 

{Continued from p- fiO.) 

No. 49. Over door of Cliurch, in process of building, 1892 (Wadd., 2513). 

MaX^^u' iccti '^lOfHo 

Kin 'AcpKlUW THKUOt^' 

eKTijaev to jitvij/n?- 
01'. oj)ii^, ^ci'c. Ttirre tc- 
OijTrui- ; (uihi'o^' fuiicu- 
/>ou fiv^iot' ro^ov a\_VT'\oi 

This copy appears to be better than Waddington's. 
The difterences in reading are: line 1 — Vupiioi-\ 

line 2—'2i8po} I Wadd. 

line 7 — vv-)(i.ov J 

" Hairmos, the son of Sithros, with Malchus and Sithros and Hadrian, 
his children, built the tomb. Thou seest, stranger ; why art thou 
astonished 'I They fashioned a secret abode for a happy eternity." 
Kliabab is identified by Waddiugton (No. 2512) as the ancient 'A/St^a 
Uf. No. 56). 

The inscription entls with two liexameter lines. 

No. 50. Over door in native liouse (Wadd., 2515). Khabab. 

6KTWU /Aitoiv^ 

oikofojiiijac Tiv 0ei?' 

tA." TWi' iCllOl' 

" Maleichathos, tlie son of Chaamos, built (this) for the god at his own 


No. 51. In court of Sheikh's house. Khabab. 

On capital 

Zrtc^[o9j Td<To[y eTT^oijffev 

Below : — 

(1) AniXof 'AvuifKov Te^^i^/y-j^? 

(2) fnnjffOrj 

" Zaedos, the son of Tasos, made this to the god Adad ; Aielos the son 
of Annelus was the craftsman. 
May he be remembered." 

No. 52. In wall uf cellar (Wadd., 2514). Khabab. 

V n AT I AC 

TO TO VXloNC^ lA-l'CCN £ 

\ 7raT<«9 

^l(>IC\)ITI<ll>Ut> TO /y /lYU 

M(i^tf.U(ii>oi' TO '^ ^p/3(affTa>i') 
.Aiy^. Oi'/jov 'Aovi'coii fiot'(\cuTij^) 
TO To<'_i^(e)roi' t^ eiCi'tvi/ 

L7roi'lj(T< I' 

The date is 303 A.n., making it probable that Khabab was in Syria 
after 295 a.d. That it was always in the province is seen from this date 
and those of 56 and 59. See Pt. II. 

Tvxftov is a temple of the goddess Tvxt) (Fortune), who was held in 
high honoui' in the jnovince. 


No. 5:3. Over window in house, brought front Zehirel;. Khabab. 





ATf/Tcl^cr] A-ei''[aJ era 

No. 54. In street, brought from Keratah. Khabab. 

4-LK\..\.jxJ L^ji b^^ 

The second and third words S2eni to be read JUr ,.' '"Ibn Taliui " 
((/. No. 81) ; the last word seems to contain the element cd!(^) "God." 

No. 55. Over door of house. Khabab. 



[^(-'/I'T/irJt/' TO 



No. 56. Brouirht from Zebtreh (= Wadd., 2512). Khabab. 



K|oyABIE.t8Nttiy^t^iABACCt?C vng-' A jt 

oc r(a/[(oi'a^ toc Kvpiov Aino- 
KpaTO/wi M{d)/i(i<:ov) "Eeoulj/jou 'Arric- 
I't'i'ov K«<0"rt/30S B/inai'ikoi' t- 
n Tt'Xfc" oiKoco/iiijaai^ ^A/)t(T- 

■nvol kot 'In;Y0'/"/'''" "'' ''""^ ^'^"'~ 
hi'oi' 'A/3il3ijuu.'i' kdi Baffffos-. i'7r[«Tj/i'/v 
'^eoui'ifior TO r' vr;/ [BJf/A/:?n'0(' jS 

The date of this inscription is 213 a.d. (see No. 52). 

The stone reads PAABINOY in tlie last line by mistake. 

From this inscription the ancient name of Khabab is found, viz., 
'A^t/Sa. Waddington regards the ^Apia-rjuoi and ^lax<piprivoi as two Arab 
tribes, who were vassals of the inhabitants of Khabab. 

" For the safety and everlasting ])reservation of the Lord tlie Emperor 
Marcus Severus Antoninus Ci^sar Britannicus the Arisenoi, and 
lachphirenoi, the dependents of the Abibenes and Bassos built the 
temjjles of Tuche in the consulshiji of Severus for the fourth time, and 
Balbinus for the second time." 

No. 57. In an arch in Priest's house ; from Zeblreli. Khabai?. 

C-n£?YA \C 
lAeANATO. r 

ANACcpoi^ ^ 


, F HC HC 



On'\l>fTt oi'Toii(?) <'7r(G)< oiiCtv u0du(no9 
libi' (To/jO .... i>(toi' . . dinoii' k-ii\ijv 

The inscription is very incomplete. 

No. 58. Over door in house. Khabab. 


/\oUnihloCKoACK j c"* 

Ma^ijiio^- Ka I (if ton 
TLaiu/xov i\_7n'^\\~\ci'a 

For the omission of the lirst syllable of olKo86fioi, cf. Wadd,, 2397. 
No. 59. On south end of new Church from Zebeir. Khabab. 


' i r -"ti l 

6T0y9 9 Ko- 

. fiocov 


The date is 181 a.d. See No. 52. 

No. GO. In wall of Jami' (■•.^l^^). SuR. 

HoKoflof*. AToro/ K oye n ire - 


AOK A AoJ Yf^AI Xopt oY/^ A r N oY 

I] o\i)Kocofia Tou oI'kov e7rne\(ejer6ij 
fia 'A^fopu^ Aiavov cfvvc(^i)Kov 

/l-o[JJ 'IffoLi/J 'AvVlfKoV Kul Tlf)l'(TKOl> 

^l>t\oKa\ou Kai Zopeov M.u'jvov 

BtOlKrjTWV 7tJ9 fltJTpOKlV/ilta'i 
t-0l»9 ?)UlK0(T(Tiaa70U eiKOfTTOr 
TTpWTOV T/y? fcV«/JT^6<a9 

From the dates in Nos. 61 and 65, it is seen that SCir was in the province 
of Syria until the year 295 a.d. From this inscription, which dates in the 
221st year of the province (i.e., Arabia), 326 a.d., and from No. 66, which 
dates in the same way, it is clear that Sl\r must have been included in the 
<listrict of Syria, which was annexed to the province of Arabia about the 
year 295 a.d. 

For (TvvdiKOi; see Wadd., 1176, and for yLT^TpoKcafxia, see Wadd., 2414. 

"With good fortune I The building of the house was completed by the 
Syndic Agores son of Aianos, and Isos the son of Annelos, and Priscus 
the son of Philokalos, and Zoreos the son of Magnus, goveiiiors of the 
village district in the 221st year of the province." 

Ought we to read Aiayopas iu line 3 I 



No. 61. In Kasr esh Shemuli. SuR. 


OVC(B-«AvRpNTo|fo»NoHo| koao 

A^ ACA /V MeTATtcWepHC KeNfNTH/ 1 
Koecy mAaAeiM»oV£«t>€cTty TO? 

t(jNi«v<q6WflW(0VMAiiMt>vicAl A 

tVof? le M. Avfi)j\i'ov 'Ai'rovivov 
^cji{ji(noT') ^avpwi' to koivov olkocofiaffui' 
jneja Twv Gpi^aKevovTwi' 
Otic Ma\ci-\(^aOoi) eipea-nvTici' 
r(rt/oy) ^\ov\i\oi>) (y^rpevTtai'ov Aoaov 
/ifl[il MaXe^p^^a^^oy M«(''o/jo? *:«< 
"^e/iiTrpivi'ioii \\cpi(ti'oo ^.u^ijuov tent 
WaXiifiov 'A/Bei'^ov 

The date is 161 a.d. (see No. 60). This inscni:)tiou gives us the 
ancient name of Sllr, viz., Saura. Maleichathus is a very common name 
in the district, but Waddington has no example of an inscriiition to a god 
Maleicathou (for the termination cf. Avfiov). See, however, his No. 2367. 

Should we understand Avaov as gen. of Avarjs = 'irjaovs ? For this 
form see Forc.-De-Vit's Onomasticon. 

''■ In the 15th year of M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, the community 
of Saura, along with the worshi^jpers of the god Maleichathou, built (the 
teni])le ?). The overseers of the woik were C. Julius Terentianus Ausus 
and Maleichathus Maior and Sempronius Hadriauus Maximus and 
Aslanius Abeibus." 

No 62. In street. SuR. 

o ^'/§^^^^>TFrs;I«] 


Iove[i] Hammo[ni] M. Aur. Theodor[us] a 
quaest(i)onar(i)is leg(ionis) III Cyr(enaciae) 



No. 63. In threshing floor. Sqr. 

. . aee 

. . . lOj- 
-rtj/l TTU- 

No. 6'4. In cellar of house. Sup. 

NoMENoCE"rHAE^Ii.tmC^kE'TE<^AN^C AJfliT ^ 
N BA L\AE A'ivn^YToNTtM YTHCAt f NE K |^ ;^^ 

Left side :- 
Eight side 

Centre : — 

\^Z^WU Kul (fijiOVWt/ 

\(t?j)€ TTcipocna 

A.vp{!]\io<i) Ma/j/c6X\o9 SrtXou 7rf)a'''jiiiaTevTij(^<s) 

>'l{^e)v6iLievo^ tTij \ iirl ^evif} kg e^eC^dui^^ ria 

rov /SacriXea TaixapavTov TeAei^T/ytro? (^i'j)ve[ ^flica 

TO 7niL' e'yw Mff/3A:e/\Xoj]>^ 6j^a'ceX0o9 avroD 

Knl cTronjfTfiftcu ninoii inn'i/iDji' t{jii)'7rpoff6ei' T[/y]s av\tJ9 ?}/([a']// 

Zav Kul (ppovuv, which is here entirely inapplicable, seems to be used 
without any idea of the meaning. 

enoii'iCraiiev may possibly be for eVoiT/o-a/xjjj/, e^fcfydvrjs is for e^alcpvr]^. 

" Living, and in his right mind." 

" Hail, passer-by." 

" Aurelius Marcellus, son of Salos, after being a steward for 30 years 
abroad, died suddenly by the doing of (or ''for") King Gamarautos. I, 
Marcellus, his cousin, brought home the body, and we (or "I") made his 
tomb before our courtyard." 


No. 65. Over door in house. Sur. 




^HptvSa \^A]i'fiov cTTpaTOTrecapxijf^ai'Ti iTTTrewi' 
K.o\tvi'eniv}' Kal (rrpcntwrivi' kcii cnparij'yijaa^ 
BaaiKe7 jLie^/dXic 'X^ipiTrira Kvpt'ui '^ypiTnra? vio^ eTToi'tjaeu (eVe/) k' 

The date is 69 a.d. (see No. 60). 

(The troops here described as Coloneitae may have been from Ptolemais. 
W. R. Paton.) 

No. 66. Over door in Eastern Mosque. SuR. 

->- Ar»oC AiOMTli)Y 

•V'(AlBoCeYToA>« lOY 



"A'yio^ A<o'i'T<o[_9] 

(3oi'jO(^c)l IJIilWV KU'/il)f 

TVj.ijio'i ^jJ-roXjiiiov 
(c)7/ja'0(»/) €Trl T)j^ tji' h-c 

X'pi 'HX/«s Ba/j«^t'[[<t)v. 

6 in line 5 is doubtful, but the year 564 a.d. corresponds to the 12th 
year of an indiction (see No. 60). 

" Saint Liontius helj) our village." 

"The tomb of Eutolmios." 

"Written in the 12th indiction in the 459th year of the province by 
the hand of Elias, son of Barach." 

No. 67. In wall of old Mosque (= Wadd., 2457). Lubbein. 







TO KVi'oi' Vpaiva'i 
-a-x^ov 'Ea/iieov 'Ei(re(^ov) 

N<^/30S 'HfJoSoV 

ApSo9 OvnaXi'ou 

Ma^tjuo9 . . . . 
"Afiepo9 'A . . 
n/9oVXo|^sJ . . 

This is a list of the citizens of the town of Agraena (Djrein). 

No. 6^. Arch of old house ( 

Wadd., 2457a; 



,' MiTiBtPMovA 


eTTifieXia <Pi\i- 
-TTTTov Ta(/)d\o(v) 
Kai Tifiepi'ov . , . 

Waddington's conjecture li^epiov 'Ay[pi7r]7ra seems from the " ductus 
litterarum " to be wrong, but it is impossible to tell what the words are. 

" The community of the village of Agraena made (this). The work 
was superintended by Philippus Gaphalus and Tiberius." 

No. 69. Over old doorway (= Wadd., 2456). Lubbein. 


6TbVC 1 B'CVPIoj/ KA\CI\PD( 
A A f ('••'.'■'* :\^ N •■' i V TO K VN N /J rPA I fyj H c 6 faj~ 


CTofv tji Kvpiou K.ataapo'i 
AXe^^^jdvcyjoju TO Kvvov 'A'-'/pai'i^r]^ iiro- 
-Tfaev dew Al'/juov €1(^0.") FIXaTwi/os 
Kin 'A/iovi'ov 

The date is 233 a.d. This inscription and No. 70 show that Lubbein 
formed part of the province of Syria till 295 a.d. at least. It was 
probably incorporated in Arabia after that date. 



No. 70. Over old doorway. (= Wadd., 2455). Lubbein. 

TQ |c| 3|NoNiArP/\lNHCe no|IH(C NetOAv^>AvAtAAVPj^ 



tT009 ta K-vpi'ov [M. a ("'/>.] 'A[j'7a'j/6/j/ov — e/ij 
TO Koivov W^/pai')')j^ cTToujaev 6{e)w At'fiav cia Avp. 
nXaTWuo's jSapliupov ical 'Aj^ovvov ^aipavo{i)) 


The first line is restored after Wetzstein's copy. AvpLov is the usual form. 
The date is 157 a.d. See No. 69. 

No. 71. On the side of an old sarcophagus which at some time has 
been used as a lintel. Lubbein. 

Z<4lNTAK£eANoNTAE T*'/v»A -^-i^^ T 

— — -* 

t/il rioi' Iri'ioi' 7rpoi'o\_i'ja re Kcti C7npe\ta 
Kof/noVot' 7rpo'~icv(i<ntpov vlou ov 
i^^ivvTU /it Oavovra erei/na 

" At his own private expense (this) was designed and carried out by 
Comodus, the elder son, who honoured him both alive and dead." 

No. 72. In i^rivate house. Jerain. 

' EiKTW- 

pos 'Ao\_ . - 
ov TcKJ)- 

Jerain seems to be Agraena. See No. G7 

No. 73. Tu ( 'ourtvavd. Jekain. 


I! a J:''''"' l^ |;'' 


.... TOWS' '/«!' 

rrt0r/\os' 'Aiicjjov €7ro)j(r€i' T[)yJ 'At«/>7)/t^9 

Lines 1 and 2 may l?e Ai/Jrwii)? [f ]tous- 7' ri^/^rj/cf!/] 



iS^o. 74 (= Wadd., 2457). Damet el 'Aliak. 


I H£!CrHNo|KoZ\«>/{riN 



j-jd'ijOor To/3ei'- 
ij ( «v v/yi/ i)!KOCo/iU]v, 
'/'' 'b^ iciov oth:ocojLi)jaci>' 
I /.)) o fioOeaa^ ^TO "'^V''' oiKodo/niji' 
jioijOf'iffij A;(e) e[s] to('9 7a/toy[s- 

The spelling sliows that the dedicator of the stone was almost ignorant 
of (Jreek ; deus 6 jdorjSav. 

" God is one, who heljsed Tobeias in the l»uilding which he built at his 
own expense. May the helper in the building help him also in his 
marriage." Gadrathe appears to be the name of Tol)eias' wife. 



No. 75 (Wadd., :^452). Damet el 'Aliah. 



Avp. Oi'/jai'<(o)? OwrtyS/y- 
Xov ef oiKyejiwv ttov- 
wu TO ^iinj/iia Kill Ti]- 

V avXljl' KUl 70}' CI'OV- 

ra \aKov kui \_(TJVKWua i- 

<pl<r)JfT£U Kdl To7<,- vloi9 

fieraTrapeSwKev Km 

Waddington takes the top line as being the last one of the inscription 
misplaced, and reads for uvb i the hopeless . . tveXSe. The spelling levb, 
however, is found for Ivb (indiction) so that the inscription may be read as 
it stands without change. 

" In the 5th indiction, by the care of Masachne, his wife. Aurelius 
Ouranius, the son of Ouabelos, at his own expense, erected the monument 
and the court, and the cistern in the court, and planted the lig orchard, 
and transferred it to his sons, and ..." 

"Waddington remarks that this inscription was found on the same wall 
as the last inscription. There has been a fig orchard in the courtyard and 
a cistern (Xokos). These are numerous in Damet el 'Aliah, and necessary 
owing to its distance from any watercoui'se. 

No. 76. (Wadd., 2453). Damet el 'Aliah. 

O/ttftyJOVj TO TTp- 

oTTvXov aveOrjKev, 

No. 77. Over old doorway. Damet el 'Aliah. 

-aJJ J^J i>w c^cLuUi ^-'^f 

'<fy^*j5*0^/-.— ' i_J-P-^-'— ' 



There is no God but Goil. Moliammed is the AjDOstle of God. 

The Mohammedan confession of faitli in modem characters. The 
lower line is older perhaps. 


1\ ^W\ 


" In the name of God the merciful." 

No. 78. In wall of house. Damet el 'Aliah. 

X^inov 7rpc[^al3vTepov ? ci- 


cv QrjaTc\_i'\p^a a/Lie/ii7nu)<! Kai 
KoKw^ cv VeTTieiKt'a Kni e- 


JU I'jSl'^^ 

wu eKTiaef 


No. 79. In wall of house. Damet el 'Aliah. 

^s'sAn re c /oNJV onka ai 

"AB^o9 Aai'ov l3ioic\^w\vTrJ9 
hat "Ojuepos- "Ekotov KaraaKev- 
f/ffflaJ'Te? 70V i'[f/]oi' Af(\[(t's- ku'i ajuefXTnwi- 
ci> eTTieiKia kctl cvcokta , . . 
CK Twv Icaov eKJt\_aav 
fivtj^arof X "[/"'' 

BLOKoi\vTr]s, an armed iwliceman. 

The date is 432 a.d. The use of the provincial era shows that Damet 
el 'Aliah was in Arabia after 295 a.d. It had originally been in Syria. 

" Addos the son of Danos, the iwlice officer, and Homeros, the son of 
Skotos, havino- furnished the temple, well and faultlessly, fairly and 
rit^fhtly . . . built at their private expense for the sake of a memorial in the 
327th year (of the province)." 

No. 79a. In wall of house. Deir Dama.. 

r7ArPAeoco£AOYA^o\iepevr ■:)|K/oAo/:< 

No. 79b. In wall of house. ]Jkiii Dama. 


^JuA\-^T^?oa)^H ' 

. . . rof'Xov . . . 
The mscrijition is very iii<(iiu))lete. 

No. 80. In old wall. Harran. 

No. 81. Over door of old church (Wadd., 2464). Harran. 


TrAnKiuJAN-WSlN^JATJ'f T rc V J ru N H( ei(orP4+AC + 


|_' A J (Tcf/) (^ \ o >-■ 'J ' « ,\ c';( o / ' 

0(i/\«/>^'(o)'.' tK-iail' TO Jtld/l-^ I />IOI') 
TOO It'll ■ I' 'llLUll'I'Ol' //'f ((/iTMl'/'O'') (/ ToT' iTOCV cf'/'. 

Mi'ljaOi'c o r^/pcnlras! . 

The date is 5G8 a.d. The other inscriptions from this j^lace, 
Nos. 81, 84, 85, are all after 295 a.d., and date by the provincial era. 
Waddington gives one of 209 a.d. dating by the reigning emperor. 



Hence Harran must have been in the province of Syria till 295 a.d., and 
thereafter in the province of Arabia. 

" Asarelos, the son of Talemos, the head of the tribe, founded this 
memorial of the martyrdom of St. John in the first indiction of the 
463rd year of the ])rovince. May he that inscribed it be remembered." 

For the Arabic, see Halevy, Melanges, where this inscription is discussed. 

No. 82. In side of native divan (Wadd., 2465). Harran. 


Y17 port/ft Pol deNTl ^^ 




A/'yito? avij/J afytov tocc /ni'ijfid rei/irtT cciiintc 

oito TTovivi' cf iriwv Kill offiwi' Kaf.i(nici> oihou Qeov 



7r/)o7rdfjoi0ci' Trpcfrliinefjo'f uvtou Kmacnas; ^/jciaTOo douXos:- 
Oi'Xttiv OtKoBojUOV. 

Waddington's copy gives the letters outside the panel as AQ Tpaivi] voi. 
He reads in 9-10 Xpia-Tov SoOXo?, avfjv, and gives up the rest us hopeless. 
We transcribe according to this reading, and translate : " paying the price 
of 100 drachma-." But, following metre alone and disregarding engraver's 
errors, and words inserted, like olcp (cj). No. 112), contrary to metre, we 
may read 

Avpos uvTjp ayios Tu8e p.vripa ibe'ipar eavTw 

TTOVCov i^ Ihloiv Kii^ oaicov KapilTUiV 
o'lKov Qfov npoTTapoi8( irpeiTiivTfpos uvtov KaTacrrds 

Xpeiarov 8ov\oavvr]i' evxoptvwv 

The lengthening effect of accent in ttoixov and irpta^iiTtpos is note- 

"Aumos, a holy man, built this tomb for himself out of his own 
earnings and pious labours, in front of the house of God, the elder of 
which he was, discharging the service of Christ, according to a vow. . 
Ulpius was the architect." 



No. 83. Ill wall. Harran. 

This iusci'iptioii is <iuite uudecipherable. 

No. 84. On side of street, near Church (Wadd., 2463). Harrax. 

TTPoMorOPfnoV/\Y/v\OVK€0 A A P A 


ru^NCYC AeceHroJcoiNON Ti ^ 


aj/T^ cv^apKniu^ kui /ni'ijjii)]',- 
7rpovo\ia) Toj}eTrov Al'/iiov kc 'O^apa 
'A^i'^dffov Kcti 'Ajiiepov Ovctl3)'j\ou 
Kai ^Avdfiov MapKcavoti ctoiKy- 
riiw, ereXeaOn to koivov Trar- 

The date is 397 a.d. See No. 81. 

See No. 85. 

In line 3, Waddington reads OvXTVLavov, bnt thi^ copy contirms Wetz- 
stein, who reads as above. He has ANNHAOY a*^ first word of the 
third line. Nos. 84-5 prove that the year 292 of Bostra began 1 Sept., 
397, and therefore year 1 began 22 March, 106 a.d., about which time the 
hrst governor must have entered on olMce. Kubitschek (in Pauly's 
Real-Encycl. s.v. Aera) declines to accept this result, and holds to 
March 22, 125, as the beginning. 


No. 85. Over built iip doov (Wadd., 2462). Harran. 

/A NTi n^XKn^jliCfcYXA PI c tMC 

T 1AN/^0)<iON£ToYCC?3THCgo<:n^ _HJ [ 

KC fti'i'i/idj^-, Trpui'o/ti M(xf//(o<» '07c(,'ff 
/iff/ M(/\/_\'[(/]C^(' Art 'A/(e'/jo/» A.-fc npi(Th:uu 

r/0//i//Ta'/', €7c\c'(T0t] TO C)j^lH^O(riOI' 
TTdl^COX^Ol', ITOUV a^li' T/y9 Bo(7|_tJ/J )/- 

The date is 397 a.d. See No. 81. 

"In great gratitude and remembrance by the care of Maximus Ogezos, 
and Maleichathus and Amerus, and Priscus, the managers, tlie public 
hostel was completed in the 292nd year of Bostra, in the 10th (and 11th, 
No. 84) indiction." 

No. 86. In Sheikh's house. Harran. 


= 87, line 1. 

No. 87. In iuiier court of Sheikh's Harran. 


^ef^T^vc^ifu> M H H P 

Btp i c 
:?5.^-'/ r o V 

e^jlBi'toi' KafiaTwi', ra- 

ffOai /"yf'e Ji''[|«J eV ra'Cc Tip ^()/y/^(,|^<a'. 
0a/)cr|^? Ov(t\epte ovcl'i «0a'[i'«To]s 
«!/ ce 719 (lUTnryidffffijj ? rw^Let 

This and No. 115 are examples of tombstones fixing fines for violation. 
They appear to be rare in this district. The part to the right is unintel- 

" Meor (= Maior) built it from his own eai-nings, ordering that no 
one bnt himself is to be laid in this tomb. Courage, Valerius, no one is 
immortal. If any one acts contrary to this rule he shall give to the 
treasury 3 ounces of gold." 

No. 88. Over door. 'Ahry. 



TIus is possibly the other half of Wadd 2441, which would then read 

6cw Ai'/iio» 

-ov duc\_0_jt]h:ei' 


No. 89. In wall. 'Ahry. 



The date is 121 a.d. See No. 93. 

No. 90. Til wall. 'Ahry. 



This inscriptioii is undecipherable. 

No. 91. In wall. 'Ahry. 





-ij M.oaiepoi' Tit 

i^KT^iaev ta[<ijT)J /n[_i'i']/iuj- 
-V erchu 

No. 92. In old wall ( = Wadd., 2447). 'Ahry 

''A/ioo[s Alo[atce'A.oy ? 
0[t/ios] 'Oacfi- ^ 
Of o|[/A."OCo'J^t/yrrGi' 



No. 93. Very rouo-h stone, and hidden in wall ( = Wadd., 2439). 'Ahry. 

; vp/oVfrAir/\porKA<'/^6/c/ 

■^ ^ ■■ ■ ■ - . . ■ ■--■ ■ ■ — ■ — 7^ 

cTOf s- . . avJTOhpdrvpov Kofi6co\^u 
'Ai'Twi'ei'i'ov ic^vpi'ov Kai'aapo'} K[/\]. Ilpci<T\^h:- 
. .']dOov 0(y)X(/'ys) 'Offan';/i'(t'[)' 6c 

Waddington's restoration 6ea in line 3 becomes A'ery doubtful, as 
this copy has distinctly P€ for his 0€. The date must be between 
176 A.D. and 192 a.d. From this and Nos. 89, 94, 104, 105, 109, it is seen 
that 'Ahry must have been in Syria till 295 a.d. Afterwards it w^as- 
probably incorporated in Arabia. 

No. 94. In arch of shed (= Wadd., 2437). 'Ahry. 



kEAA E o 

''Etoiis' ['/j 'Ai>r\_w]i'- 

eii'ov '^i^fiyia-Toii 
" Avi'rfk\_os'\ KcWgo- 

fiuvov T[of)J N(ic/3dO- 

ov IK yrw^v ISi'ivf 

\_ai'e0ijii:cji> evae- 

{^ei'a9 x^'P'") 

The date is 140 a.d. See No. 33. The stone is now broken in two, 
and a good deal mutilated, but was perfect when seen by Waddington. 
It was recently broken up by masons from Schweir. 


No. 95. In old wall. 'Ahry. 

f oHO 
I'M M H 
■Ao Y 

lis. I H 

Small piece of larger inscripti<jii. It is quite nudecipheiable. 

No. 96. Ill old wall. 'Ahry. 

^ L vl_aJ t 1 ^_^_^_, <t House of (oi', perimps, " Ijuilt by ") Uiiini 

tS.11^ L^^- , oil Avlidiii (4od have raercy.'' 

Durais, dimin. of dars (name for the young of certain animals), occurs 
in a proveib. 

The last word is illegible (to us). 

No. 1)7. fn old wall ( = Wad 1., 2448). "Ahry. 




No. 98. Near gateway (='Wadd., 2445). 'Ahry. 



ATTo o n T/O IV o C^fe^ 

ovejpavo^ \ey(^iu)vo<i^ 7' [r«XX(A/y>.'J 
» * ' / 


Kai OiiX(7!-/rt) 'l^acraieXij ov- 
v^i o s eTTo uj era v 

This copy gives eirolrja-av, Waddingtou's enoirjaev. 

The name of tlie legio III Gallica appears to have been erased from 
this inscription, as in several other instances. 

" Ulpius Alexander, a veteran of the legio III Gallica, formerly an 
optio, and Ulpia Phasaiele, his wife, erected this." 

Optio is explained, Faid. ex Fest., p. 184, thus : — " a person whom a 
centurion or decurion selects for himself to manage his private affairs, so 
as to admit of his being able to devote himself to his military duties." 

Phaseele, a name in Wadd., 1928. 

No. 99. On court wall (=Wadd., 2440). 'Ahry. 


PI NNoc 


Ogenes is the name of an ancient divinity, whom the ancient mytholo- 
gists identified with Oceanus. 

" Hadrianus of Palymyra dedicates this to Ogenes."' 



No. 100. On bit of old column. 'Ahry. 

Z)'jjva'i> 7tji' jidaiv 
jLiera twv cpwrapiwv 
CK TWV icitvv 

"[Zenou] out of his private purse made the base of the statues of 
Zeus with the small Eros-figures." 

No. 101. In house. 'Ahry. 

A sculptured head, much defaced. No inscription. 

No. 102. In floor of house. 'Ahry. 

Character unknown. 

No. 103. In floor of house. 'Ahry. 



No, 104. Over lower door of Medafeli (=Wad(l., 2438). 'Ahrt. 


7"OVY"nATlKoV6<J)£ST&;rocri!H;/>jwi<fe ■: M ! \ "' 
^ Ov/ T/AAAfr ii c f~K/\ "/l^No(•oy£TP/\wot/ltPlTH^Poc 

"EtOI'9 [t*!, {'~fcY> (TWTtjpl'a^ Kdl l'CtK\_)j'f\ aVTOKpuTOpO? M. 

AvpriXt'ov 'AvT^^wvei^uou '^eji{ua70u^ 'ApjiieviaKOu TlapOiKOo Mij- 
SiKov fier^iatov cVt \^Ao\viciov Kao-c/ot' Ttd \afnrpo7a- 
rou i'TTmiKOo, e^earimo'} T. AvpijXtov K.vpiva\tov 
[Xeyi^iivvo^W 7 TaWiKtj's, T. KX. Ma^/i^o? ovejpavo^ 'Acpnrjvo^, 
(ivc^/etpev 7r]v ttvXijv ck twu lOiivv airo OcjiieXtov jLie^^^pi tg\oi'9 

The date, given in Waddington's copy, is 155 a.d. See No. 93. 

No. 105. In court of house. 'Ahry. 

IVoe k-ofAoAu:icit <Yi '■ *'" 


C70V9 , , nvToicp/no'jpo'i Ho/uocov fcvpiov i 

The date is 176-192 a.d. See No. 93. 

L 2 


No. 106. Beside door. 'Ahry. 

No. 107. In floor. 'Ahry. 

Built by (?) Homeid ibu Muslim. God have mercy ujwn him. 

No. 108, In arch. 'Aiiry. 


Built l»y Amet el-Wuhid, daughter of Ab 1 cl-Kai'ini. May God 
have mercy upon her. 

(aiEEK IXSCi;ilTl().\S. 
No. 109. In raised letters in roof of house. 'Ahry. 




trotis; (t KVfUou aVTOKparupo'? 
Moaibpou 1 Ig~ .... oiKoro/itijcci' 

Tlie date is 96 a.d. See No. 93. 

109a. Stone at 'AnHv. About 16" x 12" X 12". On side between the 
lines of inscription is the effigy of an ox ; on the opposite are three ox 
heads with liorns. The stone was brought from Kanawat, and in 1890 
was in possession of the Sheikh of 'Ahry. Is this the burial pla.ce of 
Jephtha ? ^^^ corresponds letter for letter with ^"y,^. Ought we to 
read in Judges xii., 7, "and was buried in 'Ahry of Gilead" 1 





^^>d.3 ^^^^A^V^-^ 




. . OS- \e'/{iLci>o\) 7' K<'[/<(/y;'f.'V/v;yS') 
CTTOtrfJffCl' TO jii'\_iif(<.7oi> 

Waddington gives an inscription from tliis place of the date 5G3 a.d., 
reckoned by the provincial era, showing that it was incorporated in 
Arabia after 295 a.d. 


No. 111. Over door of bouse. (= Wadcl, 2427.) Nejran. 

« A n o {^ 1/ A H CA^A /V i H /s 

npoNv/^ANApoNiKov/»rpi n 


Oi «~o 0i;\/y9 ^Ictj'nji'- 
wv evTVX^i<TOi'-£^ evlo- 
^oj> oiKOCo/aip' bTcXiwaai' 
Trpovva 'Ai'Cpoi'ihou 'A^/i>i~- 

fVTV)(L(TOVTes is for evTvx^c<i'''''es. 

"Tliey of the tribe of tlie Manieues, liaving fared prosperously, com- 
pleted a splendid building through the forethought of Aiidronicus 
Agrippa and Carus Mosamamos." 

No. 112. Over door in street, with musket ball embedded in it. 
(= Wadd., 24.32). Nejran. 

TJPUJNO£APTICnHCYltuNcc4'|A*ro\ Bloc Tt- 

Av^MCTdiporiAPc'ieet NtvA^iNoitt;4nA ^■^ co m' 
ofI^oT/^NAlc/vt^n'^ ino/-< o/i'ovo a n/i toio 

'Vijiwvuv o/)-ic7nis^ dIici'ov, (jiiXvi o\f3i6s: TC, II 
«<>• TToO' vyycynoVos' jieve(pihtai>ifi'< hinu I'Oi'os- || 

trrXcTO ^OM/^Arl^tt'Jl', Af'\/((/T/OV, a'i'-d lOfXXO I 

ni'Xijv re TrpuTTuiioiOc ci'd'Ccw o(«' c/tt' r/Waw. 
oTriro-r' av aiaa i'\0ij(T(u ofiouou Ocwi'itoio^ || 
ofjyfKt vcKVv t' avcpctraii' a'li iCwoimr ii'ii'n. || 

The inscription i.s metrical, being in hexameter verse. 

This seems a more faithful copy than Waddington's. His conjecture 
w/jtCTT-of in line 1 is confirmed. 

" Dalmatius, an excellent man, the eloquent grandson of Tirou be- 
oved and hai>py, -who oice was the beneficiarius of the governor of the 

gi;ekk iNSciMriio^'S. 


province of Phoenicia, built this new tomb for himself, opposite his 
house and l)efore the court, wherein to sleep alone apart from all others, 
whenever the fate of death the leveller comes and till his body is among 
them that live for aye." 

Beneficiarii were such soldiers as, by favour of their commanders, 
were exempt from menial offices (such as intrenching, water carrying, 
foraging, &c.). They were often i)romoted by their officers and were 
sometimes in attendance on them. 

No. 113. Near Sheikh's house. (= Wadd., 2434.) Nejran. 

TANti HAOC C T ^^ 
ypiMOAlfc f I 

Pot/00 ? 6Ta'(|/) KC , 

'Vafi'ijXo^ €r(wi>) Ke' 
Arpij 6Tw(j') iij' . , . 
vol ' Moote'/j^oyJ 

This is a more complete copy than Waddingtou's. 

No. 114. In cellar. (= Wadd., 2428.) Nejran. 

QJ l<C>A(P>tHC/^lv/\/q<\W[IINI- 
No I n/MPl^(J0OE(Jdi'iPAK/\Q\ 

'Erovi . . K\^ofi6cov 'A»'TwJi'r[]/- 

vou i 

oiKoBofitjaai' Maveifn- 


For the name Maveimjvoi, cf. No. 111. Commodus took the name 
Hercules, and is here worshipped under that name. 


No. 115. Tu wall of shed. Nejran. 


^1/r^- fiHUHOiAPiNreKNuiti 
pActrpA«ft«;^Mei<>NTiNAH.e | ^^ 

J f h'pOU L . . . . 

. . . c]|^ clcilCI' OIKUtdftljl^fTCl' 

rTp](T(T«[/)]<t'J' (n<p)]0i<i Xai'i'i'uv 
A(V\/«';'o(' /iTfu M«< [_r</j(jvj 

t)i'iji»]f.iei'wi' TOV9 xuijaKilipa^ 

t^jpfiyjrci' jin) e^ov Tiva ficTa 

Tov 6a{\>ii)-T6v J.IUV 7i]i' o-o/j[oj'] 

(U'i'fc, <wfyi rafu'tci riaxi-'^Kt 7r{c)i'\^Tiii^oai(i ciji'tiiiui 

See No. 87. 

"... son of Eudorus (0 • • • Ijnilt the tomb at his own expense for 
remembrance, having lost his four children, Lannios . . . Aulianos and 
Maior who were mercilessly kille<l in the camp. He cut these letters. 
No one is allowed after my death to open the tomb. (If anyone does so) 
he shall give 2500 denarii to the treasury." 

This sense of (^oo-o-otoi/ (fiom fussa) occurs often in Theoplianes. 

No. 116. In wall of Medafeh. Nejran. 

^oY/\^ MoYAnoi 

tJuu ''A/Jfiut> M(>\_(ii'( /)u<; ? 

(To he coitfiin"; J.^ 


By Eev. W. Ewixg. 

{Cuiitiaued from page 67.) 

Tilt' Sheikh had pi-e2)aied a sumptuous repast, according to his light.s, 
aud to tliis we were permitted to add from our own store a little rice, 
which, carefully cooked, and served up either with boiling samn or with 
uiilk aud sugar, was greatly relished by the swarthy men to whom it was 
an unusual treat. The sun was gone, and as darkness spread over the 
ujjlands the air grew chill. After supper a great circle was formed round 

the tire. The conversation with the ^y^J^i turned directly upon the 

Arabs. Being themselves Turkomans, not related by blood to either of 
the great divisions of the 'Anazy, th^ Wuld 'Aly and the Ruwalhj^ their 
\ iews may be taken as fairly imjiartial. In matters of politeness they 
were disposed to give the Wuld 'Aly the first place; these also were the 
wealthier, and more enlightened, making some slight advance towards the 
beginnings of civilisation. They are strict in the performance of religious 
duties, but their word is hardly to be relied on, unless they swear the 

ijt'mln. The Riiwallij, on the other hand, were declared to be Jl.»i5-« ^^-.\'< 

— "like wild beasts," void of all refinement, for the most part innocent of 
all religious ideas, only one here and another there knowing how to i)ray ; 
but in the matter of an oath they may be absolutely trusted ; it is not 
necessary to demand the yemln from them. In the obedience of children 
to their parents also they are the most exemplary of all. As long as 
parent and child live, the authority of the former lasts : the honour paid 
Ijy the son to his mother is one of the brighter features of the shady life 
of the desert. Of the generosity and hospitality displayed to strangers by 
both divisions alike, the Turkomans spoke in terms of highest praise. 

Our entertainers shared the ordinary Mohammedan prejudice against 
jiictures of all kinds. A figure drawn on the cover of a box of vestas 
started the subject. There could be no doubt, so they said, that to make 
a representation of a man, or any other created being, was eminently 

tiagitious ; the prophet— „vJ01 — en Nahy,hy whom the Moslems always 

mean Mohammed— the prophet had forliidden it, and surely that was 
enough for all reasonable men. But further, it was clearly an attempt to 
imitate the work of God ; inevitable failure resulted in a caricature, which 
was an evident mockery of the Most High. If, however, the pictui'e were 
mutilated— drawing a knife across the part representing the neck — so 
that it no longer presented a complete image, but only parts, then it was 
permitted to " the faithful ' to enjoy whatever beauties it might be found 
to illustrate ! 


I sounded them as to their opinion of the Wahaby, the gloomy 
Protestant of Ishlm in distant Yemen. They spoke of his splendid zeal 
on behalf of the pure religion ; but even while they sipped the bitter 
liquid so grateful to the Arab palate, and whiflFed their cigarettes, that 
on which they bestowed the most genuine admiration was his rule 
absolutely prohibiting the use of coffee and tobacco ! How powerfuU}- 
asceticism makes ajipeal to such men : a serious exhibition of self- 
mortification for sake of the religion, how profoundly it moves these 
sternly nurtured sons of the great wilderness. 

The proposed railway from the coast to Damascus has caused a flutter 
of anxiety in many of the tents of Ishmael. The coming of the Circassians 
was a small affair compared with what is threatened by the advent of the 
iron horse, which is to fill with sounds of life and industry the vast fertile 
solitudes, whose shrill scream is to waken the echoes in many a valle}' 
where silence has reigned for centuries. Just what the railway is only 
a few of them have some dim apprehension ; luit all have a hazy notion 
that it means the final expulsion of the 'Arab from their ancestral wilds ; 
either this or they will huve to break with the long tradition of their 
2)eople, and in simple self-preservation turn to more settled ways. 
Against either alternative the Arab soul rises in I'evolt, and no one need 
wonder if in their deliberate judgment the introduction of the railway 
spells "i-uin to the country." 

The feeling of insecurity on account of the Circassian and Arab feud 
was very strong. No one would on any errand go abroad after nightfall, 
and just as little during the day as possible. Sheikh Mustapha enjoyed 

the coveted honour of being a member of the ^uj.!^^ — mejlis, or district 

council at Kuneiterah. But for months he had not ventured to attend a 
meeting, as that meant riding through the unquiet ])arts, and, like a wise 
man, he set a higher value on his life than on the honour of voting for 
measures which would be carried out whether he supported them or not. 

Our hosts assured us that recently some very fine sculptures had been 
unearthed at El Yehudlyeh, by men hunting for treasure, a particularly 
beautiful one they took to be a representation of an angel. Their 
sincerity was so far guaranteed by the willingness of some to conduct us 
thither ; but Arab ideas of what may interest Europeans are usually so 
wide of the mark that I thought it better to go our own way. 

After a liglit breakfast of coffee and milk, we set out, accompanied by 
two mukaries who had arrived late tln^ previous day. One of them 
hailed from Judeideh, the prosperous village overlooking Merj 'AyiVn, 
where the American missionaries in Sidon have their summer quarters. 
The other was from Jehcl ed Dvuze. They had great skins of kitntn or 
" tar," which they hawked among the Beduw for the jiurpose of doctor- 
ing the camels. Their way lay almost due south, so we had soon to part 
company with them ; but long after Ave had lost sight of them we could 
hear tlie song of these hajjjjy-hearted fellows, borne by the morning 
breeze far over wady and rocky hill. 



Passing several scattered dolmens, our first halt was made at El 
Khviiliniyeh, a series of well-built cattle shelters, on the top of an isolated 
hill. The summit is almost entirely surrounded by a tolerably good wall. 
Many evidences of its ancient state lie among the s\irrounding ruins. 
It must have been a position of considerable strength in the days of 
antique war. 

What seemed like the top of an old gate pillar lay in an open square. 
It is 18 inches in diameter at the base, and measures 21 inches from 
base to ajiex. A fragment of marble column I found near by, 18 inches 
in length, 9 inches in diameter. Among the great rush of ruins on the 
slope to the north-west I found a flat stone, with a deep, narrow, circular 
groove cut into the face of it, and a straight escape towards one side. 
The circular groove is 14 inches in diameter. The approach to the ruins 
is up a steep and winding path on the southern slope of the hill. At 
the base there were reaches of luxuriant verdure, where sheep and cattle 
were grazing,, even at this late season. 

Soon after leaving El Khushnhieh, we met a troop of Beduw riding 
on camels. They got their eyes on the baggage carried by the Ked/s/t, 
and most difficult it was to persuade them that we were not hawking 
grapes. They looked as if they would have liked to see for themselves, 
and, until they were finally convinced, 'Abdullah was in a state of con- 
siderable agitation. To the dry throats from the desert, the grape 
presents irresistible attractions, and the rough-and-ready sons of war, 
accustomed to take what they want, and ask leave, if at all, afterwards, 
are not too nice about the means used to secure it. 

Tell el Talco/a, a double-headed hill, with a few spreading trees on 
the top, lay to our right. Ascending, we found an extensive grave\'ard 
on the summit. It is evidently felt that a stone with an inscription on 
it will serve equally well for any grave. Occasionally we find an ancient 
stone grimly frowning over a newly-made grave ; again, difi'erent j^arts 
of the same stone, each part preserving a bit of the original inscription, 
are distributed imioartially over several tombs. On many of the stones 

were the a»^., v:usi%m ; sing. w« , icasm — brandmarks of the Arabs. 

These five occurred often : — 



Under one of the great trees, towards the eastern extremity of the 
summit, is the u-ely, or saint's tomb. It may once have been covered, 
but now is simply walled-in. Heaps of bricks are strewn around. A 
jilough lay inside near the tomb, doubtless having been brought for 

Continuing south-eastward we passed A'ythi el FaJihdm, i.e., springs 
of the charcoal burner — not as in the map, A^yiHn el Fahm, i.e., springs 


of charcoal ! Here we met an aged Beduwy, who directed us to Tdl 
Furj. El Furj is the ruin covering the tell. Many of the houses I 
examined were of solid masonry, ,«ome of them tolerably complete, but 
desolate no-A-, the abode of owl and bat, and the haunt of night-prowlers 
of all kinds. I searched long, but not a single inscription, nor even a 
bit of respectable carvmg, rewarded my industry. 

We came back to the road in time to meet a long caravan of Arabs, 
who were moving steadily westward with all their belongings. Tents 
were bestowed on the camels' backs, and on the top of these the women 
and children, while the men walked alongside or rode on stately in front. 
Mohammed was a little before me ; when I came up I found that he 
had proposed marriage to one of the women, and had been accepted on 
the spot ! They were now shouting arrangements for the coming 

/uj.i, marriage, across the ever-increasing space between them; and 

amid a burst of hilarious laughter they parted, never, probably, to meet 

The graceful cone of Tell el Faras rose to the left of our way. The 
o-round is covered with scattered fragments of the lava belched forth of 
old from the fiercely burning, palpitating heart of the hill, now cold 
and still. Eeaching the summit by a series of zigzags and windings, 
you find the appearance that of an enormous, but beautifully moulded 
cup, with a slight lean to the north-west, the hollow of the crater going 
far down into the centre of the mountain. Riding round the ruin, we 
observed traces of ancient building, and sjieculate that perhaps in ancient 
days the deep hollow may have served as a cistern. To the north-west 
lies a succession of lower eminences, opening savage, black, rocky jaws 
in an eternal grimace against the sky. How beautiful the tell is by 
contrast, suggesting the thought : the tell for loveliness, but these grim, 
cruel mouths for solid business. How the wild men of these regions do 
love to bury their dear ones on the top of some hill, where the fresh 
winds of heaven, unfettered, may visit their graves ! It may be some 
reminiscence of the holiness attaching in olden times to these " high 
places." Even here, at this height and distance, we found a number of 
tombs, most on the south-eastern rim of the crater. Children, guarding 
the goats that grazed around, played among the stones, and warned us 
specially against desecrating the ively—& tomb rather larger than the rest, 
with a low, drystone wall around it. 

The summit commands a view of great extent and interest. Unhappily, 
a light haze eastward obscured great part of the Hauran, but the heights 
of the Mountain of Bashan rose clearly beyond. To the west the 
country lay exposed in panoramic completeness and distinctness ; the 
long, jagged edge of the plateau, the deep depression of the Ghur, with 
the Sea of Galilee in breadths of flashing blue, the uplands and plains of 
Galilee and Samaria, in full extent, from tlie slopes that overlook the 
Jordan eastward, even to the dark bulk of Carmel by the sea. So 
beautifully distinct was everything that I was tempted to try a sketch. 


Winding down the steep descent, we were surprised to see a company 
of about a dozen half naked, fierce-looking fellows rushing towards us 
with huge clubs in their hands. We rode steadily forward to meet them, 
wondering what could have exciled them so. As we np]n-oached they 
grew calmer. Inquiring into the matter, they told us, rather breathlessly, 
that wliile they were working at their corn they left the goats on the hill 
in charge of two boys. One had come running to tell them that several 
horsemen were seen on the heights. What could horsemen want there ? 
Goats, of course. They at once shouldered their clubs and rushed forth 
to do battle with the supposed robbers. They went away perfectly 
satisiied as to our honourable intentions as regarded the goats, but why 
men should toil up the mountain in the heat of the day for the mere fun 
of the thing, they could by no means understand. " These Franjies, 
however, are, no doubt, as Ullali made them," and with this pious reflection 
they wiped the i)erspiration from their swarthy faces and stalked quietly 
off across the empty waste. 

Tell Jokhadar lay down to our right, with the Khan at its foot. 
Here passed the ancient road from Gilead and the south towards 
Damascus. Several Arab encampments dotted the landscape. The 
village belongs to Mohammed Sa'id Pasha, for many years chief of the 
Mecca pilgrimage. He owns much land in the district, many fertile 
acres in the Ghor, immediately north of the Sea of Galilee, yielding him 
rich returns. We found the brother of the Pasha superintending 
threshing operations in a comfortable tent pitched on the edge of the 
threshing floor. Many were the signs of industry here, asses, horses, and 
oxen in pairs, being driven round and round on the shining gold of the 
wheat, while clouds of chaff floated in the breeze from the implements of 
the winnowers. This threshing is a long business, furnishing employ- 
ment for many weeks to the villagers. So it has been from time 
immemorial, and they dream not of its ever being otherwise. A mis- 
sionary once remarked to an elderly Arab that in his country all the 
grain growing within sight of them could be threshed in a couple 
of days, and winnowed too. ♦Ali)tl^ <dlj, was the Sheikh's amazed 

reply, I'xJW hi} .l,*jtl' ,-i "Whatever do you do the rest of the 


year ! " 

The Aga came forth, pressed me to turn aside to his tent, and would 
take no refusal. A youth from Judeideh, near Merj A'yfm, we found 
acting as his secretary. These enterprising youths go far during these 
months, and are of great service to the illiterates in the east. Such 
another I remember meeting years before, away to the south of Busrah. 
He was spending some months with the Beduw, who, professing to 
despise the art of the " quill driver," are yet glad enough to have business 
transactions recorded in black and white : so, during the season for num- 
bering and arranging the flocks, the clever youths from Judeideh render 
valuable assistance. The Aga had the inevitable coffee produced, and 
while I rested on the floor of the tent, we gave each other as much infor- 


mation about our personal antecedents and connections as we deemed 
expedient. He was specially proud of his brother, the great Haj Pasha. 
It did not seem as if he would ever tire telling of his prowess, his skill, 
and his exploits in the desert. His voice and mien were described 
as those of a lion, and to those the Aga naively ascribed much 
of his success in the conduct of the pilgrimage. For 31 yeai's he had 
held the honourable office, and in that time many and varied had been 
his experiences : not unfrequently he had proved a knowledge of the 
desert path superior to that of the Arab guides. The drifting sands 
obscure the track, and only accurate acquaintance with certain general 
features could save from utter destruction. It is essential to the preser- 
vation of the pilgrimage to reach at intervals the great water tanks con- 
structed along the way. To miss one of these would mean simply the 
extinction of the Haj. With great animation the Aga told of the guides 
once having been completely bafHed ; the Pasha, thoroughly roused, 
ordered them to the rear, and riding in front himself, conducted the 
great straggling company safely to the tank at nightfall. On another 
occasion some 200 men, each riding a strong mule, contrary to the Pasha's 
orders, left the main body of the pilgrimage in search of water, which 
they believed to be in the neighbourhood. By and bye they were missed ; 
the procession was halted, and, at the head of a company of camel riders, 
the Pasha went forth to seek them. After a long and weary search, he 
at last came upon the wreck of the 200. Men and mules had perished 
together in the burning sand. One man only, who had got his head into 
the shelter of a little sandbank, was still alive, but unconscious. Such 
are some of the perils of the pilgrimage ; but, of course, many of the 
pilgrims die by the way from sheer exhaustion. The iron frame of the 
great Pasha has at last given way, and for some years he has been 
practically an invalid in tlie city of Damascus. He is succeeded in 
command of the Haj by his grandson, 'Abd er Eahman Pasha, the 
youngest man who has ever attained that rank. 

The Aga learned with great interest what I proposed to do and where 
I intended going. He declared that the country was unsafe and 
volunteered to ride with me himself ! He ordered his horse to be 
brought and saddled, and only with difficulty was he restrained from 
carrying out his i)urpose. I thought of spending the night with Arabs 
who were encamped at no great distance, and knew that our reception 
among them would be all the more hearty if we arrived unattended. 
Taking a grateful farewell of the kindly Aga, we turned a little to 
northward, and in about half-an-hour reached the Arab tents on a grassy 
knoll beside a cool and copious spring. Several very beautiful mares 
were grazing near by. The large encampment was very quiet ; the tent 
of the principal Sheikh, where we dismounted, was deserted but for the 
presence of a single negro slave, singularly tall and black. We took 
possession of the tent, and calmly looked on while the slave built a fire 
in tlie little hollow by the opening, roasted and pounded the beans, and 
proceeded to make coffee for his master's guests. Before his task was 


finished, the Sheyukh began to gatlier, and soon we had a goodly crowd 
lounjjinfr around us, all eafjer for news, but brimmine; over with 
hospitable feeling. They were a company of the Rimally. They were 
men, for the most jmrt, of fine physique, tall and well-knit, witli no 
tendency to obesity. Their features could hardly be described as well 
favoured, while their complexion M^as very dark, in some cases almost 
rivalling that of the slave. The Sheikhs were richly clad in brightly 
coloured, rustling silk ; they wore swords with jewelled hilts and 
revolvers with highly ornamented handles. We had fallen among the 
aristocracy of the 'Arab, closely related to the Sultan el Barr himself. 

Here we were treated to a different view of the great Haj Pasha. 
The Arabs, through whose (Uras the pilgrimage passes, have an arrange- 
ment with the Government, whereby they receive large sums as toll 
money. The Pasha is paymaster, and he is thus able to visit upon the 
Arabs any irregularities of which they may be guilty. These men of the 
desert have also a wholesome respect for the guard wliich is under the 
Pasha's command. His influence is therefore felt and acknowledged 
along the whole line of march. But robbers, Arabs or others, do not 
love to be restrained ; therefore Slieijulch er Ruwally love not the Pasha. 
They have, however, no objection to accept what he may offer, and 
many of the weapons which it surprised one to find in the desert were 
gifts from the Pasha's hand. 

I was speedily on very good terms with them, and received a pressing 
invitation to join them when they began their eastward movement a 
month or two later. They would take me into their own charge, and if I 
would be content with their homely fare, I should see all their cUra from 
the uplands of the Jaulan even unto Hayil, the city of Ibn Rashtd. Of 
this Arabian potentate they spoke with great respect. Hayil shelters 
him and his people only during jjart of the year. In the season he betakes 
him to the tents, rides to GJmzzu at the head of his light camel corps, and 
holds all the 'Arab far and near in awe of his prowess. With no little 
jiride they told me that the principal Sheikh of their tribe, as a special 
mark of favour, had received 200 horses from this desert ruler. 

As the shadows grew longer and darker, and the fire lit up the 
swarthy faces with a warm glow, the talk, becoming general, soon drifted 
into the telling of tales ; in these the wonderful and the supernatural were 
liberally mingled, but for the most pai't the stories were unfit for polite 
ears. The humour of the 'Ai'ab is very broad, and oft-times very grim. 
As supper time drew on it was evidently a matter of deep concern to 
these worthy men how " the Baik " should be entertained. At last they 
solved the problem to their own entire satisfaction. My two attendants 
were to go to an adjoining tent, where all the rank and file of the tribe 
would gather and do justice to one huge dish, while the first born of the 
Sheikh was told off to minister to my necessities. To have witnessed and 
shared in the general mess would have pleased me best, but the general 
opinion was that it would not be showing due respect to " the Baik " to 
invite him to mingle with the rabble. I was therefore kept in solitary 


state in the Slieiklily house, assiduously waited upon by the stalwart 
youth, who assured me that it was if Ars-I. (k^.ii^ — all one slaughtering 
— by which I suppose he meant me to understand that nothing was lost 
by not going to where the slaughtered sheep lay cooked whole. I heard 
the sounds of boisterous enjoyment from the " house " of feasting, and 
directly my courtly miuistrant presented himself, bearing a copper dish 
with my share of the repast. It consisted of a sheet of coarse bread 
which covered the bottom of the dish, over which lay a solid covering of 

the choicest portions of the ^^j j (Dhablhah). It was almost swimming 
in samn — clarified butter — but the air of the wilds confers an appetite 
which makes light of these things. A little water was poured over my 
liands. The youth planted himself over against me, rolled up his sleeves, 
and together we proceeded to business. He kneaded the bread into 
small pieces, selected the tenderest bits of the dhahlhah, laying them 
carefully to my hand, and certain it is that I made an excellent meal. 
It shows one how little necessary after all are such things as knives, 
forks, spoons, plates, &c. A draught of fresh milk hardly 5'et cooled 
concluded a repast fit for a prince. 

After supper the mejlis again assembled, and well into the night we 
sat around the fire, both hearing and asking each other questions. 
Among other things, I learned that the hair of the roof of the tent where 
we were lodged was made in Judeideh. The women of this tribe spin 
the goats' hair and weave cloth only for the walls of the tents. The more 
skilled workers of the Lebanon village are entrusted with the work for 
the roofs, as these have to stand the worst strain of the storm, and turn 
the rains which may chance to fall in the circle of their wanderings. One 
by one the drowsy listeners rose and j^assed like gliding shadows through 
the dimness to their separate shelters, and silence stole again over the 
encampment. At last but one remained, a long-winded youth whose 
monotonous voice pouring into Mohammed's ears a tale to him of sur- 
passing and wondrous interest, served me as a lullaby, and the next I 
remember was the light of morning brightening over the earth. 

The ride to TsU was comparatively vxneventful. The country is 
uninteresting. Great breadths covered with the black debris of ancient 
volcanic catastrophes, and wide stretches of dark brown earth, studded 
here and there with tufts of withered thistles, whose shining surfaces, 
leflecting the light, seemed to create a white haze in many a hollow. 
We j)assed through an extensive field of dolmens. On one of the largest 
I found some marks {see next page) rudely engraved, which doubtless 
once meant something to somebody. 

The Rukkad we crossed just above the bridge, among oleanders of 
gi'eat height and luxuriance. At either end of the bridge is a bit of 
solid Roman i)avement, appareiitly little the worse for its centuries of 
exposure, but it is soon lost amid the surrounding wilderness. Under 
the ruined arches of the bridge are abundance of beautiful ferns. 

Another reach of ica'r (rocky ground) passed, the horses' feet plunged 



pleasantly into the waters of a little stream. Here we met a genial 
Beduwy, riding an ass, and punishing a huge bunch of grapes which he 
carried in a leathern wallet. With generous hand he distributed to the 
thirsty men whom God had sent across his path, and as we ate our eyes 
were lightened and we rode forward refreshed. Near by the stream 
were the bases of ancient walls, with great hewn blocks that might well 
have supported some mighty structure in the far past. Circular tiodden 
patches, surrounded by low turf walls, with charred stones set for the 
fires, marked the site of the military training cariip, which a few months 
earlier had been the scene of bustling activity, now the abode of the 
lizard and the snake. 

Maeks on a Dolmen-. 

Tsil^ or as some of the villagers called it, with a distinct aspirate after 
the Ts — Tshil — is very slightly above the level of the surrounding 
country. There is a gentle decline southward towards Sakem el Jauiun, 
and a corresponding depression, speedily rising again to the hills north- 
ward. South-west of the village is the threshing floor, and beyond this 
extensive and very prolific vineyards. Following the example of the 
Cii'cassians, the vineyards have been carefully surrounded by strong and 
high drystone dykes. The black towers rise higher still, where the 
owners lodge to guard their fruit against midnight marauder and 
prowling jackal. A few fig tiees, with their covir of broad green leaves, 
here break the monotony of the landscape. 

Tsil is not a clean village ; the tkij'.^ 

-mizhalaJi ('" dunghill") — is the 
most flourishing of its institutions. Manv of tlie houses are more than 


half buried beneath accumulated rubbish. In two or three generations, 
at the pi'eseut rate of progress, there ought to be a fine assortment of 
underground dvvelUngs in Tsil. But in these respects it is quite a typical 

Haur^n village. The inhabitants are all Moslems, but iL»sL^^ — the 

time of ignorance — is in no real sense i^assed for them. It is simple 
nonsense, however, to speak of them (see Murray's guide) as having "a 
liad name for thieving propensities." They are just like their neighbours ; 
it would be extremely difficult to distinguish degrees of better and worse 
among them. They are certainly very hospitable, and kindly according 
to their abilities. 

Dar esh Sheikh lies close to the threshing floor. The courtyard is 
wide and the dwelling narrow, but the old man's heart was more in 
]iroportion with the yard than with the house. As the sun was very hot, 
I was glad to get inside, to acccnnplish some necessary reading and 
writing. Tiie Iferlafeh—gnest chamber— had a floor of mud with a 
hollow in the centre for winter fires, walls plastered with mud, and roof 
of branches laid on strong cross beams, and covered with mud. We 
found a disagreeable looking Beduwy stretched at full length along one 
side, while his mare champed and neighed in the scanty shadow of the 
court^'ard wall. He did not even rise to salute us on our entry, which 
proved him a churl. It transpired that he had lent the Sheikh a small 
sum of money at a ruinoxia rate of interest. This had tided our host 
over a time of distress, and now it was all repaid save a balance of a few 
piastres, which he calculated would be cleared shortly by the grain on 
the thi'eshing floor. But it did not suit the Bedawy to accept assurances. 
His ])lan was to descend upon the good Sheikh periodically to demand 
payment. On these occasions he quartered himself and his mare upon 
his debtoi-, secured for himself the best that was going in the way of food, 
and generally assumed the airs of lord of the place. Sheikh 'Abdullah 
did not relish his creditor's company, but with no open quarrel he did 
not feel that he could order him forth ; his time, however, was coming. 

'Abdullah was despatched to the vineyard for grapes and shortly 
returned with great tempting bunches of beautiful fruit, for which he 
had paid at the rate of something less than a halfpenny per pound. This 
was reckoned a good price, and from the buyer's point of view there was 
little reason to grumble. After dinner there were numerous and obliging- 
guides ready to sltow me everything of interest about the place. The 
jinti([uities have been pretty fully described by Mr. Schumacher, but the 
inscriptions had escaped him. Here I found Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the 
list. One or two others I heard of but cannot be certain that they were 
inscriptions. Often when the natives take you to what they call a 
" written rdoue," you find only a new illustration of their ignorance. It 
requires time, tact, and patience projjerly to examine these i)laces. On a 
.stone in one of the arches of the mosque I noticed two rows of seven 
little cup-like hollows, with the letter M over that at the top corner to 
the right. This suggested thoughts of the ancient "cresset stones," 



examples of which are preserved in the museum at York. But the 
probabilities are that in former times this and similar stones found in 

oooo olo 
o o o o o 

other ruins were used for the game called by the Arabs ^UJIa^ — Mankalah 
— an account of which will be found in Lane's " Modern Egyptians." I 
found it played in Damet el 'Alyah by the Druzes, with the holes made in 
a piece of thick plank. The following figure, roughly drawn, I also found 
on the lower part of another arch : — 

Towards evening the news spread that Sheikh 'Abdullah had guests, 
and the neighbours came in to help him entertain them. Several Arabs, 
with scant clothing and scantier manners, formed part of the company, 
and the conversation soon became general. The following snatches may 
be found interesting to different readers. Speaking with one about 

eZ Xe;a, he said Ljud?, Lc ; he explained LJLjIj Lc , ^-^Jt) — that is, "I 

never set foot upon it." Another, in the course of an argument, appealed 

to me to support his statement. I asked first for witnesses. \\h • t 

— Anl mashallil, i.e., I am without witnesses — ^^-^^ J Lc. The first 
sing, of the personal pronoun ana — U 1 — is here pronounced distinctly ant, 
corresponding exactly to the Hebrew ''^i-^. Beduw and Fellahin alike in 
these districts pronounce both ^ and v like our hard g. The effect 

to the stranger is at first extremely confusing. u_>, again, is invariably 
pronounced ch, as in change, at the beginning of words ; but in the 
middle, and especially at the end, it often receives its proper k sound. 
These are phrases in common use, with the explanations which they gave 

me : — 




"Take your time," or "at your 

"Laok to me," or "give me your 

" Truth." 

" Hurry ! " or " haste you." 

"Tell me -what you want," or 
" your desire." 

^T ^ 

lcss*-w^ or 


1. Burkhah = 'Ala mahalak. 

2. Irr' = Tala' 'Aleiya. 

3. Sij = Sidk, properly -iS^ 

= aiib cJ^.^Jl 7 


4. Inshur ! =: Imshi or Ista'jil. 

5. Wash'aldmak 1 , . ,, * , . , ^ , , 
„ -,17 , , , r Allamni shii betrid. 

6. Washtaghy J 

7. Akhark billali or bullah. This is shouted after one who refuses to 
hear or to obey instructions. I asked the meaning of the phrase when I 
heard one crying it out at the pitch of his voice to another some distance 

away and received for answer, i^jj J,^ ^111 k.5>J »i). Huwa bihut 

Ullah 'ala zaharo — " He sets Ullah upon his back ! " 

The oatlis that interlarded the conversation were both frequent and 
forcible. I asked if they considered themselves bound by the oaths they 
used thus lightly and got heartily laughed at, as I anticipated. " But," I 
said, "you do swear an oath by which you hold yourselves bound, called 

j_^,j^jJ^ (^l^— Half el Yemln, 'the faithful oath '—do you not?" 

They showed a sti-ange unwillingness to discuss the point ; but at last 
one stepped forward to give me the formula for Vcmtn el 'Arab — "the 
faithful oath of the 'Arab." Drawing a circle in the court where we 
were reclining, he took a broken bit of a dry stem of grass between 
his hands and standing in the middle of the circle, with great solemnity 
he repeated the following : — 

_>il^U ,J»\j ,.,.'1 m)UaL; k:>-, L>».V.z^l 




W Ujb 

jj!_j^ a! 

Wahaydt lifidha el'ud wa er-rubb el ma'bfid, wakhat Suleiman ibn Diiud, 

wa el-kS,dhib ma lahu maultld. 

" By the life of this stem and the Loixl the adored, and the line of 
Solomon the sou of David, and he who lies may none be born to him." 


Khat Suleimfin is, of course, the circle within which the person stands 
and possibly as the unbroken line, in some way symbolises truth. No 
penalty is so gx-ievous to the Arab soul as the absence or loss of posterity. 
The childless man regards himself as under a mark of divine displeasure. 
His death means the extinction of his line, and the disappointment of the 
dearest hopes. Hardly will an 'Arab break this oath, even if his life be 

in jeopardy. The sin, however, of betraying an infidel, _ii — kefr — is 
light compared with breaking the yemln to a Moslem ; and only with 
extreme difiiculty can they ever be brought to swear the yemin to a 
foreigner. It was said that the yemhi of the Drazes is peculiarly 
beautiful and awe-inspiring, but I could never persuade a Druze even 
to repeat it to me. The Druzes told me that they often used yemtn el 
'Arab, their own yemln being reserved for very special cases ; as, for 
example, when one is accused of murder and wishes to swear to his 
innocence, then only yemln ed Druze will be accepted. 

On a part of the courtyard raised somewhat above the rest we enjoyed 
supper d la 'Arab, a huge trencher of steaming rice, over which rich 
melted samn had been poured, was the chief dish ; but there was also 
freshly-baked bread, leban, and honey. The most casual observer could 
not have failed to observe how liberally the Sheikh's Bedawy creditor 
assisted himself. Supper over I retired a bit from the company, drew 
my wraps around me, and lay down under the beautiful canopy of 
cloudless Syrian sky. But alas, the attentions of certain peculiarly active 
insects, fostered by the prevailing conditions, were so assiduously 
unremitting that sleep fled far from weary eyes. I decided that the 
appai'atus I had brought for such emergencies should henceforth be 
employed. This good resolution seemed to bring some immediata relief 
and just ere " the star " arose I dropped off into dreamless slumber. 

The most delightful hour of all the day in the Orient is that just before 
the sun, bright and burning, springs like a strong man fi-om his couch 
rejoicing to run his race ; the dewdrops sparkle upon leaf and stone, the 
brown earth is darkened by its gentle touch, the flocks move softly 
outwards following their rough but kindly shepherds, and the hot 
temples are fanned by the fresh cool breezes from the dewy uplands. 
White mists roll down the valleys, encircling the black heights whose 
summits rise above like islands in a sea of foam. So comes the day of 
power, " in holy beauties from the womb of the morning." Over a frugal 
and wholesome breakfast of coarse freshly-baked bread, leben, and grapes, 
we discussed such weighty matters as work, laziness — the besetting sin of 
the 'Arab and Fellahy alike — and the tenure of land. On this last subject 
there was widespread disturbance among the villages of the Hauran, for 
an order had been issued to register all land in the names of the present 
possessors that proper titles might be given. In the changing conditions 
of the country this was likely to prove a real advantage to the people ; 

but their suspicious minds detected in the i_^ •Isj — tatwib, " registra- 
tion " — only a new instrument for extortion and oppression. Opposition 


to the scheme was bitter and detei-mined, especially among the inhabitants 
of Jehel ed Druze. I suppose not fewer than 8,000 or 10,000 soldiers 
were drafted into the Hauran to overawe the population and secure the 
carrying out of the order. Discontent manifested itself in peculiar 
fashion. Bands of Fellahln and Druzes for once made common cause, 
and not feeling themselves strong enough to meet the Government troops, 
and having a vivid recollection of the punishment administered to the 
daring Druzes two years before, they contented themselves with preying 
upon the traveller and the itinerant merchant, making the roads unsafe. 
From this point eastward I heard of some dozen robberies and murders 
committed during the time of our wanderings. Doubtless there were 
exaggerations, but most of the accounts I believe to have been authentic. 
Southward from Tsil, about an hour and a quarter's riding, lies 
Saheni el J avian {see Schumacher, "Across the Jordan"). The village 
is surrounded by great tracts of very fertile land. This did not escape 
the eagle eye of Mohammed Sa'id Pasha. He had bought the village 
and lands for a ridiculously small sum, and forthwith sold them again at 
a phenomenal profit to the Jewish company which proposed to plant 
colonies in these regions. Difficulties, however, had arisen, as before the 
legal formalities for conveying the purchase to the Pasha were completed, 
the people learned the bargain he had made with the Jews, and repenting 
their transaction with him, i-efused to go forward. According to their 
tale, things were hanging in this unsatisfactory position when I visited 
them ; but the influence of the Pasha would probably be sufficient to 
bring them to his own mind in the end. It did seem strange to hear the 

names of the J«^j yeJiM — Jews — and of Eothschild, whom they called 
J.-^l^ U^-^-' » — Reiselyehtd — " Chief of the Jews," on the lips of thes 
rude men, wandering in the streets of the ruined city which some would 
identify with Golan, the ancient refuge whither the distant forefathers 
of the yehitd were accustomed to flee for succour, what time their hands 
were unwittingly stained in brother's blood ; the avenger with glittering 
sahem — " arrow " — pressing hard i;pon their trembling footsteps. 

The Sheikh, a friend of Mohammed's, was unfortunately absent ; but 
his son Tunas hospitably entertained us in his father's stead. As we sat 
conversing with him in the diivdii, he turned to a box which stood near 
by, and, removing the cover, drew out a huge spotted serpent, which he 
fondled affectionately, and suffered to wriggle about the place in a 
fashion which did not in the least add to the comfort of liis guests ! 

IjuI^U fA: w_-^JJj, he explained — shariht min esh Sheikh — "I have 

^ ^ -J- 

drunk from the Sheikh." There are men who prepare certain concoctions 
and profess that whoever partakes of them is rendered impei'vious to 
the poison of snakes. They charge a small sum from those who ai'e 
privileged to taste the charmed draught, and so eke out a precarious 
livelihood. I have met a good many lads who had thus " drunk from the 
Sheikh " and who were very free in their handling of reptiles. Once at 


Tell Hdm, a boy who had come with xis in the boat suddenly dived into 
a hole among the ruins, and sjoeedily emerged in triumph with a long 
serpent writhing in his grasp. He allowed it to bite him, drawing blood 
freely. I observed immediately afterwaids in the boat, that when the 
other rowers were perfectly cool, he broke out into a j^rofuse perspiration. 
I asked him if all serpents were alike to him, and he said they were. I 
reminded him of a short, thick black rascal that infests the vineyards ami 
drystone dykes, and asked if he would grip him. "With one of his big^'est 
oaths he cursed the father and grandfather of that snake, and declared 
that he would not approach him. When this fellow bites, you have only 
about half an hour, and that half an hour of agony, to take farewell of 
your friends. The truth is that most of the serpents are quite innocuous, 
and may be handled with impunity. These lads know the really 
dangerous kinds, and avoid them. But it always makes one creep to 
see the nasty things wriggling and twisting round human limbs. Yunas 
tinally caught his pet, and thrust him again into his prison box, amused 
at the relief his disappearance brought to us. 

In a wall in front of the public reception room, or meddfeh, I found 
inscription No. 5, and in a cellar not easily reached, over against the 
richly sculptured chamber described by Schumacher, I found No. 6. The 
mosque, extensive remains of ancient baths which have been uncovered 

, beside the threshing floor, and l..i,lAl^ c:^A.' — Beit el Bdsha—^' Honse of 

the Pasha," a modern structure of old materials^ were all examined in 
turn, but yielded nothing of special interest. A certain lintel, now deep 
underground, was said to have an inscription on it, and one who had 
seen it undertook to dig it up. When at last it appeared in the face of 
day, it presented only a bit of very common sculpture, and the disgusted 
workman threw down his pick, despairing of the backsheesh he had been 
promised ; but he seemed to think better of the FranJ^, when his good 
intentions were rewarded ! Yunas, meantime, had prepared for us a 
frugal and acceptable repast ; while we sat enjoying it a poor ragged 
consumptive, Shehady ez-zandl by name, came in trembling eagerness to 
asiv for something that might cure his hacking cough. I could only give 
him a note introducing him to the good doctor in Safed, whose services 
would be at his disposal if he were able to reach that upland city. What 
a magnificent field for philanthropic work these villages and camps 

Riding westward, we presently came upon the deep Wachj 'AUdn, 
which here cuts the plain in two. How delightful was the plash and 
gui'gle of the living water rushing over its rocky bed in the fierce heat 
of that Sj'rian day ! High on the western bank we descried the grey 
ruins of Beit Alkur, whither we were now bending our steps. We crossed 
the wady further to the north, and then carefully clambered up the steep 
and slippery rocks to the ancient city on the heights. 

Beit Akkar occujjies a position of great strength, standing on the 
tongue or triangle between two valleys, just above their confluence 


The Wady 'Allan is much the deeper of the two, its sides hero descending 
in sheer precipitous cliffs. On the other side the ascent is also one of 
extreme difficulty ; while to the north the apjaroaehes from the plain of 
old were guarded by enormous fortifications. What a scene of ruin and 
desolation the place presents to-day ! We could trace the line of the 
streets by the clearly marked depressions, and where a higher tumulus 
of weather-worn stone met the eye, we might hazard the guess that there 
had stood some public building. A few underground arches still stand 
entire, supporting the superincumbent mass of ruins. For the most part 
the houses must have been erected without mortar. Dressed stones, bits 
of ancient columns and capitals are strewn here and there ; but not a 
single inscription rewarded a most painstaking search. 

Xot without feelings of sadness we turned us from the blasted height, 
and going down with anxious care over the smooth rocks where the iron 
hoofs of the horses slipped threateningly at every step, we reached again 
the bottom of the wady, just above a lofty fall. How tempting that 
clear sj^arkling water was to thirsty, perspiring travellers ! Here part of 
the stream is led captive into a channel of masonry, and made to turn 
two mills ere it reaches the basin below ; the rest of the w^aters whirl 
foaming over the cataract with wide-reaching alarm. Swinging down 
with the help of oleander bushes, which here abound, and dry roots, I 
made my way to the "edge of the pool below. I stood on a rock, just 
ready to plunge into the refreshing tide, when lo ! a great serpent, 
speckled back, triangxdar head, and constricted neck, came twisting down 
the stream almost to my unprotected feet. It was sickening ! Grasping 
a stone, I hurled it at the reptile, but apprehending danger, he made 
swiftly for the shore and disappeared under a huge boulder. Such things 
tend to modify the pleasures of bathing ; but it was impossible to resist 
the attractions of that clear, fl ishing pool. Happilv, the serpent and his 
friends seemed to take warning from the danger he had escaped, and I 
saw no more of them. Mohammed and 'Abdullah sat the while in the 
higher reaches, under the shade of the leafy oleander, in converse deep 
with certain Beduw, who w^ere most eager to know whence we came, 
whither we journeyed, and what our business was. If they believed 
one-half of what these worthies told them they could be in no doubt as 
to our quality and dignity. 

Tsil we could see from the elevation of the ruins, and before coming 
down had settled the direction we should ride. The ground was for the 
most part bare and brown, with volcanic stones liberally bestrewn. But 
the barrenness was ])leasantly interrupted here and there by great 
.stretches of waving Dlnirra, a kind of maize with enormous stem and 
huge bushy head. Of this grain the villagers in the Hauran make much 
of tlieir bread ; whei-ein they are greatly commiserated by those who 
can afford the more aristocratic nutriment of wheat. The liorses tore at 
the green blades and bushy heads with tremendous eagerness. It is the 
privilege of tie traveller, at which the owners of the crops never com- 
plain, to allow his horse to snatch mouthfuls as it goes of whatever grows 


by tlie wny. As the Arabs do not feed tlieir horses at luidday, the 
refreshment this aflfords is often considerable. 

Preparations for tlie evening meal were in full swing when we reached 
the village. This is the great meal of the day. Breakfast is of little or 
no account to these people. Often they will go long journeys without 
touching food, in the certain hope of doing well at the journey's end. 

The sound of threshing in the ,SJJ — Deidar — was hushed, the grain 

^ " • 

banked up, and watches set. The flocks came slowly homeward through 
the quiet air ; groups gathered in the doorways and courtyards, for no 
supper would be eaten under the shadow of a I'oof that warm night. 
Sunset filled all the west with glorious colour, the paler east reflecting its 
radiant hues, while the light swiftly faded from out the dome of blue. 
All seemed to be settling down in peacefulness over the villnge, when in 
a moment the scene was changed. "We had gathered together on tlie 
slightly raised ])latform in the Sheikh's courtyard, and a huge trencher of 
rice was brought and set in our midst. This, with bunches of luscious 
gi'apes, formed the chief jiart of our evening fare. Our friend, the 
Beduwy creditor, who had lounged about in the shade all day, sleeping 
for hours at once, and waking up occasionally to shout gruff salutations 
to passers by, came forward, thrust himself into the midst of the circle, 
and began to do ample justice to the rice. Just then the good Sheikh 
came in, fire flashing from his dark eyes, his lips set in angry determina- 
tion. He suff"ered fi'om a chronic hoarseness that almost deprived him 
of voice ; what was left him was pitched in a very high key. He 
addressed the Bedawy as chclh ibn chelb — " dog, the son of a dog " ; 
directly he ventured the opinion that he was not only chclb, but chefr and 
A'AanzIr— " intidel and pig "—as well ! Then the music fast and furiously 
rose and fell on the night air, the shrill treble of the irate Sheikh's 
accusations and scornful epithets, and the deep bass of the Beduwy's 
res])onding blasjihtmies. As the clangour floated over the city, the usual 
Oriental crowd soon collected at the gateway, and heard the sta'-catoed 
crescendo in which the ill-mannered creditor was ordered forth into the 
darkress, which now fell thick o'er all the uplands. 'Abdullah's wrath 
against this rough son of the desert had been rising for some time ; but 
that which led to the final outburst was what no man of spirit could 
tolerate. Late in the afternoon, down by the d_) ke that surrounds the 
B-ddar, where tlie village clothes are stretched in the sun to dry, as the 
Sheikh was proceeding to the great heap of grain to fetch provender for 
the Beduwy's horse, the latter openly insulted and derided him before 
the women of the village. Hot words then passed, but the hour of 
nursing had made 'Abdullah's wrath no cooler, and now he determined 
to be quit of this everlasting annoyance. The Bedawy, in high dudgeon, 
threw down the burning twig with which he would have lit his j)ipe, 
dashed his saddle upon his surprised mare, making a running commentary 
of oaths upon 'Abdullah's fiery eloquence. Then came 'Abdullah's wife, 
the graceful and gentle sheikhah, trying to cast oil on the troubled waters. 


She could not bear to think even of her husband's traducer going out 
into the wastes M^hich, moving among the dim shadows, the jackals had 
already filled with their wild music. But these fierce natures when 
stirred are very fierce ; her mediation was treated with lofty disdain. 
With a parting curse shot back from the gateway, the Bedawy plunged 
into the darkness. 'Abdullah's shrill reproaches followed him until the 
sound of his mare's footsteps died away. With his passion somewhat 
wrought off, the Slieikh then turned to entertain his remaining guests. 
He was highly complimented by all upon the courage he had shown. 
After a few spasmodic bursts at the mean chelb ibn chelb, whom he had 
driven forth, the admiration of his friends seemed greatly to mollify him, 
and he sat down in jjeace to eat his frugal supper. 

After the usual turn of tale-telling gradually the company of villagers 
thinned, and one by one those who remained dropped off to sleep just 
where they lay. Remembering last night's experience, I resolved to run 
no risks, and so got my " shoe " in order. In anticipation of circum- 
stances such as these I had pre])ared a strong canvas bag nearly in the 
shape of a shoe, with muslin sewn round the mouth, which might be 
drawn in at the top, and fastened up to a nail or other convenient projec- 
tion overhead. Into the bottom of this I slipped a mattress, and such 
wraps as were necessary. By keeping the mouth firmly fastened these 
were preserved from invasion by "the enemy" during the day; and 
with a little careful management when niglit fell I was able to step in 
without company, and bid defiance to the foe till morning. 

A pleasant forenoon gallop brought us to 'Adwan, a Fellaliy village 
resting on a small elevation, which, however, commands a very wide 
view northward, eastward, and southward. Iler-e we proposed spending 
the succeeding day, Sunday. I did not quite realise what staying here 
meant, but in any case it might have been difficult to make a better of 
it. Sheikh Khalll gave us a very hearty welcome to his humble dwelling. 
A somewhat short, thickset man, with ruddy cheeks and sandy wliiskers, 
he came bustling in from the Beidar when he heard of the visitors. Both 
in appearance and habits he presented a contrast to the usual Fellaliy 
type. As a rule they are swarthy, with a tendency to spareness, and 
showing no undue appetite for work. Khalll is an industrious man, 
making the best of somewhat evil circumstances. 'Adwan cannot boast 
such prolific vineyards as Tstl, but the small grapes grown here are very 
palatable, especially in hot days. While the Sheikh busied himself pre- 
paring for our entertainment, I made casual inquiries about the village 
and villagers. The mizbalah is here, as in other villages, the most thriving 
concern. On one side the houses are entirely hidden behind a huge 
dunghill. All manner of refuse and rubbish has been thrown there 
for ages, and now it is hardly an exaggeration to say it is bigger than the 
village itself ! Close by the base of tliis great heap I found inscription 
No. 7. In these circumstances I will be easily understood when I say 
the atmosphere is not pure. A jocular youth in the hotel at Jericho once 
pronounced the ancient city of j)alms to be now the /'''«6/v7t'— manufactory 


of flies, mosquitoes, and such-like for the whole of Syria. I have seen 
Jericho about its worst, and am sure the lad had never visited 'Adw4n. 
The flies seem to be millions of myriads strong. Goinij over certain jjarts 
they rise like a dark cloud around you at every step. They are about the 
only creatures that have any strength. The villagei's are a very sickly lot. 
They are old, withered men before they are fifty. When a child is born it is 
not really expected to live. When one reaches the age of eleven or twelve 
it is regarded as hardly less than a miracle. But the fevered, weakl}' con- 
dition of all is fully explained when the water supply of the place is seen. 
The fountain rises a little to the north-east of the village. It would be 
very easy to make a convenient reservoir, pi'otecting from pollution the 
water to be used for domestic purposes. Abortive attempts to do this 
have evidently been made from time to time ; but anything like thorough 
work is not to be expected here. The spring is fairly copious, but the 
water at once collects in a muddy pool. Hither come the cattle to drink, 
ti'ampliiig all round and through it ; hither come the pious Moslems to 
wash prior to prayer ; and hither come the women with their jai's to 
carry home the needed supplies. Consider these mighty odoriferous 
mounds, the swarming flies, this pool of filthy water, and one can wonder 
no more that men are sickly, women feeble, and that they regard it as a 
special interposition of Providence on their behalf when their children 
survive the perils of infancy — for these humble peasants have all the 
passionate longings of the Orient, to see a great posterity. 

Not far to the north were seVeral clumps of trees ; above the green 
foliage the red tile roofs of El Merkez rose pleasantly. This is the seat of 
the governor of the Haurau. The position is both civil and military, 
but his functions are prevailingly military. A soldier of some distinction 
is always chosen for the post. The Turks have never felt perfectly sure 
of their hold upon this district. It is difiicult to maintain any satisfactory 
authority over the nomadic tribes that roam over its length and breadth. 
The common peasantry might not cause much trouble ; but the free- 
spirited Druzes must also be reckoned with, and in their wild mountains 
and rocky fastnesses of El Lejd, they are foemen by no means to be 
despised. The nearest approach to ti-anquillity was attained under the 
regime of the brave and chivalrous Memdtih Pasha. He was a soldier 
who was respected and admired even by those on whom his hand lay 
heaviest. Memdilh by name — " the praised one," he is MemclAh also in 
fact, and his fame will linger long in the towns and villages, and among 
the far-spreading encampments of Hauran. 

Of El Merhez and the Monastery of Job — now Turkish barracks and 
Government offices — of Sheikh Sci'ad and JSfcm-a, Mr. Schumacher has given 
an excellent account (" Across the Jordan"). Here there is a post and 
telegraph office ; but the ofiicials are so absorbed in Government business 
that the traveller may consider himself extremely fortunate if his telegram 
is sent off" in anything less than three days after it is given in. As to 
waiting for a reply, you might almost go and fetch it yourself in the 
time. El Merkez consists of two straggling streets, running at right 


angles to each other. To the south of that running east and west is 
the so-called " Monastery of Job." Entering by an old gateway, the 
post office is to the left. Round a large courtyard is a series of rooms 
ancient and modern, occupied by soldiers. South of this enclosure, 
reached by a small door in the wall, is the sanctuary, where the patriarch 
of Uz and his son lie buried. His wife's tomb is shown on the side of 
the street in a little grass and weed-covered plot. The tombs in the 
sanctuary are now scrupulously guarded from profanation, fenced ofT by 
a railing, and covered with green cloth. The floor in front of them is 
used largely by the faithful in the garrison for prayer. Just before the 
door, under the shadow of a great tree, is a fountain for ablutions. The 
water is brought some distance in pipes, and is the same as that M^hich 
supplies the village. 

The great man himself, who sat under a canopy at the side of the 
covirtyard in company with his officers, coitlially returned my salutation. 
Meantime, Mohammed had been charming himself retailing the story of 
his master's greatness to a few inquisitive soldiei's who had gathered 
about him. Doctors Post and Porter, of Beyrout, must have been some- 
where in the neighbourhood at this time, in quest of botanical specimens. 
Their scientific interest did not commend itself to the favour of the 
powers that be, and they were unhappily stopped a little to the south 
and sent back to Damascus. This we did not learn until our return, and 
considering the end of their enterprise it is perhaps as well that we did 
not meet. No objection was made to our progress, nor was I asked any 
inconvenient questions. 

Eiding along by the vineyards that stretch between EI Merkez and 
Sheikh Sa'ad, we entered the latter village and rode up to the sanctuary, 
where the great attraction is Sakhrct Ayyilh. The sanctuary is built of 
basalt ; the roof, which is of solid slabs of the same material, is su^iporled 
by a double row of square pillars. On one of the arches is carved a cross, 
telling of Christian possession ; but originally no doubt it was a heathen 
temple. In the floor stands the big rock of which Mr. Schumacher has 
given such a full description. It is a monument of hoar antiquity ; the 
hieroglyphic inscription on it jiroves it to date at least from the time 
of Rameses II. The sanctuary and stone are greatly revered by the 

The place is named after Slieikh Sa'ad, the leader who brought hither 
the company of Soudanese, whose descendants now form almost its sole 
occupants. Here only in Syria do you find a village community entirel}' 
black. The Sheikh, of course, has duly found his position in the Arab 
Valhalla, and fairly divides the local honoiu-s with the ancient patriarch. 
The village is built on a rocky mound, and on the south-eastern shoulder 
of the mound stands the sanctuary, visilile, with its white dome, for 
many miles on every side. At the bottom of the hill, towards El Merkez, 
a beautiful fountain bursts from tlie rock, and over its waters is built 
what is now known as Hammdm Ayyith, " the bath of Job." It stands 
open, and is used indiscriminately by all. As the stream escapes, and 


circles away through the gardens and orchards, spreading beauty and 
fertility along its banks, what a contrast the scene presents to the dreary 
deserts of the Soudan. Considering this, one can partly unden^itand why 
these dark-skinned folks should offer hardly less than Divine honours to 
the man who led their fathers out of the waterless wastes of the far 
south, to settle in what must have seemed to the eyes of the desert 
dwellers a veiy paradise. 

Wherever you find anything like a shop, be it hut or tent, among 
peasantry or Arabs, there you will find either tartaric or citric acid, or both. 
A lansom is charged for a very small quantity, and it is carried very care- 
fully tied up in a corner of the dress or kufiyeh. A bit is taken by times, 
and sucked for a moment, then carefully restored to its quarters. They 
prize it greatly, believing that its astringent properties exercise a wholesome 
and beneficent influence on the whole system. Here we provided 
ourselves with a stock, which proved of great service in our wanderings. 
We returned through El Merkez to 'Ad wan, and after refreshment, and 
such rest as the flies permitted, I rode down in the quiet of evening to 
Tdl 'Asliterah. It is only half an hour distant to the south-east. I rode 
round the base, and then round the top. At intervals along the steep 
sides there is an outcrop of very ancient ruins, particularly on the 
northern slope. It is impossible to make anything of these at present, 
but, doubtless, excavation would bring much of interest to light. The top 
is shaped almost like a horseshoe, open to the north, witli a considerable 
depression in the midst. A great cluster of sheepfokls, built of the 
ancient building stones, crowns the north-western ruin. The massive 
approach and gateway, with watch toweis or guard houses, now a huge 
heap of blackened ruins, lies to west of the hill, not to east, as 
Dr. Merrill gives it. Everything about the hill betokens that in lioir 
antiquity it was a place of importance and great strength. The liorse- 
shoe shape alone is very suggestive of Karnaim, "the two horns" ; but 
it will hardly do to rest identification on such slender evidence. Lying 
there in the calm evening, the sun low in the west, casting long shadows 
eastward, it was impossible not to dream of what rich spoils of ancient 
lore may lie deep hidden in the hill's dark heart, waiting but the spade 
of the excavator, to enhance beyond all thought the history of the Orient. 
From fountains rising to the north-east, streams of delightful, cool, clear, 
sparkling water sweep round the base, through reedy meadows. AVhat a 
chance for the inhabitants of 'Adwan if they weie only awake to their 
own interests ! But, of course, if they came hither, they would bring 
their dirty indolent habits with them : and these flashing pools would 
soon emulate the muddy hole whence they now draw their supplies. 

The change from the sweet, fresh, free hill top, with far-reachino- 
vision of the ancient land in the midst of which it stands, back to the 
confined, stuffy, insect-infested Medafeh, was not a very pleasant one. 
Khaltl's bustling activity was the one refreshing element in the place. 
There is an unwritten law in these villages which ordains that the 
expenses of the Medafeh shall fall as equally as possible upon the who!e 


community. Just how each shall contribute towards the entertainment 
of strangers is a matter for individual arrangement. The Sheikh 
represents the community, and in their name proffers welcome and cheer. 
The entire population of the village, work being over for the day, 
gathered at sunset round the Sheikh's dwelling. The men occupied the 
courtyard in front of the Medafeh, the women and children wandering 
about without the enclosure, craning their necks for a glimpse of the 
visitors. The house in summer is of use really only as a shelter from the 
smi. As soon as he has lost his power, and the shadows creep up the 
valleys and across the plains, all come forth to revel in the cool of 
evening. Supper was served in the yard. A mighty trencher of hurghal, 
prepared wheat, with samn, was placed in the midst — the very best the 
village had to offer. We were told off in relays, strangers first, of course, 
and squatting around the dish, with bread and fingers attacked the 
steaming mass. It speedily vanished before this vigorous and repeated 
onslaught, but not until all had eaten, and had concluded, each touching 
his brow with shining fingers, with satisfied el hamdii lillahs. The 
departure of light was almost coincident with the removal of the utensils. 
Pipes and cigarettes were produced all round, and as the darkness 
thickened the smoke mingling therewith increased the obscurity, until a 
man's position could be determined only by the glowing point of burning 
tobacco, or the gurgle of his nargileh. The large company of Fellahln 
settled down in the most business-like manner to their evening's enjoy- 
ment. Their relations with the Government, the Registration question, 
the cholera, and its probable effect on the sale of their grain, did not 
detain them long ; and, before the first pipe was smoked, their beloved 
pastime was in full swing, and tales were told fit to make each particular 
hair wriggle up with nervous excitement. I thought to interest them 
with descriptions of our western wonders, the telephone, the phonograph, 
the railway, of which they had the most hazy ideas, ocean steamers, the 
implements of war, our mighty cities with their rushing industries. They 
tolerated what must have seemed to them my interminable loquacity, 
with what grace they could, as courtesy to the stranger required. For 
what interest did the things whereof I spake possess compared with the 
supernatural agencies which hemmed in their own lives in these remote 
solitudes ! Did I know anything of enchantments ? was their eager 
question. Certainly they ouly half believed my denial, and none would 
have wondered beyond measure if mounds and village had all dis- 
appeared before the morning. They told me of a ruin which lay some- 
where to the north-west, with huge scattered columns, and dark under- 
ground windings where tradition had it that vast treasure lay concealed. 
There was no doubt about the ruin, for many present had seen it as 
boys. But there came one over-curious foreigner, who walked over the 
place and |)uri)Osed to return and excavate : and from that day to this 
the ruin hath not been visible to any human eye. Many a weary hour 
has been s]jent wandering in the neighbourhood, and every foot of the 


soil where once it stood has been carefully explored iu vain. Thus do the 
guardian spirits of the place i^reserve it from the hand of the spoiler ! 

Khalil stirred up the embers of a dying tire, casting a ruddy glow- 
over the swarthy faces in the darkness, and to the merry music of 
mortar and pestle, water was boiled for coffee. Mohammed produced tea 
from our stores, and some tasted the beverage of the Franjies for the first 
time. It would not be easy to displace the coffee, but if only price 
])ermitted, the " cwp that cheers," &c., would soon make a good second 
among these people. This, however, was only by-play ; the serious 
Inisiuess of the evening went forward apace. Did I know Wady en Ndr — 
*' V^alley of JFire " ? It was a deep vale not far distant, and a noted resort 
oi the Jin — "fairies." The sides, as in most of the Jaulan valleys, are 
very steejj and difficult of ascent. If you stray along the top of the left 
bank, and look carefully, you will see, about midway up the opposite side, 
a small doorway, with doorposts and lintel of stone. It stands open ; and 
if the sun is in the right direction, his rays striking within, you may 
catch, in the cave beyond, the glitter of red gold. No man can guess the 
wealth there stored ; but, alas ! for the poverty-stricken Ilawarny, it is 
effectually guarded. You go down into the valley, and there the 
difficulties begin ; for while the doorway is easily seen from the opposite 
bank it is next to impossible to tell here where to climb. Then the dry 
earth rushes beneath your feet, and it would be almost as easv to climb 
a soft snow wreath. Finally, if you do discover and reach the door, only 
at your peril may you approach ; for from the atmosphere there is 
distilled "a ghastly dew," which drip, drip, drips from the lintel on to 
the earth below, and these strange dew-drojis are possessed of marvellous 
and awful power. If one falls on a piece of wood it is torn into fibres, 
if on stone or iron it is shivered into fragments, if upon any part of 
a man the Irishman's " smithereens " are nothing to what he would 
become I What wonder if the courage of men oozes out of their fincer- 
tips as they confront this mysterious door ! So would they have me 
believe, that from the opjiosing bank when light favours, these hungry 
men gloat upon the shine of the precious metal, which they may never 
handle ! 

Then came a storj- which concerned Umm el Jamdl^ an ancient city 
whose blackened walls may be seen away on the plain to the south-east, 
from the minaret of the great Mosque in Bozrah. In a cavern under this 
city the prophet Mohammed of sacred memory had concealed many 
things of unspeakable preciousness. Fearing the coming of the infidel, 
he had placed a guard in the cavern, before which every man who had 
ever attempted to enter had gone powerless or fallen down in a ht. It 
consists of 40 giant negroes, an enormous camel, and a snake whose vast 
sinewy folds remind one most of " that sea-beast, Leviathan, whom 
God, of all his works, created hugest, that swim the ocean stream." 
At the sound of an approaching footstep they all spring up from 
apparent torpor, and with a mighty shout and terriiic threatenino' 
aspect, raise barriers of dread which the boldest never yet hath passed. 


These long centuries of watching in the darksome cave have not wearied 
them, nor hath the age-long fast in any degree impaired their natural 

Belief in these stores of hidden treasure is kept alive by occasional 
discoveries of coin. Only a few months before my visit, a workman, 
digging for a foundation in Bozrah, came upon a jar full of old silver and 
golden coins. Several who were workiufr near him heard of his find, and 
gathering round him, a promise of silence was exacted from each, and the 
treasure trove was divided among them. But there were too many to keep 
a secret. By and bye the Government got wind of the affair, and all 
suspected of connection with it were promptly arrested. The erewhile 
fortunate men were soon detected, and, as the price of freedom, had to 
disgorge their share of the treasure. One man, however, stoutly main- 
tained his innocence of the whole concern, and he was still being afforded 
leisure to revise his declaration in one of his Imperial Majesty's prisons. 
This was all decidedly discouraging. Yet every man of these folk trusts 
that one day he will stumble across concealed wealth, which will make 
him independent of work during the rest of his natural life. 

A very long-winded fellow now took up his parable, and retailed to 
the company, who listened with breathless eagerness, a tale, which was, 
simply an Arabic variant on the old Greek story of the fair but faithless 
Helen and the beautiful but unworthy Paris. The variations were 
eminently to the Arabian taste. I gathered myself quietly into my 
" shoe " ; the sound of the tale-teller's voice, in its monotonous half-chant, 
acted as a lullaby, and soon I was far away in the land of dreams, where 
the supernatural is ever at home. 

{To he continued.) 


By James Glaisher, F.RS. 

The numbers in column 1 of this table show tlie",highest reading of the 
barometer in each month ; of these tlie highest appear in the winter, and 
the lowest in the summer months. The maximum for the year, 27'709 
inches, is in February. In column 2 the lowest reading in each month is 
shown ; the minimum for the year, 26"978 inches, is in January. The 
range of readings in the year was 0'731 inch. The numbers in the 3rd 
column show the range of readhigs in e-'ch month, the smallest, 0"12!) inch, 
is in July ; and the largest, 0'7;30 inch, is in January. The numbers in 
the 4th column show the mean monthly pressure of the atmosphere, tlie 
highest, 27478 inches, is in October ; and the lowest, 27'248 inches, in 
August. Tlie mean pressure for the year was 27"381 inches. At Sarona 
the mean pressure for the year was 29"822 inches. 


The highest temperature of the air in eacli month is shown in cohmin 5. 
Tlie liighest in the year was 102° on August 21st ; on this da_\- at Sarona 
tlie maximum temperature was 91°. The first day in the year the 
tenijierature I'eached 90" was on May 9th, and tliere were 7 other days in 
tliis month when it reached or exceeded 90^ ; in June there were 9 
days ; in July 15 (hxys ; in August 18 days ; in September, 9 days ; 
and in October 14 days. Therefore the temperature reached or exceeded 
90" on 73 days in the year. At Sarona the temperature reached or 
exceeded 90' on 25 days in the year ; the highest at Sarona, viz., 100°, 
took place on October 29th ; on this day at Jerusalem the maximum 
temperature was 89° ; the first day the temperature reached 90° was on 
April 10th. 

The numbers in column 6 show the lowest temperature of the air in 
each month ; the lowest in the year was 27°"0 on the 23rd, 26th, and 27th 
of January ; the temperature was below 40° in January on 28 nights ; in 
February it was below 40° on 17 nights ; in March on 11 nights ; in May 
on 2 nights ; in November on 1 night ; and in December on 25 nights. 
Therefore the temperature was below 40° on 84 nights in the year. The 
yearly range of temperature was 75° '0. At Sarona the temperature was 
below 40° on only 15 nights in the year ; the lowest in the year, 32°'5, took 
place on January 28th. The yearly range of temperature at Sarona was 

The range of temperature in each month is shown in column 7, and 
these 'numbers vary from 35° in January to 55°'5 in May. At Sarona 
the range of temperature in each month varied from 27° in July to 54° in 

The mean of all the highest Ijy day, of the lowest by night, and of the 
average daily ranges of temperature are shown in columns 8, 9, and 10 
i-espectively. Of the high day temperature the lowest, 50° '5, is in January, 
and the highest, 91°'9, in August. At Sarona of the high day temperature 
the lowest, 63°"4, was in January, and the highest, 88°"5, in August. 

Of the low night temperature, the coldest, 34°"5, is in January, and 
the warmest, 62°, in July. At Sarona, of the low night temperature, the 
coldest, 44°'0, was in February, and the warmest, 69°*1, in August. 

The average daily range of temperature is shown in column 10 ; the 
smallest range, 14°'9, is in February, and the largest range, 30°'l, is in 
August. At Sarona, of the average daily range of temperature, the 
smallest, 18°*5, was in January, and the largest, 25°"1, was in April. 

In column 11 the mean temperature of the air in each montli is shown, 
as found from observations of the maximum and minimum thermometers 
only. The month of the lowest temperature is January, 42°'5, and the 
month of the highest, August, 76°*8. The mean temperature for the year 
is 62''3. At Sarona, of the mean temperature, the month of the lowest 
was January, 54°"], and that of the highest, August, 78" '8 ; the mean 
temperature for the year at Sarona was 66°'5. 

The numbers in columns 12 and 13 are the monthly means of a dry 
and wet-built thermometer taken daily at 9 a.m., ancl in column 14 the 


mean monthly temperature f)f tlie dew point, or tliat temperature jit 
which dew would have been deposited, is shown ; the elastic force of 
vapour is shown in column 15. In column IG the water present in a cubic 
foot of air in January and Februar}^ is as small as 2| grains, and in 
August as large as 7'6 grains. In colunni 17 the additional weight 
required for saturation is shown. The numbers in column 18 show the 
degree of humidity, saturation being considered 100 ; the smallest number 
indicating the driest month is 39 in May, and the largest, 77, indicating 
the wettest month in December. The weight of a cubic foot of air under 
its pressure, temperature and humidity at 9 a.m. is shown in column 19. 

The most prevalent wind in January was S.W., and the least prevalent 
was S. In February the most j^revalent was E., and the least was S. In 
March the most prevalent winds were N.W. and E., and the least was 
S. In Aj^ril the most prevalent was S.E., and the least was N. In May 
the most jirevalent was N.W., and the least was S. In June the most 
prevalent was N.W., and the least were E. and S.E. In July the most 
prevalent wind was N.W., and the least were E. and its compounds. In 
August and September the most prevalent were W. and N.W., and the 
least were E. and compounds of E. In October the most prevalent were 
N.E., W., and N.W., and the least was S. In November the most 
prevalent was N.W., and the least was E. In December the most 
prevalent winds were N.E., S.W., and N.W., and the least prevalent wind 
was N. The most prevalent wind for the year was N.W., which occurred 
on 108 times during the year, of which 19 w^ere in July, 17 in June, and 
12 in August, and the least prevalent wintl for the year was S., which 
occurred on only 12 times during the year, of which 5 w^ei'e in April, and 
2 in both November and December. At Sarona the most prevalent wind 
for the year was S.W., which occurred on 97 different days, and the least 
prevalent wind was E., which occurred on only 12 times during the year. 

The mean amount of cloud is shown in column 28 ; the month with the 
smallest amount is June, 0"8, and that with the largest amount, April, 
5*9. Of the cumulus, or fine weather cloud, there were only 7 instances in 
the year. Of the nimbus, or rain cloud, there were 30 instances in the 
year, of which 8 were in .January, 6 in February, and 5 in both March 
and December, and only 2 from May to October. Of the cirrus there 
were 9 instances ; of the cirro stratus, 31 instances ; of the stratus, 3 
instances ; of the cirro cumuhis, 68 instances, of which 12 were in 
Fel)ruary, and 10 in January ; of the cumulus sti'atus there were 45 
instances, and 172 instances of cloudless skies, of which 29 we)"e in 
August, 20 in July, and 23 in June. At Sarona there were 104 instances 
of cloiidless skies, of which 17 were in October, 14 in May, and 13 in 

The largest fall of rain for the mouth in the year was 12'4o inches in 
.January, of which 2'88 inches fell on the 23rd, 2'10 inches on the 22nd, 
and 2'09 inches on the Ifjlli. The next largest fall for the month was 
((•72 inches in December, of which 3"34 inches fell on (he 15th. No rain 
fell from May 2nd till the 15th of Novendjer, making a ])eriod of 196 


consecutive days without rain. The fall of rain for the year was 29"81 
inches, which fell on 46 days during the year. At Sarona the largest fall 
for the mouth in the year was 5'74 inches in January. No rain fell at 
Sarona from May ihid till November 14th, with the exception of 
September 12th, on which day 0"08 inch fell, so making periods of 132 
and 63 consecutive days respectively without rain. The fall of rain for 
the year at Sarona was 17 "06 inches, which fell on 43 days during the 


By Ebenezer Davis, Esq. 

Perhaps the greatest charm of archroological study lies in the fact that 
fresh subjects of interest are constantly being found even in the most 
unpromising lines of research, and in the discussion arising therefrom. 
What to the uninitiated would appear to be only a few illegible and 
unmeaning scratches on a piece of brick or stone, will in the hands of the 
cognoscenti prove to be matter of the greatest importance for the ami^lifi- 
cation of language, science, and history. Take, for instance, the little 
spindle-shaped object now known as the " hjematite weight from 
Samaria." Here we tind a piece of stone inscribed with a few ancient 
characters giving rise to a prolonged and animated discussion between 
half a dozen scholars, each of whom has something new and important to 
say about it. 

The stone was found to have au inscription — then arose questions as 
to the character and language in which the inscrii^tion was written, and 
lastly, its meaning, on which point much difference of opinion has arisen. 

Having given considerable attention to this short text, I wish to say 
that it appears to me to be an undoubtedly genuine inscription in the 
North Semitic language and character, belonging possibly to as early a 
period as the 9th century B.C., if one may be allowed to judge from the 
similarity of the script to that of other Palestinian texts of known 

There are eight letters on the weight, three of which are twice 
repeated, and all in the same style of writing, which is that of the 
Moabite stone and other epigraphs of a very early period. Indeed, some 
of the letters of this text resemble the types found on the fragments of 
the Baal Lebanon bcjwl, which are considered by good authorities to 
exhibit the earliest known forms of the Phoenician alphabet. Comparing 
the characters on the inscribed bead from Jerusalem with those of the 
weight, we find on the former a resemblance to the style of writing of the 
Siloam inscription, more especially in the zig-zag fonu of the Tsade, and 
the short curve at the bottom of the upright stroke of the Nun. I have 
endeavoured to show the palteographic affinities of these two short texts 
in the following table : — 


Comparatiie Stuchj of the Eight Characters on the Weight brought by 

Dr. Chaplin from Samaria. 

" Weight" Types. Baal Lcbn. Moabitc. Siloam. 

Beth ^ 3 5^:^ ^3 ^5 

Gimel -] -- '^ ''\ 17 

Lamed / ^ /^ ^ ^ ^ 6 (f 


T -17 ;;; :7j7 

Ain Q ^ O O 


<1 A 11 1 

Shin ^^f W iV VV 

y^'i Three Characters on the Jerusalem Bead compared with their 
equivalents in the Siloam Inscription. 

Jiuad luttei'6 A \AyS ^ 

Siloam Letters "1 L^ y 

These comparisons will, I think, justify us in ascribing a very early date 
to the weight, if not to the " bead " ; I believe them both to be very old. 

The inscriptions on these two objects, although very short, jn-esent 
considerable difficulty, and appear to have occasioned much discussion. 
My knowledge of the dispute amounts to no more than I have l)een able 
to glean from Iho OctolxM- Quarterly Statement. "What has been said as to 



the identity of the roots 3^3 and ^^"i is nothing new, as may be seen by 
referrino- to Gesenius, or Fuerst, or any other good Hebrew lexicon. 
The Kaloi these verbs is hypothetical, not being found in any portion of 
the sacred Avritings. The same may be said of the cognate root ^^i"*- 
Hie general idea of all these verbs is to set, put, to make certain, and lu 
/li.p/uf. to establish, determine, set up finnl;;. A noun derived from any 
of these roots may, therefore, be very reasonably assumed to have the 
sense of a fixed, firm, established thing, i.e., a standard, either of weight 
or measure. The noun ^i^^^ from the cognate root ^tj^) '^^ ^^^^^ "^ ^^^ 
sense of a thing set up, a pillar (Gen. xix, 26). 

It would be interesting to determine whether or not this weight is 
definitely related to the gerah, shekel, maneh, and talent— Hebrew 
weights of known value. 

The division of the larger metrical units into four parts appears to 
have been customary among the ancient Hebrews, as we find in 2 Kings 
vi, 25 : " And there was a great famine in Samaria : and behold they 
besieged it, until an asses head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, 
and the fourth part of a cab lprT"i^l'^1 o^ dove's dung for five pieces 
of silver." 

This is similar to ;i>^2 yy^, the formula of the " weight." Perhaps 
some one of the many learned contributors to the Quarterly Statement, 
being well up in ancient metrology, may consider this matter worthy of 
attention, and so may be able to give us some valuable information on 
this very interesting question. 

The word "^"^ " of " a].pears to have occasioned much difference of 
opinion between the late Professor Kobertson Smith, Dr. Sayce, and 
others, Professor Smith refusing to accept Dr. Sayce's rendering of it. 
This is generally considered to be a late word. As used in Eabbinical 
Hebrew, it is a particle denoting the genitive case, and as such its use is 
more frequent than in the earlier Hebrew literature. This is certainly 
true, but I see no reason on that account to sHpi:)Ose that it did not exist 
ill the earlier form of the language. The Ifabbinic dialect has preserved 
elements of the Israelitish tongue which have doubtless descended from 
the popular colloquial idiom of very early times. The persistence of 
ancient tongues in the East is very remarkable. Major Conder once 
informed me that he recognised the dialect of the Tell Amarna letters, as 
still surviving in the speech of the peasantry in many districts in 
Palestine, worils being used in senses in which they never occur in the 
Biblical writings. I do not think that we know enough of Hebrew from 
its extant literature to be able to pronounce authoritatively as to the 
exact origin and date of dialectical forms in the language, since we cannot 
reproduce it in its entirety at any one period. There is certainly very 
great difficulty in seeing how a word can be "late" which is found 
written in characters of an alphabet, the peculiar foi-ms of which warrant 
us in attributing to it an antiquity of nearly 3,000 years. If ^1^) ^''^^^h' 
occurs on the htematite weight, it must be rash any longer to pronounce 


it a late word. If it be so, no reliance can be placed on palfeographic 
cfiteria. Either ]>alceograi3liy or Biblical criticism must be at fault, it 
being imjjossible that both can be right. 

^'^ is stated by Gesenius, and those who follow him, to be a com- 
l)ound of ■^ti*t«^, vjliich, with the prefix n, to, and so marking the genitive, 
Fuerst (Lexicon, sub voce) says decidedly, "without a preposition it is 
used only in modern Hebrew and Phoenician." He certainly overlooked 
one place in which the word occurs uncompounded — Sol. song iii, 7 : 
" Behold his bed, even Solomon's." H^^J^U? 711? IJltOQ p|2n~"Gresenius 
also makes the same assertion. It may be noticed that the shortening 
of 'n'C^i^ to 1^ occurs in the Book of Judges (vi, 17). This, if not the 
oldest book of the Old Testament, certainly contains some of the oldest 
foims of Israelitish speech, 'n'j^ occurs in a compound form in various 
books of the Jewish Canon, biit I cannot hnd a trace of its first origin, 
other than the shortening of ^';^i^ to ^. According to Cocceius, 
7;^=';^+7, which is no doubt the truth. The difhculty, in view of 
recent evidence, is to determine at what period in the history of the 
language the shortened form of "^Xy"^ was first used by good writers. 
To say the least, it seems risky to fix the authorship and date of Hebrew 
writings by the use, or non-use, of grammatical forms, the precise age of 
which has not been ascertained. This kind of criticism imparts to 
modern Biblical teaching so much of rashness and inconclusiveness, that 
many intelligent students of the Bible regard with distrust very much of 
the outcome of the so-called " critical method," and even refuse to 
acquiesce in any scientific treatment of the Bible, because in the hands 
of some the thing has been carried much too far. 

Ill view of lecent discoveries in Palestine, it would seem that tlie 
conclusions arrived at by some scholars as to the late introduction of the 
art of writing into that country, must undergo considerable modification 
in the interest of truth. We know very little with certainty as to the 
precise date at which Palestinian jjeoples first acquired this art, alth(HigIi 
we may i'easonal)ly assume from ascertained facts that the Beni Israel 
had a well developed aljjhabet as early as 1000 B.C. 

It maybe clearly seen that certain localities had definite grajohic forms 
l)eculiar to themselves ; as for instance, those of the Jerusalem alphabet, 
which may be recovered from the Siloam inscription, and the .Jerusalem 
" bead." In proof of this, the hmg and curved strokes of many of the 
letters of this ali)habet may be compared with the shortened and angular 
forms of the letters on the Baal Lebanon bowl, and with the closely 
related script of the " weight." 

These few remarks are offered with a desire that they may throw a 
little more light on Dr. Chaplin's valunble "find," a resuim of the whole 
discussion as to which, by some competent authority, could not fail to be 
both interesting and valuable. 

Southampton, October 30t/i, 1894. 



The particle S'j^ need liardly be considered late, since )^ for "^tL*i»5 
occui's in the 8ong' of Deljorah (Judges v, 7), and in Judges vi, 17, vii, 12, 
viii, 26, 2 Kings vi, 11, as well as on the Moabite stone ; but I fail to see 
any reason for the conclusion that these letters on the Samaritan weight 
refer to this jmi tide. On one side it has ^"^22 5^3,"^'*^^' "quarter of the 
standard," and on the other ~)';^ ^DD^ which would thus be made to 
mean only "quarter of that for." Dr. Eobertson Smith arrives at the 
conclusion that it means "quarter shekel" ; and I may i)erha]:)s be 
allowed to say that I published the same suggestion in the Quarterlij 
Statement long before this discussion arose. 

The weight, it ajjpears, is nearly 40 grains (39"2), which is an eighth — 
not a quarter — of the old Hebrew shekel of 320 grains. But in the 
Mishnah {see my ijajjer on " Jews under Eome ") the Galilean shekel 
appears to have been half that used at Jerusalem. 

The weight is of great archaeological interest, but seems to me to have 
no bearing at all on the critical (juestion which has been involved in the 
(Controversy. C. E. C. 


The earliest notice of Assyrians in Syria yet known dates from 1150 B.C., 
when Assur-risisi reached Beirftt, and left his monument at the Dog 
Eiver. Mr. T. G. Pinches, of the British Museum, has, however, just 
published a record of the reign of Assur Uballid (about 1400 b.c.) which 
shows a yet earlier Assyrian invasion of S>yria (" Journal Eoyal Asiatic 
Society," October, 1894, jip. 807-833). It begins with the settlement of a 
boundary between Assyria and Babylon. The son of a daughter of the 
Assyrian King, who was married to the King of Babylon, Iteing on the 
throne, attacked Phoenicia — no doubt by his grandfather's order. The 
tablet relates how the Canites afterwards killed him, and how Assur 
Uballid revenged him (which was already known) by a terrible attack 
on the Canites in Babylon, when blood flowed "like the sea," and the 
writer says, " We overcame his forces, we were mighty against them ; the 
army divided the spoil of the foe, and gathered much." "They came 
back prosperous." Kurigabzu II, son of Burnaburias, was set on the 
throne of Babylon, " and all who held their peace and gave service " were 
(left quiet I) The rest of the text refers to the conquest of Elam by 
Eimmon Nivari, at a later period, and to the accession of Assur Nazir 
Pal about 885 b.c, who appears to have imprisoned his own father and 
slain him, usurping the throne. 

The jmssage as to Phcenicia appears to contain certain difficulties in 
translating, which, however, do not affect the general sense, which gives 


a new and valuable episode in Assyrian and Syrian history. We gather 
from Jiidges iii, 10, that an early Assyrian invasion of Palestine occurred 
after the death of Joshua, about 1400 B.C., and this may l»e connected 
with the record now found. It seems to have preceded the conquest of 
Galilee by Eameses II (probably in the time of Jabur II of Hazor and 
Sisem), and it thus tells us what happened after the close of the Tell el 
Amarna correspondence, although that correspondence includes a letter of 
Assui' Uballid. Most of the Babylonian letters, however, come from 
Burnaburias, and are thus earlier than Kurigabzu II. In considering 
early allusions to Assyrian cajitivity (in Num. xxiv, 22 ; Levit. xxvi, 
32-44, for instance) this information is most important, showing that we 
need not look to the later age of Tiglath Pileser III (732 b.c.) 
The passage referring to Phoenicia runs as follows : — ■ 

6 gu-ma-ri SU-ti-i rab-ba-a-tam 

7 vltu si-it AA^ Sam-si adi e-rib AjV Sa7}i-si Is-piir-ma EXNU 

BAS-e INA IR-su-nu 

8 AL Bi ra-a-vtu INA Ki-rih MAT 8AR-SAR n-his-sir RU 

cii-ub-bw ip-ti-e-ma 

9 A-na mas-sar-ntu du-un-nu-7iu nise ina libsi-naa biir-ris 

n se sib 

" 6. All the hosts of the peoples ; 7, from sunrise to sunset he sent 
(Ijeing angry at their wastings ?) ; 8, the city Bin'mtu (or Bin'itu), near the 
land of the Westerns (or Amorites) he besieged : (having dug a trench '?) 
he took it ; 9 (they had made a sti-ong defence ?) The people in its 
midst he caused to dwell (afar '!)." The passages queried are dilFerently 
rendered by Mr. Pinches, but do not perhaps affect the general sense. 

Mr. Pinches supposes Birdtiij to mean only the " fortresses" of Phoenicia, 
but perhaps Beirllt is intended. It is often noticed in the Tell el Amania 
letters as Birntu. Incidentally (p. 828) Mr. Pinches mentions the word 
Camar for " house," which has been thought to be a Hittite word, though 
this is doul)tful. It is interesting to note that the word occurs in 
Akkadian. For "Ijeing angry at their wastings" we might, perhaps, 
read " There was no master against their wastings." Mr. Pinches reads 

''till there wns none fi'om their goings." 

c. R. c;. 

Quarterly Statement, July, 1895.] 




During tlie winter months, when excavation becomes difficult or impossible at 
Jerusalem, Dr. Bliss received the sanction of the committee to undertake a 
journey to the land of Moab, including the examination of Medeba, Kerab, 
and other places of historical interest beyond the Dead Sea. Dr. Bliss had the 
special advantage of a letter of recommendation from his Excellency Hamdy 
Bey, the well-known Director of the Museum of Constantinople. He was 
received most cordially by the Governor of Kerak, and was afforded the fidlest 
permission to measure and make plans of buildings, to copy inscriptions, &c- 
After a journey of very great intei-est he got back to Jerusalem on April 2ntt, 
and resumed the work of excavation. The report of his journey, with illustra- 
tions, is published in the present number. 

Among other discoveries made by Dr. Bliss in this region is that of a pre- 
viously unknown Roman fort and a walled town with towers and gates, like the 
interesting town of Mashetta. 

To the great regret of the Committee, Dr. Bliss was seized with illness soon 
after his return to Jerusalem, and has had to be removed to Beyrout for change. 
The latest account received from Dr. Post, under date June 13th, is that he was 
then still feeble and required " entire rest for a month or so." In consequence 
of this, the report of the excavations has been written by Mr. Dickie, who also 
will carry on the work until Dr. Bliss's return. 

The discovery of an ancient gateway at the south-eastern corner of the wall 
which Dr. Bliss has been tracing is of very great interest, suggesting, as it does, 
important questions with reference to the extent of the city in this direction at 
different periods of its history. 

Major-Greneral Sir Charles Wilson has favoured us with the following 
valuable note on this subject : — 

" It is too early to write with any degree of certainty on the age of the 
interesting wall and gateway which have been discovered by Dr. Bliss. That 


wall certainly enclosed Siloam, and the following statements seem to throw 
light on the subject. Josephus distinctly says (' Wars/ V, 9, § 4) that Siloam 
was outside the walls. Antoninus (570 A.B.) writes : ' The fountain of Siloa 
is at the present day within the walls of the city, because the Empress Eudocia 
herself added these walls to the city.' We have thus two definite statements — 
one, by a contemporary writer, that Siloam was outside the walls at the tune 
of the great siege; the other, by a Western pilgrim, that the fountain was 
brought within the walls by Eudocia, who was at Jerusalem between 438-454. 
Eudocia's object was probably to protect the Church of Siloam, which, if not 
built by the Empress, could only have been recently erected. Theodosius 
(530 A.D.) mentions that the pool of Siloam was within the walls in his day ; 
and the restoration of the walls by Eudocia is alluded to by Evagrius in his 
' Ecclesiastical History ' (i, 22). 

" The wall and gateway discovered by Dr. Bliss are exactly in the position 
in which we should expect to find the wall and gateway of Eudocia, and the 
character of the masonry seems to indicate that both have been largely built 
with stones from older buildings. Other details equally point to a date not 
earlier than the fifth century. The sjjade has, however, so often proved historical 
notices to be wrong, that we must wait for the result of the further excavations 
which Dr. Bliss has been instructed to make before theorising. Those 
excavations will, it is believed, settle the question whether the wall described by 
Josephus followed the line of that discovered by Dr. Bliss, or, as I think, kept 
to a higher level and crossed the Tyropoeon Valley above the Pool of Siloam. 
In any case, the discoveries are of deep interest, and we must all hope that 
Dr. Bliss will soon be restored to health and be able to continue the great work 
upon which he is engaged." 

Herr von Schick has sent an account of the little-known but very interesting 
Armenian Convent of the Olive Tree at Jerusalem, together with plan of its. 
church, which are published in the present number. 

He is still following closely the work going on in the Muristan, and has 
supplied some further notes respecting it. The southern wall of the great 
cistern under the new Greek building north of the Muristan turns out, not 
to be of rock, as had been supposed, but of masonry, which could hardly, in 
Herr von Schick's opinion, have supported the old wall of the city. 

The Eev. Theodore E. Dowling reports that tourists at Jerusalem hotel* 
are beset with sellers of Palestinian coins. Within tlie last few years Jews 
at Jaffa, Hebron, Nablus, and Cairo, liave reproduced the following coins, 
specimens of which are in my possession : — 

1. Shekel (silver) of Simon Maccabteus, "Year 3." In 1883 I was shown 

by different persons in Jerusalem two false half-shekels, but I am 
unable to remember whether they were of " Year 1," or " 2," or " 3,"' 
or "4." 

2. Helmcted with cheek-pieces (obv.) of Herod I (copper; Greek inscrip- 


This coin is re-issued, both thick and thin. 


3. Several small silver coins of tlie Second Revolt under Simon Bar-cochab. 

Sold uublushingly in the Jewish Bazaars at Jerusalem as genuine. 

4. Large copper coins (Palm-tree and Vine-leaf) of Simon Bar-cochab. 

Obverse and reverse of different coins are sometimes attached in 
these clumsily-designed forgeries. The original lettering is carelessly 

5. A plate full of the usual specimens of small Jewish copper coins was 

offered to me as a present at Nablus, in July, 1893. One and all were 
false. They were brought from Cairo. 

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer (of Jaffa) has suggested that a paragrapli be added 
to put travellers in Palestine on their guard against other forged " Antiques," 
such as earthenware lamps, which are made wholesale at Nablus, from ancient 
moulds, and modern imitations of them. 

Caution is also needed in the purchase of large stone seals (generally black) 
bearing in Samaritan or Phoenician letters the inscription : " David, King, 
servant of Jehovah." Of these several exist. One of them was purchased by 
a late United States Consul in Jerusalem, and thought by him to be genuine. 

Metal plates, with Phoenician, Hebrew, or Arabic inscriptions in ancient 
characters ; little idols, cut out of hard limestone, are also offered for sale, but 
are generally false. It may happen that counterfeit "tear-bottles" are not 
as yet manufactured, but suspicions have been x'oused on inspecting many 
larger pieces of glass. In the Nazareth district Jews have been lately realising 
fancy prices for ancient glass sold in the United States of America. 

TouEiSTS are cordially invited to visit the Loan Collection of "Antiques " 
in the Jeeusalem Association Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David. Hours : 8 ti 12, and 2 to 6. Maps of 
Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund publications are kept for sale. 
Necessary information will be gladly given by the Rev. Theodore E. Dowling, 
Son. Sec. 

Owing to a variety of causes the Annual Jerusalem Association Lecture 
Course, as announced in the January number of the Quarterly Statement, was 
slightly altered. Nine Lectures were delivered. On April 9th Dr. Bliss 
(having just returned from Kerak) lectured on "Moab in March, 1895." 

A few residents in Jerusalem have kindly interested themselves in the Loaa 
Collection of "Antiques," in the room rented by the Jerusalem Association, 
opposite the Tower of David. Before the next tourist season it is hoped that 
this collection will be considerably enlarged. 

Mons. Arseniew has presented to the Association specimens of Phcenician 

Dr. Bliss loaned some stones from Hei-od's Palace, Jericho. 

Mr. Herbert Clark's two glass cases contain seals (Phoenician, Greek, 
Roman, and one Hebrew peal from Silw-tii) ; Assyrian and Babylonian 
cylinders ; Greek, Roman, and Hebrew coins j bronze spear arrow heads ; 
stone chisels ; tear bottles, and a mirror. 

O 2 


The Kev. Theodore E. Cowling's selection of Jewish and Palestinian coins 
fills a large glass case. 

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer's flying fox is conspicuous. 

Mr. C. A. Hornstein exhibits birds and ancient lamps. 

Mr. David Jamal loans a black stone head, brought by him from one of the 
numerous tombs scattered round about Gadara. 

Mr. G. R. Lees' photographs adorn the walls, and Dr. Wheeler's Torah was 
made use of in his Lectures on " The Jews of Jerusalem," and " Jewish Life 
in Palestine." 

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer writes that he had been told by Jewish colonists 
at Kustineh that the Synagogue of R. Gam'liel the younger (a grandson of 
St. Paul's celebrated teacher) had recently been discovered at Yebna, and that, 
when itinerating in Philistia, he visited the place, which is an old underground 
vault on the southern slope of the tell, now used as a stable. It is being visited 
by many Jews. 

The Committee have to acknowledge with thanks the following donations to 
the Library of the Fund : — 

" Etudes d'Archeologie Orientale," par Ch. Clermont-G-anr.eau. Tome 
premier — deuxieme partie. From the Author. 

"Dictionary of the Bible," 2nd ed., Vol. I, Parts 1 and 2. John Murray. 
From the Publisher. 

With reference to Mr. Murray's generous gift of the second edition 
of " Smith's Dictionary of the Bible," in two volumes, containing letters 
A to J, the Rev. Canon Dalton, C.M.G., writes : — 

In these valuable volumes a large proportion of the articles have been 
entu-ely re-written, by writers recognised as specialists in their res^^ective 
departments, and on a much more extensive scale tlian before, inasmuch as 
they deal with subjects on which rscent research and criticism have thrown the 
strongest light, and concerning which the opinions of the best Biblical scholars 
have undergone the most noted change since the Dictionary was first published 
32 years ago. For instance, the articles on Assyria and Babylonia have been 
re-written by Mr. Pinches, of the Department of Assyrian Antiquities in the 
British Museum ; those on Egypt by the eminent Egyptologist, M. Naville ; and 
those on Natural History by Canon Tristram. The Geographical articles by 
Sir George Grove, which were written several years before the Palestine 
Exploration Fund began its work in the Holy Land, and justly considered 
one of the most valuable portions of the original edition^ have been revised, at 
his request, by Sir Charles Wilson and by Major Conder. Sir Charles Wilson has 
also re-written the article on the topography of Jerusalem, which now occupies 
no less than 79 double-columned pages, in lieu of the former article by the late 
Professor Fergusson. He has also added separate maps of the Tribes, and of 
other countries, with fresh illustrations of the sites of places, constructed in 
large measure from the surveys and drawings of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. Indeed few articles of any importance have been reprinted in these 
two volumes without material alterations. For example, the article on the 


" Acts of tlie Apostles," re-written by the lamented Bishop Lightfoot, occupies 
18 pages, compared with a page and a half in the former edition ; that on the 
"Gospel of St. John," re-written by Archdeacon Watkins, of Durham, fills 
25 pages, compared with tliree in the former edition ; that on the " Epistle to 
the Galatians," re-written by Dr. Salmon, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 
comprises 14 pages, compared with a page and a half in the former edition ; 
the "Epistle to the Hebrews," re-written by Dr. Westcott, the present Bishop 
of Durham, fills 11 pages, compared with five in the former edition ; the article 
on "Deuteronomy," re-written by Professor Driver, occupies 22 pages, com- 
pared with five in the former edition ; the article on the " Apocrypha," 
re-written by Professor Rylc, of Cambridge, fills 37 pages, compared with four 
in the former edition ; to the article on the " Gospels," by the late Arclibishop 
Thomson, a supplement by Professor Sanday, containing 26 pages, has been 
added. These instances, to which many others might be added, will serve to 
show the pains and labour bestowed on the re-issue of a work absolutely indis - 
pensable to all Biblical students. The new first volume exceeds the old by 
more than 550 pages. 

The following have kindly consented to act as Honorary Local Secre- 
taries : — 

James Yates, Esq., Chief Librarian, Leeds. 

The Rev. Charles Druitt, The Vicarage, Whitechurch, Charmouth, Dorset. 

The Eev. C. C. Waller, B.A., Diocesan Theological College, Montreal; 

and Douglas MacFarlane, Esq., 85, Churchill Ave, Westmount, Montreal ; 

in place of the Rev. Commander Roberts, who has returned to England. 

Sir Walter Besant's summary of the work of the Fund from its commence- 
ment lias been brought up to date by the author and published under the title, 
"Thirty Years' Work in the Holy Land." Applications for copies may be 
sent in to Mr. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Armstrong's Raised Map of Palestine is on view at the oflice 
of the Fund. A circular giving full particulars about it will be sent on appli- 
cation to the Secretary. 

Supporters of the Fiind will be gratified to learn that this valuable work 
has met with great appreciation in nearly every quarter of the globe, and from 
many learned societies. Copies have been ordered and supplied for the Royal 
Geographical Society; the Science and Art Museum and Trinity College, 
Dublin ; the Free Kirk College, Glasgow ; Queen's College, Cambridge ; 
Mansfield College, Oxford ; and for subscribers in Russia, the Netherlands, the 
United States of America, Australia, Japan, and China, besides Manchester, 
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and other cities of our own country. 

The following are some of the opinions which have been expressed by 
competent authorities respecting the value of this Map : — 

" A Raised Map of Palestine must prove of the greatest interest to all who 
have Tisited or intend to visit the country, affording, as it does a picture an vol 


d'oiseau of all the physical features. Mr. Armstrong's interesting work will faith- 
fully present to those who have had the advantage of touring in Palestine the old 
familiar routes they have traversed, and will give to those who have yet to enjoy 
such a journey a clear idea of the sort of country they may expect to see. . . . 
The educational use to which the map will be put will be very considerable." — 
The Times. 

"There are the seas, the hikes, the mountains, and valleys, all so perfect and 
distinct that one can travel over the ground and visit the cities and towns. 
With the Bible in hand the holy sites can be inspected, the historical events of 
the narration can be followed, the movements of the various tribes can be traced, 
the operations of war can be grasped and easily understood. With this Eaised 
Map before him a Moltke could sit and plan a campaign as if it were a chess 
problem." — Daily News. 

" By the aid of such a Raised Map the untravelled student may picture the 
scenery of Palestine, under the allusions to its topography, and see where the 
roads of the country must run ; he can follow the tracks of rival armies upon 
its battle-fields and understand better the conditions attaching to rival sites." — 
Manchester Guardian. 

" It is certainly a most interesting and valuable Map, and in no other way, 
short of a personal visit, could one obtain so correct an idea of the contour of 
the Holy Land." — Camhridge Tribune, U.S.A. 

" The Relief Map of Palestine is the most accurate that has yet been pub- 
lished of that country. It is based on the surveys made by Major Conder and 
Colonel Sir H, Kitchener for the Palestine Exploration Fund, and has been 
most carefully constructed by Mr. George Armstrong, who was himself employed 
on the survey. The relief enables the student to grasp at once the peculiar 
geographical and topographical features of the Holy Land and to understand 
the influence of those features on the history of the country and on the various 
campaigns from the conquest by Joshua to the expedition of Napoleon." — Sir 
C. W. Wilson, Major-General, R.E. 

" Mr. Armstrong's Raised Map of Palestine is the only correct representa- 
tion of the natural features of the country that has been published. It is 
scientifically accurate, and gives a better idea of the country than any flat 
map. It will be of great value to schools and to all scholai-s." — C. R. Condek, 
Major, R.E. 

" I wish another copy of your Eaised Map. I am greatly pleased with it, I 
do not think I would like to teacli the Old Testament without it." — Professor 
Gboege Adam Smith, Free Church College, Glasgow. 

" It came through in excellent order and has been pronounced the best 
thing of the kind that we have ever soon." — The Very Rev. Dean Hoffman, 
The General Theological Seminary, New York. 

"All tlie pi'ofessors and students exjiressed the most complete satisfaction 
and admired the correctness and fine execution wliich more than answered their 
expectation. They anticipate great practical and scientific usefulness." — Hav. 
M. LE Bachelet, Biblioth, St. Hcliers, Jersey. 

" I need not say that I am well pleased with the Map, and I must con- 
gratulate you upon the patience and skill wliich you have displayed in constructing 
it."— Charles Bailey, Congregational Church School, Manchester. 

" The Map arrived safely. I am very much pleased with the Raised Map 
and its colouring ; you seem to have taken great pains witli it. I hope Bible 


Students and Sunday School Teachers will come and study it." — W. II. Rindeb, 
Philosophical Society, Leeds. 

" I had the case opened and found the Map quite safe ; it is a splendid piece 
of work and has given great satisfaction to the Committee." — C. Goodteab, 
Secretary and Librarian, Lancashire College. 

" You have conferred au invaluable boon on all Scripture Students by your 
issue of the Raised Map. I shall not rest till I have one for my School." — The 
Very Rev. S. W. Allen, Shrewsbury. 

" The Map is a beautiful piece of work and equally valuable to the 
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" The Map lias come quite perfect and is much admired. You have erected 
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Subscribers to the Palestine Pilgeims' Text Society who have not 
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Index to the Quarterly Statement. — A new edition of the Index to the 
Quarterly Statements has been compiled. It embraces the years 1869 (the 
first issue of the journal) to the end of 1892. Contents : — Names of the 
Authors and of tlie Papers contributed by them ; List of the Illustrations ; and 
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subscribers to the Fund, in paper cover, 1?. Gd., in cloth, 2s. Qd., post free ; 
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The museum of the Fund, at 24, Hanover Square, is now open to subscribers 
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The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
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It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
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The first volume of the " Survey of Eastern Palestine," by Major Conder, 
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Mr. H. Chichester Hart's " Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and the Wady 
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M. Clermont-Granneau's work, " Archaeological Researches in Palestine," will 
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The maps and books now contained in the Society's publications comprise 
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required, and provided with all the instruments necessary for carrying out 
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In the year 1880 M. Clermont- Granneau published, in 19 parts, the fii'st 
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The income of the Society, from March 2oth to June 21st, 1895, was — from 
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Subscribers are requested to note that the following cases for binding, 
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Cases for binding Herr Schumacher's " Jaulan," 1*. each. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement, in green or chocolate. Is. each. 

Cases for binding " Abila," "Pclla," and '"Ajlun" in one volume, 
Is. each. 

Casts of the Tablet, with Cuneiform Inscription, found at Tell el Hesy, 
at a depth of 35 feet, in May, 1 892, by Dr. Bliss, Explorer to the Fund. 


Ifc belongs to the genei-al diplomatic correspondence carried on bet-ween 
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2s. 6d. each. 

Casts of the Ancient Hebrew Weight brought by Dr. Chaplin from Samaria, 
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Casts of an Inscribed Weight or Bead from Palestine, forwarded by Professor 
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Lantern slides of the Eaised Map, the Sidon Sarcophagi, and of the Bible 
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give rise occasionally to omissions. 

The authorised lectui-ers for the Society are — 

The Eev. Thomas Harrison, F.R.Gr.S., Hillside, Benenden, Staplehurst, 
Kent. His subjects are as follows ; — 

(1) Research and Discovery in the Holy Land. 

(2) Bible Scenes in the Light of Modern Science. 

(3) The Sttrvei/ of l^lastem Palestine. 

(4) In the Track of the Israelites from lEgypt to Canaan. 

(5) The Jordan Valley, the Lead Sea, and the Cities of the Plain. 

(6) The Recovery of Jerusalem — {Excavations in 1894). 

(7) The Recovery of Lachish and the Hebrew Conquest of Palestine. 

(8) ArchcEological Illustrations of the Bible. (Specially adapted for 

Sunday School Teachers). 
N.B. — All these Lectures are illustrated by specially prepared lantern slides. 

The Rev. J. R. Macpherson, B.D., Kiunaird Manse, Inchture, N.B. His 
subjects are as follows :— 

(1) Excavations in Jerusalem, 1868-70, 1894^5. 

(2) Lachish, a Mound of Buried Cities ; toith Comparative Illustra- 

tions from some Egyptian Tells. 

(3) Recent Discoveries in Palestine — Lachish and Jerusalem. 

(4) Exploration in Judea. 

(5) Galilee and Samaria. 


(6) Palestine in the Footsteps of our Lord. 

(7) Mount Sinai and the Desert of the Wanderings. 

(8) Palestine — its People, its Customs, and its Ruins. (Lecture for 

All illustrated with specially prepared lime-liglit lantern views. 

The Eev. James Smith, B.D., St. George' s-in-the-West Parish, Aberdeen. 
His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Palestine Exploration Fund. 

(2) A Pilgrimage to Palestine. 

(3) Jerusalem — Ancient and Modern. 

(4) The Temple Area, as it noiv is. 

(5) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

(6) A Visit to Bethlehem a7id Hebron. 

(7) Jericho, Jordan, and the Dead Sea. 

The Rev. J. Llewelyn Thomas, M.A., Aberpergwm, Glynneath, South 
Wales. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Explorations in Judea. 

(2) Research and Discovery in Samaria and Galilee. 

(3) In Bible Lands ; a Narrative of Personal Experiences. 

(4) The Reconstruction of Jerusalem. 

(5) Problems of Palestine. 

The Rev. Charles Harris, M.A., F.E.G.S., St. Lawrence, Ramsgate. (All 
Lectures illustrated by lantern slides). His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Modern Discoveries in Palestine. 

(2) Stories in Stone ; or, New Light on the Old Testament. 

(3) Underground Jerusalem ; or, With the Explorer in 1894. 

Bible Stories from the Monuments, or Old Testament History 
in the Light of Modern Research : — 

(4) A. The Story of Joseph ; or. Life in Ancient Egypt. 

(5) B. The Story of Moses ; or, Through the Desert to the Promised 


(6) C. The Story of Joshua ; or, The Buried City of Lachish. 

(7) D. The Story of Sennacherib ; or Scenes of Assyrian Warfare. 

(8) E. The Story of the Hittites ; or, A Lost Nation Found. 

Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D., 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, 
Mass., Honorary General Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
for the United States. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Building of Jerusalem. 

(2) The Overthrow of Jerusalem. 

(3) The Progress of the Palestine Exploration. 

Application for Lectures may be either addressed to the Secretary, 
24, Hanover Square, W., or sent to the address of the Lecturers. 



By Frederick Jones Bliss, Ph.D. 

In December, 1893, the Sublime Porte established the Mutassariflik or 
sub-province of Ma'an, with a Governor resident at Kerak, under the 
Wali of Syria, whose headquarters are Damascus. This territory was 
formerly under the practical control of various Arab tribes, including 
the quasi-Bedawin, the Mujely of Kerak. How all travellers, from 
M. de Saulcy and Canon Tristram down to the most recent times, have 
been compelled either by prudence or by force to pay immense bakh- 
sheesh to wild rulers of the land, is too plain a matter of history to be 
dwelt on here. The entry of the Turks to Kerak has changed all this. 
Hearing that the country had been rendered safe, and inferring that 
travellers would consequently begin to pour in, I felt that the Palestine 
Exploration Fund should be the first to take advantage of the new 
condition of things. The Committee having authorised me to make a 
short expedition to Moab, I consulted with our Commissioner, Ibrahim 
Eflfendi, and together we were fortunate in interesting Hamdy Bey, 
who kindly requested me to report to the Imperial Museum anything 
of interest that might be discovered. The expedition thus took an 
otficial character, which was of great service, as I hope these pages will 
show. The season also was favourable, for I had experienced the storms 
of March in Jerusalem, and knew how difficult would be continuous 
excavation. Curiously enough, almost no rain fell here this year in 
Januai-y and February, and it is the rain of March, which poured down 
during our absence, that revived the hopes of the people for the summer's 
water supply. The rain did not prove a serious obstacle to our expedi- 
tion, for the longest detention was at Madeba, where there was plenty of 
work to do. 

It is not my purpose to narrate in full the adventures of the joui-ney, 
which would fill a volume, but to dwell only on what was real discovery, 
touching lightly on places and things described before. 

On Wednesday, March 7th, at about noon, Ibrahim Effendi and I left 
Jerusalem for Jericho, accompanied by my foreman Yusif, or Abu Selim, 
as we generally call him, to distinguish him from Little Yusif, the cook. 
The latter had gone on ahead with our three tents, which we found 
pitched by 'Ain es Sultan. We also took two of our Avorkmen from 
Silwan, whom we found very handy in exhuming buried stones with 
inscriptions. The presence of Ibrahim Efi"endi relieved us from the 
annoyance of a so-called guard from the sheikhs of Abu Deis who still 
impose themselves on all travellers to Jericho and the Jordan. I renewed 
my conviction that systematic excavations at Tell es Sultan would result 



in valuable finds, resting my eyes with longing upon the bit of old mud- 
built wall revealed in a hole scooped out at the base of the Tell. 

My visits to Jericho had always been for some special mission, and I 
had never found time to ride to the Dead Sea ! So the next day we 
followed the throng of tourists along the well-beaten track. Arriving at 

Map to Illfsteate Dr. Bliss's Journey in Moab. 

-UiLe. of route 

2 S * i 



10 Miles 


the shore, I was amused to recall the Eev. Haskett Smith's description 
of the place during the tourist season. He likens it to Brighton beach, 
and indeed it only lacks a weighing-machine and the Salvation Army to 
complete the presentment. English children gathering shells, men 
bathing, parties gallojjing in from Mar Saba — it was an incongruous 


picture on this usually desolate shore. We lunched by the Jordan. 
Here no one was bathing, for an American had been drowned shortly 
before. Later his body was recovered by an officer who was exploring 
the river in a boat further down. 

From Mar Yuhanna we attempted to strike across country to the 
bridge, but found this very difficult, owing to the deep ravines. Crossing 
by the bridge, and proceeding by the Madeba road, we found our camp 
pitched near Tell Rameh by the water that flows from 'Ain Hesban. T 
was interested in the remains of a fort on the edge of the plain, about a 
mile to the east of the Tell. From the base of the foot hills, the land 
slopes gently down towards the west, and then a hill slopes up smoothly 
but somewhat steeply to a flat summit, which soon comes to a distinct 
edge with a sharp fall to the plain of about 120 feet. Upon this natural 
fortification I traced the signs of a building, some 70 yards in length, not 
rectangular, but following the contour of the hill. Like much of the 
building about Jericho, all was ruined but one course of stone imbedded 
in the soil, leaving the real ground plan. 

Soon after striking camp we passed one of the Arab stone circles 
described by Conder, and noticed within it a plough, jars, and other 
objects left there on deposit. These are thus placed " to the account of 
Khalil," or Abraham, and are perfectly safe till their owners return for 
them. As we rode up the hills the clouds began to gather, and after a 
chilly lunch in a cave above the road, the rain began to pour down. 
Nebo was hid from view, and thus the hoped-for ascent was placed out 
of the question. On arriving at the top of the long climb from the 
Jordan Valley, we entered on the green plateau stretching before us to 
the east, veiled in the driving mist and rain. Fortunately our camja had 
been pitched at Madeba before the tents had got wet. The afternoon 
was passed profitably in studying the valuable article on Madeba, 
published in the number for October, 1892, of the " Eevue Biblique," by 
the Rev. P^re Sejourne. He gives a sketch map of the town, indicating 
the ancient buildings and other monuments that have been brought to 
light by the inhabitants in digging for foimdations of houses. His article 
contains such full notices of the history of Madeba from the earliest 
biblical times to its disappearance from history, which he thinks may be 
due to the destructive march of Chosroes early in the seventh century, 
that I need only to refer the reader to his pages, written with a literary 
charm that rivals their accurate scholarship. 

I have spoken of inhabitants, for after a desolation of over 13 cen- 
turies this ancient site was again occupied in 1880 by a colony of 
Christians — Greek and Latin — from Kerak. Hence Madeba is for the 
present a precious place for the arch£eologist. Changes go on so rapidly 
that constant visits are necessary. Thus some ruins seen by the Pdre 
Sejourne have disappeared ; while not only have others been brought to 
light, but more complete excavations in some places which he described 
have necessitated alterations of his plans, which, I am sure, no one will 
welcome more than himself. 



Madeba occupies one of the low eminences which rise here and there 
from the vast undulating plain. In its centre the ground rises more 

raj)idly, forming a natural acropolis some 200 yards square, now occupied' 
by the Latin Mission. It is more than probable that this height was 
once crowned by an actual acropolis, and the discovery of thick walls at 



one point on the slope seems a confirmation. The whole town is barely 
a quarter-mile square. Gates were seen by the Pere Sejoiirne at the 

north and east. The eastern one I did not observe ; of the northern one 
only the face of the flanking tower remained at the time of my first visit, 
and when I returned ten days after, T found that destruction had even 


then been at work. Gates, of course, imply walls, and on his plan the 
Pere Sejourne traces their probable course, suggested by the contours, 
and by large stones at various points. At the south-west of the town, 
and placed by him outside the wall is the large pool, with solid walls, so 
often described by travellers. 

On wandering about the town, one finds an extraordinary mingling of 
the ancient and the modern, of the grand and of the squalid. The 
meanest house has a beautifully carved lintel or door post ; built in the 
rudest wall may be found a graceful Corinthian capital. In front of 
dirty, dark houses are courts paved with fine slabs of stone. One 
chamber, which is shared alike by the owners and their chickens and 
goats, is floored with the mosaic shown in the photograph. In the hope 
of bakhsheesh, which we met, they scoured the pavement, revealing all 
the beautiful colours— the fruit trees, lions, gazelles, birds, and otlier 
animals with the central human head. In many cases all 3'ou can see of 
a house is the front wall and the flat roof which terminates in the sur- 
rounding ground. The happy owner in chance digging had hit upon a 
buried wall — the face of this he cleared, and also a space in front, with a 
path descending from the I'oad level. He then would fiud that this was 
the front wall of a buried house, and then would need only to clear out 
the debris inside, put on a roof, and leave the three other walls still 
buried on the outside. He has thus a truly subterranean dwelling. 

Everything ancient is put to use. Of the four churches shown on the 
plan, Nos. 1 and 3 are each covered by two or more houses ; No. 2 is to 
serve as the foundation of the new Seraya, or Government House ; and 
No. 4 alone is to be kept for its original ecclesiastical designation, for I 
am rejoiced to report that the Greeks are to restore it, or rather rebuild 
it on the old lines. 

The smallest, and at the same time the most interesting of these 
churches is No. 3. Its singular shape, and its faulty orientation, suggest 

rrgg ^ 

Scoic rmfrrri ■- 

that it was not originally built for a church. It looks more like a pagan 
temple. But that it was used as a church there is full proof. The body 
of this building is a rotunda, having an inside diameter of 32 feet, with a 


long arm, terminating in an apse, circular within, and of an octagonal 
form without. The entire inside length is about 71 feet. As one house 
occupies the rotunda part, and another the eastern arm, measurements 
to an inch were difficult, but the above figure is correct to within a few 
inches. Indeed, all measuring in Madeba is difficult : you must give 
notice to the family that you are coming to plan and photogi-aph, humour 
them into promising to scrub the floor and clear up the litter, and then 
submit perforce to their presence and comments, while you dive into dark 
corners and make your plan. 

The circular body of the church is covered with a tesselated mosaic. 
In the middle is a circular border, 6 feet 2 inches across, containing a 
Greek inscription. All my photograjihs of this failed, so I copy it from 
Pere Sejourne : 

n APe€N I 










I translate from his French, with a few small alterations due to notes 
on p. 271 of the "Revue Biblique " for Aj^ril, 1895, in which the text is 
emended by the addition at the end of the word €YPHC : 

" In gazing upon the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and upon Him 
whom she brought forth, Christ the Sovereign King, only Son of the 
only God, be thou pure in mind, and flesh, and deeds, in order that 
thou mayest, by thy pure prayers, find God Himself merciful." 

A second mosaic inscription of seven lines occurs in the part between 
the rotunda and the arm ; the commencement of all the lines is covered 
by the wall of the actual house. In restoring and translating this, the 
Pere Sejourne has thrown light on the age of the church. 

" The very beautiful mosaic work of this sanctuary, and of the holy 
house of the altogether pure Sovereign Mother of God (has been made) 
by the care and the zeal of this town of Madeba for the salvation and 
the reward of the well-doers, dead and (living) of this sanctuary. Amen, 
Lord ! It was accomplished by the aid of God, in the month of 
February of the year 674, indiction 5." This Seleucidan year would 




correspond to 3G2 a.d. For the learned father's notes on the date and 
on the inscription, I refer the reader to his article. At the right, on 
entering the church, he copied a third inscription of one line : 


He translates: "Holy Mary, help Menas IV." This, he thinks, refers 
to some Bishop, or other illustrious man, buried in the church. 

It is noticeable that the first inscrijjtion refers, not to the erection 
of the church, but to the laying of the mosaic, so that we may still 
think that the building may have originally been pagan. While I 






was attempting to photograph, the interior of the room presented a 
picturesque scene. In a dark corner, two women, clad in the blue 
costume of the Bedawln, which the Christians of this district all wear, 
were seated on the floor by a rude tripod of sticks, from which was 
suspended a goat-skin full of milk, which they were shaking backward 
and forward to make butter. Standing by was a pretty child dressed in 
red, witli a red handkerchief on her head, and a pearl cross on her hair, 
tightly grasping an orange and some sugar we had given her. Men and 
boys stood about, watching me at the camera, and anxious to give advice 
as to how the work should be done. Tliey were all very good natured, 
and we parted excellent friends. 


The ori<;iiial walls of tlie cliurcli stand to a heifjht of 9 feet at least, 
and the two modern houses follow the same lines. The only point that 
is not clear is the western end of the church. Here modern walls have 
been built. However, I give the ancient columns and walls as I found 
them. Perhaps there was some sort of an atrium. 

The recovery of the plan of Church No. 1 was a much more compli- 
cated affair. The blackened walls on the plan indicate the parts actually 
seen. And 'difficult was the task of seeing them I This ruin played 
hide and seek with us while we made our bewildered way through three 
rooms and an out-house of one man's dwelling, two rooms of another's, 
walked over the roof of a third man who was away and whose neigh- 
l)Ours would not let us have the key, .and finally found the west front in 
the open air ! 

I was, however, able to collect the data for an accurate plan. The 
south-east part was the best preserved, giving the line of apse, the 
altarium, the exact width of nave and south aisle, the position of columns 
between them, the south-east corner, and a good part of the eastern and 
southern walls. The breadth of the church (outside measurement) is 
thus shown to be 72 feet exactly. The length is 125 feet, correct to a 
few inches. The nave is 29 feet broad, having exactly twice the breadth 
of the aisles. The bases for the columns rest on a line of slabs, 3 feet 
broad and about 3 inches high, forming a division between aisle and 
nave. The pavement of the aisle is of small tesserre. The altarinm 
proper is raised h\ inches above the nave, and is paved with marble slabs 
about 18 inches square ; this pavement is also found in the part of the 
church immediately below, forming a black and white diagonal pattern 
around a circle, extending 10 feet 8 inches westwards from the altar iuni 
and terminating near the western wall of the house which covers the 
eastern part of the church. The owner declared that the western part 
of the nave, included in the house we could not get into, was paved with 
tesserse, to which there were steps down from the marble pavement. If 
this is so, then it would indicate that the marble pavement formed part 
of the choir. This suggests the beginnings of the later development of 
church planning. This view is supported by the line of wall found 
running parallel to the much ruined west front, as we may consider the 
former to be a part of the narthex. 

The Pere Sejourne calls this the Cathedral of Madeba, and remarks 
on the remains of columns, capitals, architraves, &c., all in the Corinthian 
style, built in the rude houses round about. He tells me he noticed the 
eastern wall as I have drawn it, but thinks it later than the original church, 
hence in his plan he suggests the three apses. 

The recovery of the ground plan of Church No. 2 was accomplished 
just in time. During the Dominican father's visit it had not been 
cleared out sufficiently to prove it a church, and he sets it down as a 
temple. A little later and it would have been buried under the new 
Government house. The whole is ruined down to a height of 3 or 4 feet. 
The form is an ordinary one. The church has been excavated from 

V 2 



within, and the exterior of the walls does not always appear, but the 
finding of the south-east chamber and of both the interior and exterior 
lines of the apse was enough to prove the plan that I give. In the 
southern line of column bases only three were found standing. In the 
northern line we have eight, indicated in black, but there were originally 
nine ; the seventh is missing, and the eighth has evidently been slightly 
shifted ; the dotted lines on the plan show its original position as well 
as the place for the seventh. The style is Corinthian, as may be gathered 
from the photograph. It is not properly orientated. 

Church No. 4 is built upon vaults, so that whereas the interior of 
the church is ruined down to a foot the outer walls remain to a con- 
siderable height, sometimes 12 or 15 feet. These are built of small 
stones, with drafts and rough bosses. The column bases are massive. 







a "^ 

rf<^ I 

- i" ^' V-- 

and, notwithstanding that they occur at irregular intervals, are in situ. 
It has a narthex, and chambers to the south-west. The outside measure- 
ments, excluding the narthex, are 83 feet 6 inches in length by 55 feet 
inches in breadth. 

It is curious to find four churches in so small a town. No. 1 is to 
the south of the acropfilis, Nos. 2 and 3 are to its north-east, near 
totrether, and No. 4 to the north. It is now two months since I measured 
them, and in the meantime I know not what other remains may have 
been found in this treasure-house of Madeba. 

In tliis interesting place we were kei)t l)y tlie rain till Tuesday, 
March 12th. That morning we marched to Ma'aln or Baal Meon. This 
is like so many of the sites of the district, a mass of indefinite ruins on 
a hill, with many vaults visible. It is a place wliere you may stay an 
liour or a month ; in the former time you can see all that the surface has 


to show, while the latter period is the minimum demanded by the spade. 
Having neither the time nor the authority for a month's digging, we 
marched on after our hour was over, taking a pretty path vid Libb, a 
similar ruin, to the regiilar road from Madeba. About 2 miles north of 
the Wady Waly, we observed some columns on the hill to the left of our 
road. Riding up we found that they belonged to the " Menhir," marked 
on the map as directly on the Roman road. Three columns, broken at 
the top, are standing, and many others lie about partly imbedded. All 
are weathered, but show signs of inscriptions. They are monoliths, cut 
in the form of columns on a perfectly plain square base, whose side is 
only one inch more than the diameter of the columnar part. I directed 
the men to dig up the smaller part of an imbedded column which was 
fractured. As it rolled over, we were pleased to recognise a good Latin 
inscription. It was late, and we determined to return the next day, dig 
np the other part, clean, and copy. We rode in to our deliciously-placed 
camp. After the mud of Madeba, how grateful to find a clean, dry, hard 
tlooring for our tents, with sparse grass. They were pitched in the "Wady 
Waly, with a circle of gently rounded hills about, staidly green. Near 
by flowed the oleander-bordered brook, smoothly and quietly as far 
as the ruined bridge, where it suddenly plunged down a gash in the 
wonderfully worn and furrowed limestone to a pool below. The rocks 
are so smooth and white and slippery. A charming spot. 

Returning early the next morning to the " Menhir," we found plenty 
to do. The wind was bitterly cold. We dug up first the fractured 
column and found it to be a Roman milestone with the inscription complete. 
The beginnings of most of the lines were weathered, but all was made 
out and squeezes were taken. It reads :— 












The number is "il, according to both the Latin and Greek numerals. 
The question is : 11 Roman miles from where '!■ Madeba is too far, but 
Ma'atn is just the right distance away. In coming from Ma'aln we did 
not follow a Roman road, biit one may exist in a somewhat different line. 



"We set up the stone and photographed it. We dug up another bit of a 
column, and found the lower part of another milestone inscrii^tion :— 

PONT (?) 





A third stone had independent inscriptions on two sides, but too 
defaced to read. One of the standing columns appeared to contain the 
names of Constantine and his sons. Thus we had six or seven inscrip- 
tions here. Officers placed the name of their respective Emperors on 
milestones. The question is whether a new column was erected each 
time, or whether the so-called "Menhir" represents an older construction 
upon the columns of which the inscriptions were carved. I incline to the 
latter view. 

While M'e were at work the Bedawin came up and attempted to 
bluster ; it was amusing to note how they were quelled by our genial 
Effendi, who for the moment effectively assumed his official air. We 
returned for another delightful night at Wady Waly. The next day we 
marched to Dhiban, approaching this spot, where were enacted the exciting 
scenes relative to the Moabite Stone, with some thrill. The ruins have 
the same disappointing appearance as those of Ma'aln and Libb. The 
site is better. Dhiban occupies two hills, the western one being protected 
by two deep valleys. It was a large place. The ruins are in general not 
characterised by ornamentation and there is little classic work. This 
is an encouraging fact for the excavator whose aim is to get as soon as 
possible to the old Moabite levols. The sheikhs of the Hamideh were 
very civil and anxious to show us all the " torn stones," which is their 
phrase covering inscriptions and ornamentation. They led us down to 
the bed of the Wady, and pointed out part of the oil-})ress discovered by 
Tristram's party. They also declared that in a certain cave there was 
something or other which we could not get an idea of, and as I have been 
led on so many wild-goose chases by indefinite descriptions of caves we 
decided to ride on to 'Araier without hunting for the cave — a proceeding 
we regretted the next day, as the reader will see. Before remounting, how- 
ever, we dug u]) a most interesting fragment. It is evidently a part of a 
pilaster with a human figure carved upon it in high relief. Only the trunk 
and the right hip remain. This pointed hip suggests figures of a well- 
known Phwuiciau female type {see Cut III in my "Mound of Many Cities"), 
but the absence of breasts rules out this idea. Mr. Dickie, after a study 
of the photograph, shows that it probably represents a man standing with 
his weight thrown on his right leg, which would cause the right hip to 
protrude, and would explain the lack of symmetry between the two sides 
of the body. The fragment is 13 inches high, which would give about 
3 feet for the complete figure. It is of a warm reddish stone. We did 


not bring it to Jerusalem, but I left it where I can find it again. It is a 
constant source of regret to me that Mr. Dickie did not arrive in Jerusalem 
till a day or two before I returned from the trip, on which his assistance 
would have been invaluable. 

Notwithstanding the preparation given him by the detailed descrip- 
tions of former explorers, every traveller across these green plains must 
experience a thrilling moment of surprise on coming suddenly to the top 
of the almost perpendicular cliffs that bound the magnificent canon of 
the Mojib or Anion. We struck this view at 'Araier, which I place on 
my map somewhat east of the point it usually occupies. It crowns one 
of the natural buttresses that round out from the cliffs, and affords a 
capital bird's-eye view of the upper waters of the Arnon. Here we came 
upon a Christian from the Southern Lebanon, a sort of wandering 
merchant among the Arabs, who knew the country like a book. We also 
had an excellent guide from Madeba. They were thus two capital in- 
dependent witnesses. Directly below, one sees the Mojib, formed by the 
junction of three deep wadies, one coming from the east, and two from 
the south ; these two latter first join together and then unite with the 
eastern branch, a couple of miles above the bridge. For the eastern 
branch I recovered the name S'aideh, for the south-eastern, or main 
southern branch, the name Lejjfui, and for the south-western, or smaller 
southern branch, the name Balu'a. I noticed that the maps give the 
name S'aideh to the main southern branch. However, I was delighted to 
find later, on consulting Tristram's " Land of Moab," ' that the names 
given him by Sheikh Zadam (which I prefer to write Zottam) corresponded 
to those I recovered for the three branches. Tlie only difference is that 
for the central branch he was given the name Mkharrhas, whereas mine 
was Lejjtin. Well, a few days later I encamped at the Springs of 
JjejjUn, and found that a couple of miles down the valley there were the 
Springs of Makherus ! My witnesses named the valley from the upper 
springs, Zottam from the lower. The agreement between the testimony 
gathered by Canon Tristram 23 years ago and my witnesses is complete, 
and we can unhesitatingly apply the name S'aideh to the eastern branch, 
LejjAn or Makherus to the central, and Balu'a to the small southern one. 
The memory of this view from 'Araier was of great service later on when 
journeying north-east from Kerak I passed across these wadies. 

I am sorry to say that by taking the route from Dhiban to the river 
by 'Araier — where the ruins are not extensive, though the place must 
always have been important as a look-out — we missed copying a Roman 
milestone in the regular road. One of the Dominicans, passing later, 
took it for granted that I had copied it, as he knew I had copied several. 
The descent from 'Araier, which at first is along the face of the clitts, 
was accomplished without difiiculty, though it is almost impossible to 
remain in the saddle. Further down, the road becomes easier. We 
observed a stone circle of massive work, and near by the field was dotted 

' *SVe p. 131, footnote. 


witli dozens of little heaps of stones. Our guide said it was the site of a 
battle, and each hea]) marked the place where a man fell ! We saw 
similar places later on. The rocks here are covered with the Arab tribe 
marks which we found so i)lentifully at Mashetta. Our camp was by 
the stream. The warmth of the air was very grateful. It seemed odd 
to be camping so securely in a spot so much dreaded, and rightly, by 
former travellers. 

The next morning, March 15th, we ;)ccom])lished the difficult climb 
up the south wall of the canon. This is fully 2,200 feet. The real 
difficulty is to get up the last two or three hundred feet. When we had 
arrived at the top, Abu Selim declared that he would not feel easy until 
he had seen the loaded mules at the top of the ascent. It seemed 
impossible that they could accomplish the feat without slipping and rolling 
back down the precipitous slope. While we watched their brave and 
successful attempt to climb the cliffs, I felt that had the Children of 
Israel ever come this way, with their women, and children, and baggage, 
we should have found some notice of it, not only in the history of their 
march, but in the Psalms which praise God for their miraculous 
deliveries.' To transport a vast multitude down and up this gorge 
would have been a serious affixir in times of peace, but think how impos- 
sible while they were passing through a hostile country ! The route 
of the Israelites is uncertain, but I think that the following points show 
clearly that they did not pass through the centre of the Land of Moab : — 

(1) They evidently passed to the east of Edom (Numbers xx, 21). 

(2) At Ije-Abarim they were to the east of Moab (Numbers xxi, 11). 

(3) They got to the other side of Arnon without complications with 
the Moabites. 

(4) Reference is made (v, 4) to the " brooks of Arnon," which well might 
mean the upper wadies near the present Haj Road where they are shallow. 
Thus being beyond the northern limit of Moab, with the awful chasm 
between them and their enemies, they turned next and camped at Dibon- 
Gad (Numbers xxiii, 45), the modern Dhiban, achieving a grand victory 
over Sihon, King of the Amorites. It is interesting to note that at the 
present day the Mojib is the limit between the lands of the Keraki and 
those of the Hamideh. 

We lunched on the top of Jebel Shihan, a gently-rounded hill, which 
serves as an excellent landmark, and can be seen from our present camp, 
south of the walls of Jerusalem. We observed an enclosure, about 
150 yards square, at the end I recognised the apse of a small church, 
though Tristram took it for a temple. We saw two large vaulted Roman 

Part way up the slope was a Roman milestone with defaced 
inscription ; I read the letters mpxii. From Shihan we rode rapidly 

' Numbers xxi, 14, 15, certainly points to especial marks of God's favour in 
this district, but tlic " brooks of Anion " and " the stream of the brooks that 
go down to the valley of Ar," &c., suggest the upper wadies. 


to Kerak, having time merely for a glance at Beit el Kiihn (also 
called Kasr Rabba), and at Rabba, which have been described so often 

On the way we were joined by a yonng sheikh of the Beni Siikhr, 
whose father, Zottam, had been such a faithful guide to Canon Tristram. 
We at last came to the end of the monotonous plain ; Kerak, the 
impregnable, loomed before us with the Wady ez Zayatin between. 
Plunging down from the town along the opposite slope came a fearless 
horseman, who met us in the valley. This was Mr. Forder, of the 
Church Missionary Society, who from the beginning to the end of our 
stay was most cordial in every kind of assistance. Our tents were 
pitched in the garden of the Greek Convent, to whose head I had a 
letter from the Patriarch of Jerusalem. He gave us a cordial welcome, 
an<l recognised in Ibrahim Effendi an old friend. Fi-om the earliest 
days the noble Moslem family of the Chaldi have been patrons of the 
Greek Convent. In recognition of the official character of the expedition 
on our tents appeared the Turkish flag. Soon after our arrival the 
Governor sent down an officer, saying he would receive us in the evening 
and begging to know what he could do for our comfort. What a con- 
trast to the former style of reception at Kerak ! We were welcomed by 
the Turkish Governor, the English Missionary, and the Greek Abbot ; 
our predecessors had the Mujeli for their hosts, and their method of 
entertainment was to keep their guests under close guard, and to demand 
a ransom for their release. Everyone knows that the Mujeli are a tribe 
of spurious Arabs, having none of the virtues of the race whose name 
they borrow, who it is said came from Hebron, and until recently have 
lorded it over the Land of Moab. The form Mujeli is the plural, the 
singular is Mujelli. Their day, however, seems to be over, and they are 
at present camping near Kasr Rabba. 

After dinner we waited on the Governor in the spacious new Seraya 
built in front of the castle. His Excellency Hussein Helmy Bey Effendi 
is a man about 40 years of age, with a keen eye and most intelligent face. 
For years he was General Secretary at Damascus. He is well fitted for 
the difficult post of Governor of Kerak : acute of mind, fearless, and 
scrupulously honest, he is respected and feared by all. Moreover, he is 
well read in history. He read Ibrahim Effendi's letter from Hamdy Bey, 
and at once entered with enthusiasm into the spirit of our mission, 
promising every assistance. He is keen on the antiquities of his district, 
and had twice visited Petra, and seemed anxious to have us go. 
Ordinarily a special permit is required. However, my mission did not 
include Petra. But it was very tantalising to be so near this wonderful, 
and usually so inaccessible, spot, with every facility ottered for visiting it. 

Later, his Excellency called at our tents, and showed great interest in 
making out the squeezes of various Arabic inscriptions of the place. 
When we dined with him Sunday evening, we found that he had looked 
up the historical references in his Arabic library. 

Although Kerak has been so well described by Canon Tristram, I may 


be allowed to give my own impressions of this almost impregnable place. 
It is situated on a triangular hill, almost entirely surrounded by deep 
valleys which naturally cut it off from the higher encircling hills, except 
at its south-east corner, where an artificial trench across the two valleys, 
which at this point are close together, completes the isolation. The 
general trend of the triangle from base to aj^ex is W.N.W. Nothing is 
more difficult in this country than to recover the names of wadies, as 
they often have two or more ; however, I give them as they were given 
to me, though they differ from Tristram's book. The base of the triangle 
is formed by the Wady ez Zayatin (separated from the Wady Kerak 
by the neck of land which afterwards spreads out to form the triangle) 
descending rapidly to the Wady Jowwad, which, forming the right or 
northern arm of the triangle, joins the "Wady Kerak at the apex ; the 
Wady Kerak thus forms the left or southern arm. The town occupies 
the comparatively fiat top of the hill at its south-eastern end ; thus it is 
not a perfect triangle, but has a bend in the wall along its right arm, 
where it swings across the hill to meet the left arm above the Wady 
Kerak, leaving the north-western and longer half of the hill, narrowing 
to its apex, outside the town. The northern and southern wadies are, 
accoi'ding to Tristram, from 1,000 to 1,350 feet deep, while the Wady ez 
Zayatin, under the castle, is much shallower. 

The ancient wall surrounding the town is in ruins, but it can be 
traced all along the line. In places it stands for a considerable height. 
Besides the great castle at the south-east, there are four towers. These 
latter all date from Crusading times, and are in distinct contrast to the 
main part of the wall. The towers are built of hard yellow limestone 
cut in the usual style of the Crusaders ; the wall is built of flint and 
sandstone ; the stones themselves are not large, but are peculiarly long 
and thin ; the courses are often not continuous. Between the towers 
there are small turrets, some of Crusading woi-k and others of the style 
of the main wall. This latter style also occurs at the great castle ; here 
we also find the long thin stones, only much larger ; many, but not all, 
are drafted. The style of boss is peculiar, especially at the quoins, 
where it often projects for more than a foot, with a long square set back, 
ending in a rough mass. It is thus a unique combination of rough boss 
and smooth boss, giving the corners an extraordinary effect. From the 
point of view of defence, as well as of architecture, these projecting 
bosses, u]) which anyone could climb, seem an extremely stupid arrange- 
ment. The building is very bad : while the courses are preserved the 
wall has no smooth face, the stones })roject irregularly, and no attention 
has been paid to vertical bonding. Whei'e the joints are particularly 
large, they have been pinned up with chips. The arrow holes may not 
have been a ])art of the original scheme, but may have been pierced later. 
The wall, especially above the Wady ez Zayatin, has a long raking base. 

That tills masonry antedates Crusading times is pi'oved by its 
position ; it is found in the north wall facing the city, in the eastern 
wall, and also in a wall ruiuiing north and south through the interior of 


the castle. The jiresent soiith and west walls are of a totally different 
masonry which has all the marks of Crusading work. The inference is 
that the original castle was narrower in width than the present one, 
occupying the crest of the hill ; the Crusaders not only re-built the 
southern end, but added to the width by erecting a new wall further 
down on the southern sloj^e, not, however, destroying the old west wall, 
which still stands on the higher level, but now is within the castle, 
dividing it into two parts. To what period we are to ascribe the more 
ancient part it is impossible to say without further examination. It is 
not Crusading work ; lietweeu the Eomans and the Crusaders it is 
difficult to find a builder for it ; the Eomans certainly never built in this 
rough manner ; and hence by a process of elimination we are brought to 
consider the question : Can it be Moabite ? I will leave it to others 
more learned than myself to answer the question. 

We spent Monday afternoon, March 18th, in visiting the interior of 
the castle, with a most intelligent officer for our guide. So complicated 
is its structure, it wovUd require days to understand and plan it properly. 
I can only give a general description. It is in the form of a trapezium 
some 250 yards long, the south end being much shorter than the north. 
In the time of the Crusaders the castle proper was at the south end. 
Here it is isolated from the hill beyond by a broad trench cut across the 
neck ; Tristram says that a wall of native rock had been left at each end, 
thus forming a gigantic cistern, but at the time of my visit only one was 
left. Between this scarped ditch and the castle there is a huge pool. 
High up on the wall there is an Arabic inscription, extending almost its 
whole length. This south castle contains a large, lofty hall. The chapel, 
so well described by Tristram, is in about the centre of the main fortress. 
And how to describe this fortress ? As one wandered along the series 
of parallel vaults and galleries, story upon story, dimly lighted by shafts 
through the vaults, past the rows of beds of the respectful Turkish 
soldiers, who, being off duty, were engaged in different domestic pursuits, 
the mind was bewildered. I was able to notice, however, that the 
vaults under the western or Crusading addition were larger and more 
solidly built than the others. In this part there was also a large hall. 
The work of clearing out the vaults is, I believe, still to go on. 
Tristram speaks of large reservoirs, but I understood from the officer 
that none had been found. Opening from the Crusading part above the 
Wady Kerak there is a very lofty and narrow gate. The main entrance 
is now, as formerly, towards the city, from which the castle is isolated by 
another ditch. 

To return to the town. In former times it was approached only by 
four galleries, cut in the rock. One near the north-west, or Bihar's 
Tower, is still used, and has an arched gateway at its outer opening, 
which is 9 feet 3 inches broad. The gallery itself is much broader, and 
twists inwards for about 70 yards, but its original length was about 
125 yards, its inner part having been destroyed. I need to add nothing 
to Tristram's description of Bihar's Tower. Abu Selim copied the 


inscription. The northern tunnel is now partially blocked up, and 
appears simply as a long cave. At the north-east there are three more 
tunnels, one of which is closed. 

The town contains few monuments. Near the castle we visited a 
well-preserved Roman bath. In the centre of the town is the ruined 
mosque, once a church, as attested by the chalices still left on either 
side of the inserted Arabic inscription. This we copied, as well as one 
on a long stone, lying near by. I have sent home a squeeze of the 
latter ; if my memory serves me right, it relates to tlie re-building of 
the mosque by the inhabitants of Kerak, and of the remitting of taxes 
in consequence. There are also Arabic inscriptions on two of the other 
towei-s. The town contains four old pools, two of great size. Ancient 
cisterns are most numerous, sometimes three occur in one house. Were 
they dug by the order of King Mesha ? But this opens up the question 
of karcha, and of the Moabite Stone and its original position, which I 
cannot enter upon now. Only about half the area of the ancient town is 
now covered by houses, so excavation in Kerak would be possible. 

As we sat on the lofty top of Bihar's Tower, Mr. Forder told me that 
along the ridge outside the town there is a hermit's cave in the face of the 
rock. It must be approached by rope-ladders. Within is a small chapel, 
a recess for bed, a furnace, and a cistern with channels from without to 
catch the cliff drainage. In the Wady ez Zayattn, beyond the castle, we 
visited a tunnel piercing the mountain, with another tunnel running 
directly below in the same line, the two connected at intervals by air- 
holes. What these lead to I was unable to ascertain. In the Wady 
Kerak are three good springs ; the highest called 'Ain el Franj, connected 
with 'Ain es Sufsaf below the town by an aqueduct ; the third is 'Ain 
Jara, after the junction of Wady Kerak with Wady Jowwad. The 
weather during our stay was veiy cold and cloudy, and I did not get the 
view of Jerusalem and Bethlehem that a fine day affords. 

The population of Kerak is varying, as the inhabitants own both 
houses and tents, thus leading sometimes a nomadic, sometimes a town 
existence. During harvest time the town is comparatively empty, when 
they become real Bedawln. The Keraki are estimated at between eight 
and ten thousand, but this includes those who never live in the town. 
The Christians number a few hundreds. There are scattered shops, 
difficult to find, but no regular market. The houses are built with the 
debris of former ages, often leaving causeways for the streets. In one 
of the houses we copied some Greek inscriptions. The people are canning 
and mean looking— an appearance justifying their reputation. 

We were four nights in Kerak, leaving at eleven on Monday, the 19th. 
The Governor kindly gave us an escort of two horsemen, more for guiding 
than ])rotecting us, as both knew the district. One lad, whose family 
came from Damascus, had been brought u{) in a castle on the Haj road 
close by, and, as a cavalry soldier, had scoured the whole country. We 
were entering upon an unexplored region, for preceding travellers had 
ahvaya, I believe, marched north to Dhiban, and then struck off east to 



Umm er Resas. My plan was to march nortli-east to Umui er l-tesus, to 
find out what I could about the upper wadies of the Anion. Our road 
ran at first somewhat south-east and then north-east, till we came to the 
springs of LejjAn. I took bearings at various points on the route, and 
was able to fix the position of the springs at a point about 10 miles north- 
east of Kerak. The water bubbles out from the bottom of a wady, and 
has a good taste, but is somewhat warm. Our guides said that it ran 
into the Mojib, giving its name to the Wady LejjAn, or central wady as 
seen from Araier. On my asking for the Wady el Balu'a, old Khali), of 
Madeba, whom we still kept with us, pointed off to the north-west, which 
placed it where it had been pointed out to us before. From Shihan the 
ruin of Balua had been shown us in the same line, undoubtedly taking 
its name from the wady. Around the springs, for some distance, the 

land is well cultivated. The brook flows for a half mile east, and then 
joins the great wady coming from the south, called the Wady ed Debbeh, 
which our guides said crossed the Haj road " a day's journey below 
Kutraneh." Hence I was able to fix its general position. They also 
vouched for the Springs of Makherus, a couple of miles down the wady 
from LejjAn, but I had not time to visit these. Indeed, I was always in 
a strait betwixt two on this journey ; on the one hand was the desire to 
do everything thoroughly, on the other, my buried wall in Jerusalem was 
calling me back. 

We had travelled slowly, stopping for lunch on the way, and did 
not arrive at Lejjfm till four. Mr. Forder had never visited the place, 
so though we were told that there were ruins we were not prepared to 
discover a genuine Roman town. But we had no time for expressions of 
surprise, for there was none too much daylight left for me to make a 
plan of the place. Moreover it had begun to rain. However, I am 



able to furnish au approximate restoration that does not claim to be 
accurate to the foot. Tlie town is rectangular, about 670 feet north and 
south, by 850 east and west. The town wall is built of small smooth 
stones, and is over 8 feet thick. It has gates on the four sides. The 
gate-posts are of massive stones. The southern gate is triple, the central 
opening being 11 feet wide. Besides the four corner towers there are 
towers along the walls between, six on both north and south, and four 
on both east and west. These intermediate towers are hollow ; they 

— : T\ixrrc f r^TtCTF yTPWt3 af LE JJUFl 




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project 38 feet from the wall, and are 28 feet across. They have straight 
sides, with a circular termination. Many are simply a heap of ruins, 
but all could be tiaced. At light angles through the town there run 
two great streets, over 50 feet broad. Facing these streets there is a 
series of chambers some 30 feet deep by 13 broad. Side streets, about 
25 feet broad, parallel to the main east and west avenue, were also 
traced in the south-west part, likewise lined witli chambers. They may 
also liave existed in other parts. In the south-east corner a high heap 


of ruins suggested a more important building. Long thin slabs of stone, 
such as were used in the Hauran for roofing, occurred. The buildings 
inside the town are very much ruined, and seem to have been built 
roughly and without mortar. The whole suggests a Eoman military 
town, with strong outside walls and towers, and barracks built 
symmetrically but roughly within for the soldiers and their families. 

On the hill to the west of the springs I saw a ruin which I had no 
time to visit. Some weeks later my friend, Mr. H. W. Price (who has 
assisted Dr. Petrie in Egypt this last winter), during a trip in Moab, 
visited LejjAn at my request. His guide took him to this ruin on the 
bill, and was afraid to go down into the plain. Mr. Price supposed that 
this higher ruin was the one I had asked him to visit, and made a 
sketch plan of the place for comparison with mine, but it turns out he 
discovered the fortress. 

It is a building much in the style of Kusr Bsher {see plan of latter), 
with one entrance, corner towers, but having also an intermediate tower 
on two sides. It measures 50 or 60 yards square. 

There is a resemblance between the wall of the military town of 
Lejjtin and the outer wall of Mashetta. Outside the town there are 
other ruins that seem to be important, but the sun set before I could 
examine them, and early the next morning I was obliged to ride on. 
First we crossed tbe Wady ed Debbeh, which here is broad and shallow, 
and rode north-east over a rocky country, broken by wadies, to the 
R'jum Eishan, or heaps of Rishan. One of these, at least, is the ruin 
of a square watch tower, of which we saw many scattered all over the 
district. From this point I took an angle back to LejjAn, as the heaps 
stand on a slight ridge commanding a good view. A half mile beyond 
we crossed the Wady es Sultan, which is the last of the southern feeders 
of the Arnon, running into the Wady Lejjdn. It is not deep at this 
point. Then we rode for about 7 miles over an undulating plain, tempt- 
ing one to a canter, which I injudiciously attempted, for the treacherous 
ground is honeycombed with rat-holes, and just before we reached 
another watch tower my horse went down and I was lamed. So I confess 
that I did not experience the supposed joy of the discoverer a moment 
afterwards when on crossing a swelling of the ground, the stately and 
finely-preserved Roman fort of Kusr Bsher stood out solitary on the 
featureless plain. Being in great pain my one idea was to get off the 
horse, and as he scrambled over the fallen stones that impede the 
entrance to the fort, I barely noticed a long Latin inscription on 
the lintel of the gate. However, lunch is the traveller's best j^anacea. 
My interest in the place revived wonderfully, and I began to hobble 
around, taking measurements and photographs. The insci'iption was out 
of reach, and as we were uncertain just where to find our camp, we 
decided to leave it for another visit. 

The tents proved to be only 5 or 6 miles oft', nearly due north. They 
were at the bottom of the Wady es S'aideh, the main east feeder of the 
Arnon, across whose main wadies we had thus ridden in one day. 



TJie spot is very picturesque, with fine cliflfs all about. It is a couple of 
miles above the springs which, unfortunately, I had no time to visit. 

That evening I had an interesting hour over the map, which I was 
able to correct from my observations. The position for my fort— Kusr 

— ElsniPp-JSoninFxJEfeEr - KPiSR 133HEFI 


[mrjiuu - 

?" I r ' 

•^ TO 

-J L 

I" l'^^- 

Bsher— ascertained by bearings taken at various points all the way from 
Kerak, I had been able to check, by a direct bearing on to that helpful 
landmark, Jebel Shihan. My two guides were jealous of each other, and 
I was able to keep them good-natured during a stiff examination by 
treating it in a jocose way as a legal proceeding. These natives are 


something like children, if you press tijem too far they are liable to 
invent. Their testimony was taken independently, so there was no 
collusion. On the way, Said, the soldier, said that Wady es Sultan 
flowed through Kutraneh, on the Haj road. In the evening I asked 
Khalil, the Madebite, who had travelled with the mules, for the names 
of the wadies we had crossed. When he mentioned Wady es Sultan, I 
casually enquired where it came from. "East, east, beyond the Haj 
road." " And at what point does it cross ? " " At Kutraneh." " Some 
distance from it, I suppose?" " No, wullah, through the very centre." 
Hence the line of this wady was fairly well fixed. 

That night we had a splendid camp fire, lighting up the picturesque 
rocks. The next morning I sent Abu Selim to the fort with men to 
build up a rude wall across the gateway, that the inscription might be 
reached, and rode myself with Said, the soldier, to see what the other 
Kusr Bsher is like. For the Arabs use the plural, Ksllr Bsher, to 
indicate the large fort and another building 1^ miles W.N.W. Heading 
towards this, we crossed several small gullies, the beginnings of wadies 
that run north-west to the Wady es S'aideh. This building turned out 
to be one of the many watch towers scattered over the district, but is the 
largest one I noticed. It measures 74 feet by 58 feet at the base. The 
walls have a distinct batter. They are 4 feet 6 inches in thickness, and 
are built of roughly squared stones, the largest being 7 feet. The base 
seemed to be solid (or possibly the tower was built on vaults), for the door 
is some 15 feet above the ground. There were no signs of steps. 

Just before arriving at the fort we noticed a great open pool, or tank, 
similar to the one at Madeba. The men had built a fine temporary wall, 
and Abu Selim had already beaten in the squeeze ; two men were 
standing on the wall beside him, keeping the papers in place till they 
should dry sufficiently to be taken off and laid in the sun. The stone 
was a very difficult one to squeeze, as its surface was rough and gritty. 
Fearing that the squeeze would not render the worn incisions, I deter- 
mined to study the stone thoroughly. So I stood for 3J hours on the 
wall in the bitter wind, constantly wetting the inscription, and eagerly 
waiting for the sun to flash out from between the driving clouds. I 
recovered a large part of it, but the squeeze proved to be a more valuable 
witness than myself, for on my submitting it to the distinguished 
epigraphist of Jerusalem, the Pere Germer-Durand, he made out the 
whole inscription. 

The following is his reading : — 




This is late Latin, as showa by the barbarous word fossamentis. I give 
a free translation : — 

" In honour of our most excellent and great chieftains, Caius Aurelius 
Valerius Diocletian Pius Felix Invictus Augustus, and Marcus Aurelius 
Valerius Maximianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus, and Flavius Valerius 
Constantius and Galerius Valei'ius Maximianus, the most noble Caesar, 
Aurelius Asclepiates, Prceaes of the Province of Arabia, has undertaken 
to complete this Fort and its walls with ditcli(>s." 

The inscription is surrounded with a border, upon which et, the last 
two letters of the third line, and tis, the last three letters of the fifth line, 
run ; unfortunately, they do not appear in the squeeze, as Abu Selim 
naturally supposed that the whole inscription was included in the border. 
It is interesting to notice that there is not a single abbreviation. The 
names of the Emperors date the building at the very beginning of the 
fourth century. 

It is a pity I could not read the inscription on the spot, for then I 
would have searched for the ditches, of which, however, I remember no 
signs. Perhaps the word refers to the large pool, as well as to the 
smaller cistern directly before the gate. 

As may be seen from the illustration, the exterior of the building 
is preserved almost to the top, but the small towers on the side of 
the gate have fallen down, and there is a large breach in one of the 
corner towers. The fort is almost square, and measures (including the 
towers) 172 feet 6 inches along the front by 189 feet at the side. The 
masonry of the outside wall shows drafted stones in its lower courses, 
but higher up the stones are smaller and wider, and the joints primed 
lip with chips. Small openings occur high up. There are two small 
windows above the main gate, the lintel of which is saved by a relieving 
iivch. and rests upon two pilaster capitals. 

The interior is more in ruins. There is a large open court, with 
twenty-seven rooms, exclusive of the towers, opening oif it, six on the 
front and seven on each of the other sides. Above these rooms there is 
a second storey. Owing to my accident, I was not able to climb the 
towers, but Abu Selim reports that they are in three or four storeys, with 
a stair in the corner ; the lower storeys consist of one chamber each, and 
the upper of two or more. 

That evening I had an exceedingly bad quarter of an hour. In 
Kerak I had changed ])Iates in the dark, and I now discovered to my 
horror that I had been exposing the back side of the plates ! I was 
strongly tempted to go back to Kusr Bsher, but time was too pressing. 
However, I was relieved in .Jerusalem to find tliat the plates developed 
all right, only in the interests of true science I must confess that in the 
wall of the Kerak Castle and in tiie photograph of Kusr Bshfir, right 
and left have changed places. Such ai-e the vicissitudes of travel. 

The next day, Maich 22nd, we rode to Umm er Resas, and thus were 
once again on the beaten track. Here we saw nothing to add to 



'Tristram's description of the Christian town. I have not altei'ed its 
position on my map, but I believe it is east, rather than nortli-east of 
Dhiban. Our next point was Mashetta, wliich we wished to reach via 
.Ziza, but it was necessary to return to Dhiban as we Iiad heard further 

particulars in regard to the cave of which the Arabs had spoken. While 
ou Shihan a partner of the Lebanon Christian we had met at 'Araier, 
held fojth at length on this cave and promised vis an inscription. 
Accordingly we rode from Umm er Resas, in a high wind, to Dhiban, 
.and at once were shown to the desired Maghara Abu Nathi, which is 



directly on the right of the regular road from Madeba. We entered by 
a sloping passage, 40 feet long, and found ourselves in a natural cave,, 
irregular in shape, about 30 feet in length and 11 feet in breadth. 
Within there was an irregular shaft to the surface of the gi'ound at the 
top of the hill, a section of vy^hich shows 8 feet of soil and 7 feet of rock. 
This shaft, as well as the passage by which we entered, seems due to a 
breaking into the cave by the Arabs. Opening from the cave are several 
natural projecting bays, one of which had been artificially squared, and 
contains a sarcophagus, measuring inside 6 feet 10 inches by 2 feet 
5 inches, with walls 4 inches thick. The roof of the cave has been projjped 
up with rude pillars built of older fragments. To the right of the 
entrance a well-built arch extends diagonally to the sarcophagus-niche ;. 
at about right angles to the entrance is a passage lined with well-jointed 
stones, leading to a chamber lined with beautiful masonry, having the 
well known shallow draft made by simply smoothing the margins of the 
stones, w^hile the centres are finely dressed by the comb-pick. Along 
the wall runs a moulding, of which I give a di^awing,' evidently some 
distance below the roof. This chamber was blocked up by stones. On 
going without I found that the hill sweeps around in a half circle to a 
point opposite the inner wall of the chamber, and so close to it that I 
infer that it was originally out on the slope, and is buried in its own 
debris. We thus have an external tomb-chamber, leading into the cave, 
which was the real burial-place. We were much disappointed to lind no 
inscription, but it was interesting to have discovered some Roman- 
remains at Dhiban, for Eoman the chamber appears to be. 

The local sheikhs paid us a friendly call, bringing a sheep, barley,, 
and milk, for which they absolutely refused pay. They showed us a 
Greek inscription and promised to report any discovery to the Governor 
at Kerak ; this they will do, for they desire his favour. After dinner 
we held a grand Council. I desired to camp by the nearest water to 
Mashetta. The winter had been very di-y, and Ziza was reported water- 
less. On leaving Kerak, Said, the soldier, described a certain castle on 
the Haj road south of Mashetta, called Deb'aa, which I take to be the 
Kula'at el Belka of the ma}). Plenty of water and flour. " Barley 1 " 
I asked. " Barley 1 " he said, " enough to feed an army of horses," He 
painted the place with such glowing colours that I had visions of a 
billiard table. The next day he was doubtful about the flour. Later 
the barley became problematic. Finally the water showed signs of evapora- 
tion. Then his rival Khali! stepped in and declared there was no water 
there this year. The u})shot was that I decided to go to Madeba, though 
very reluctant to leave the route by Wady Themed, and attend to our 
commissariat de])artnient. The decision was fortunate. We arrived at 
Madeba Saturday tlie 23rd. The next day a violent storm set in, one 
tent was damaged by the wind, and we were glad enough to avail our- 
selves of the kindly-proferred hospitality of the Latin Convent. The- 

' This drawing is not published, but is preserved at the office of the Fund. 



Head was away, but the priest in charge placed practically the whole 
establishment at our service. How the rain beat down for two days ! 
But Tuesday there was a break, and we set off for Umm el 'Amad, 
having fixed upon it for our headquarters from which to visit Mashetta 
as often as was necessary. Passing Umm el 'Amad, and finding it 
favourable for a camp, we rode on to Maslietta, arriving in an hour and 

— PL?xri oi- PFU-yiCE :-Tl1- iii=i3HirTTP\ 

First, however, we crossed the Haj road, and a wonderful sight it is. 
Fancy over one hundred and fifty paths, made by the tread of the camels, 
side by side, sometimes jiarallel, and sometimes running into each other, 
and you will get some idea of the Haj road. Desolate it was, but one's 
imagination easily peopled it with the motley procession of thousands and 
thousands moving once a year gladly towards the south, and once a year 
sadly towards the north. For many fall by the way, and many perish 



by plague. Interesting it is to remember that every year the sons 
of Ishnmel repeat the journeyings of their cousins, the sons of Israel. 

After a hurried glance at the rich magnificence of the sculpture on 
the southern fagade and a general examination of the place, I began on 
my carefully-measured plan. As it differs only in some details and 
])roportions from the one in Tristram's book I do not need to repeat the 
general description. 

After a few measurements I began to see that the place had not been 
laid out with perfect .symmetry. For example : on the east side th& 
distance between the south-east tower and the bastion to the right is 

r f ^ 



()1 feet 9 inches, while the distance between the north-east tower and 
the bastion on the left, which should be the same, is 63 feet 9 inches ; 
the distance between the intermediate bastions themselves have a maximum 
variation of 5 inches. 

On Tristram's plan the tower behind the Inner Palace at its north- 
west corner is shown to be hollow. I had not his 2>lan with me, but 
I also observed this feature, though I did not see the curious projection 
which he marks, and which I take the liberty of adding to my plan. He, 
liowever, does not place this bastion directly at the back of the palace, 
but gives an opening on to the courtyard ; on my plan it opens on to the 



At my request Mr. Price examined carefully all the bastions with 
reference to their solidity, and he reports that the other two bastions at 
the back of the palace are hollow, also the one at the left of the west 
octagonal bastion, and probably the corresponding one on the east. I 
easily recognised with other travellers that the outside facade was never 
finished, indeed, the lack of fallen stones and of debris show that there 
remains in situ about all that ever was built. 

Entering the gate, we find the enclosure divided into three parallelo- 
grams. Only the central or largest one contains buildings. As Tristram 

(/'Vo)/t a photugrapk bj Mist Miniors.} 

Entbance Gate of Mashetta. 

points out, this is divided into three sections. The first, nearest the 
gate, contains a court, surrounded on thi'ee sides by chambers, and 
having two large door-openings, and massive piers in the four corners. 
All has been simply blocked out, the walls to all appearance never 
having been cai-ried more than a foot above ground. There is almost no 
debris. The measurements show the same lack of symmetry as observed 
without. The second section is open, and the third contains the Inner 
Palace, which consists of brick walls resting on three courses of stone. 

An interesting question arises as to how the Inner Palace was lighted. 
There is not a single window from without, and inside there are only a 



few small round openings over the doors. Canon Tristram describes 
explicitly the dome over the chamber b, which has the apsidal recesses. 
but at the time of my visit no trace had been left of this. I agree with 
him that the large hall A was never covered, for there is no sign of 
vaulting, nor is there sufficient fallen brickwork to account for its 
destruction. But I go still farther, cc, dd, and ee, are now open ; no 
signs of vaulting remain, and they are not choked with fallen brick. 
DD must have been open in order to have lighted the other chambers ; 
and I believe that cc and ee were open as well, otherwise the chambers 

(From a Phoiorjrapli by Miss Myaors.) 

Inner Palace of Mashetta. 

oflf their extreme corners would have received practically no light from 
DD I asked Mr. Price to look into the matter, and he agrees with my 
observations and conclusions. 

We spent a second day at Mashetta, arriving at 8.30 a.m., and leaving 
at 5.30 p.m. I completed my plan, and photographed, and Abu Selim 
took squeezes — I will not say of the inscriptions, but of the graffiti, 
which are scrawled on every available stone both inside and outside the 
enclosure. Of original inscriptions, really belonging to the building, 
there are none. These grofftti are of tliree kinds. (1) Cufic, with 
possibly some that are Nabataean ; (2) Arabic, and (3) Arab tribe-marks. 



We took 18 squeezes, including all varieties. The Arabic ones may be 
ascribed to the Haj pilgrims. The Arab icesem or tribe-marks, are found 

everywhere in the district. Here, at Mashetta, some are quite recent- 
must have been carved within a few months Among these are certain 
forms that bear an accidental resemblance to Greek letters. The com- 


bination tt t tt occurs often, both among the recent scrawling, and the 
older. It is also found with other wesem at 'Amman. 

A word about the name of the jalace. It may be written Umra Shetta 
or Mashetta, but certainly not Mashita. The latter pronunciation I 
never heard once. The day of our second visit was the great feast at 
the close of Ramadan. We were very late in returning to Umm el 
'Amad, and the camp fire in the distance was a cheering beacon. It was 
a disappointment to have no time to turn aside for a visit to Ziza and 
Kustul, so near, and yet so far when we considered our limited time. 
On arriving at camp we found an especial dinner for the day, with 
flowers on the table, while the muleteers were enjoying the extra treat 
of a sheep. Canon Tristram will be interested to learn that his old 
friend and guide, Zottam, is buried at Umm el 'Amad. 

With the work at Mashetta I felt that the main objects of our trip 
had been accomplished. Our route back to Jerusalem lay by 'Amman 
and Salt. At 'Amman we were again detained by a violent storm. We 
camped near the theatre, that magnificent and almost complete Roman 
monument. 'Amman has much changed since the Circassians came in 
1880. They now number 10,000 souls. Their houses are built of old 
materials as well as of mud brick. The town has a neat, thrifty appear- 
ance. Every room has its chimney ; every house its porch or balcony. 
The yards are nicely swept. The people have a free and independent air. 
At first the destruction of the monuments, consequent on the establish- 
ment of this colony, was great ; the Basilica has disappeared, and one 
apse of the interesting Thermae ; but the Mukhtar told me that they 
now have oixlers to leave the ruins alone. Fortunately they appear not 
to have touched the theatre. 

We spent Sunday, March 30th, at Salt, and on Monday turned our 
faces directly towards Jerusalem. And how to describe the ride down 
the beautiful Wady Sha'ib ? Were we in sterile Syria or in some valley 
of Switzerland ? Wooded hills, the rushing stream, the green glades — 
how delightful it all was ! And then the flowers — not solid patches of 
one colour, such as I have seen in the Lebanon, but each square yard at 
the side of the road seemed a natural nosegay — red and blue and purple 
and pink and yellow, all growing together and embedded in delicious 
green. But this was too beautiful to last. As we descended the 
vegetation grew scantier, and the heat greater. When we reached the 
Ghor it became almost unbearable, and the ride into Jericho was like a 
throbbing nightmare. Never was I gladder to reach camp. 

On Tuesday, April 2nd, we arrived safe in Jerusalem, and I found 
Mr. Dickie awaiting my return. The task of writing this report while 
my excavations have been going on has been a hard one, hence its defects 
will perhaps be j^ardoued. I have sent a brief rej^ort with plans and 
photographs to his Excellency Hamdy Bey, who has expressed himself 
much pleased with the results of the trip, and asks me to keep him au 
cotirant with all my work, as well as to write him of future trips. I 
cannot close this rejjort without testifying to the gi'cat assistance rendered 


me on the trip by Ibrahim EfFendi, who seemed never to mind hard- 
ship and fatigue, provided the mission could be accomplished. 


May 21sit, 1895. 



By Archibald C. Dickie, A.R.I.B.A. 

It is with much regret that I find the duty of writing this report has 
fallen upon me, in consequence of Dr. Bliss's unfortunate illness. Just 
after sending off his report on the expedition to Moab, his health began 
to break down, from the eflFects of over anxiety and work, combined with 
the unusually excessive heat we have experienced here for some weeks, 
culminating in extreme nervous pi'ostration. This necessitated his removal 
from the camp to the Grand New Hotel, where he was for a week under 
tlie care of Dr. Wheeler. I am glad to say he is now much better, and 
has left for Beyrout, where the doctor has ordered him to take complete 
rest for a time. 

This report ought to have been written a week ago, but, on account 
of the before-mentioned difficulties, Dr. Bliss was unable to give any 
attention to it. 

I do not intend to go into a complete report of the excavations, but 
only to give a running description of the work since its commencement, 
as Dr. Bliss will enter into more minute details later on. 

As will be remembered, the wall at the end of last season was left at 
the point where it emerges from the Jewish Cemetery. Consequently, on 
April 15th, the work of Season 1895 was commenced at this point, the 
wall being picked up where previously seen, and followed for a distance of 
30 feet, where it stepped up on to a rising scarp, and was unfortunately 
lost. From this point, the digging was transferred to a point about 90 
yards to the south-east. Dr. Bliss's reasons for digging here were : First, 
the wall, where last seen, running as it did up against a scarp which 
rose gradually up to the surface of the ground, leading on to the natural 
rock— which was almost all exposed — gave little hope of it ever being seen 
again, until it came to a point where the debris had accumulated to some 
degree above the top of the rock. Secondly, the contour of the rock 
followed the swing of the wall and scarp where seen, and at several places, 
had been stepped out to form beds for the stones. A trench, B, was dug, 
cutting in a line at right angles to the contour, but nothing was found 
unless a bed of lime on a rock bottom 3 feet below the surface at the point 
where the inferred dotted line cuts the trench. To exhaust the 
possibilities of the wall being further to the north, taking the direction of 


the higher contour of the rock, three shafts were sunk where shown, at 
C, CS C^ and connecting tunnels were driven between them, the long 
trench already spoken of Ijeing connected with Shaft C by a tunnel, thus 
making a complete section of the hill between the rock contours. Nothing 
satisfactory, however, was found. At Shaft C^ a piece of wall was 
discovered which, on examination, proved to be some rude construction, 
probably a dwelling. Shaft C disclosed a rock scarp which must have 
also been used for one side of a house, the rock being recessed at different 
lilaces along the face, and plastered over, similar to the other interiors of 
rock-cut dwellings discovered at other points within a short radius. 

Realising the difficulty of finding the wall at this point, from the fact 
that there was such a very slight depth of debris above the rock, which 
in a great many places was completely exposed, also from the information 
gathered from the Fellahin that the soil on the top of these rocks had 
from time to time been cleaned oflf and stones removed. Dr. Bliss 
transferred the scene of operations down towards the south, in line with 
the Pool of Siloam, where his theory led him to hope the corner of the 
wall was to be found. In the event of his being successful in finding the 
wall here, he intended working back in the direction of the cemetery, 
this seeming to be the most practicable way of proving the connection. 
Here the ground had also been very much cut up by the Fellahin, for the 
purpose of getting at and removing the immense quantity of stones that 
were to be found there ; the very fact of which furnished a strong clue to 
the probable position of the wall. At the part of the hill which seemed to 
have been least disturbed a shaft was sunk at D, and a tunnel driven in a 
line at right angles to the supposed line of wall. By the end of the first 
day, this tunnel had run on to the wall, which on being cleaned off showed 
itself to be of exactly the same character as the piece of wall last seen 
where it emerges from the Jewish Cemetery. The similarity was at once 
most striking, the same rough square stones, with wide vertical and hori- 
zontal joints, irregular drafted margins and rough projecting bosses. This 
was so far very satisfactory, and nothing remained but to follow the line 
which was now given us. After clearing the debris down to the rock 
foimdation, three courses were exposed, the rock being 18 feet below the 
surface of the ground. This tunnel was then driven eastwards, along the 
face of the wall, and another one opened from the opposite face of the hill 
in line with the last-mentioned tunnel. Before long the second gang of 
men had come upon a line of stones, sliowing unmistakable signs of 
polish and wear by foot traffic. This line of stones was followed along the 
face, until what jn-oved to be the ingoing wall of a gate was reached— just 
at the corner— and almost at the same moment the first gang arrived at this 
point. The tunnels were connected here, and the debris cleared out down 
to the rock, showing six courses of si)leiidid strong masonry similar to 
that already described, the courses varying in height from 24| inches to 
19| inches, the largest stone being 3 feet 5^ inches long ; the rock base is 
irregular and falls rai)idly towards the corner, being 16 feet below the sur- 
face at this point. Tliis at once strengthened the first impression, that this 



line of stones— showing so emphatic evidence of foot wear— was one of a 
series of steps, leading- to a gate and tlie probability of finding the Fountain 

Gate was at once raised, excitement and hope increasing every hour as- 
cutting m the direction of the ingoing wall-step after step was exposed, 


until the left jamb of the gate was reached, and on bearing a little towards 
the rio-ht, the upper sill made its appearance. This was the first authentic 
proof of the existence of the gate, and confirmed the theory founded on 
the position and appearance of the tell-tale step. The question now 
became, how to continue the excavation so as to show the gate as 
completely as possible and also to get at the most important parts, 
without disturbing the construction. Accordingly a tunnel was driven 
in a direction parallel with the steps, and in line with the inside face of 
the jamb, to discover if the inner sills were in situ. This was success- 
fully accomplished and our efforts were rewarded by the discovery of the 
upper inner sill, almost complete, showing the centre bolt sockets and 
the seat for the left gate post ; a connection was then made between this 
and the ingoing tunnel. Most careful digging and close supervision had 
now to be observed, as the most delicate part of the work had yet to 
come, the greatest care being taken that no stone was removed unless 
absolutely necessary, and not even then until its position and measure- 
ments had been carefully noted. Small sub-tunnels were made, sills 
undercut, joints cleaned out and every part exposed, unless where it was 
practically impossible on account of the overhead mass of dclms, the 
support of which required careful engineering. At F, a wall was 
discovered, of large roughly squared masonry, running to G, where all 
traces of it were, however, lost, and after cutting in various directions, 
led by false clues and barren theories, the hope of tracing its further 
development was abandoned and the chances of finding an inner gate 
were given up. However, in spite of this, it is difliicult to withdraw the 
theory that there may have been a second gate, which has been so 
•completely destroyed as to remove all traces. There are four courses 
of this wall standing, varying in height from 18 inches to 25 inches 
and the lengths of the stones vary from ISj inches to 3 feet 10 inches. A 
few margin and boss stones are seen, but, in general, the dressing is 
.«mooth without margins, the chisel pick being the tool used, the vertical 
and horizontal joints are irregular and wide. 

The gate was hidden under the slo])e of the hill, at such an angle 
that the debris above its right side was so slight that this part was 
completely removed, not even the stones of the sills remain at this end. 
From the plan and sketch it may be seen that the gate as now standing 
is set back (> feet from the line of the wall, the ingoing angle being 
sli.fditly obtuse. This ingoing wall was covered with phister except on 
the projecting bosses, and on knocking tliis off" we found two styles of 
masoni-y. From A to B the work is the same as in the main wall — from 
B to C, there is a rough filling in as shown on the side elevation of the 
gate (Section AB). This proves that at some earlier period, the gate 
jamb was further out, the angle occurring at B, and hence the stone D 
would be one of the lowest stones of this jamb, the rest having of course 
been removed. This idea is favoured by the fact that in the part of the 
wall AB, the stone of the second course is broken oft", showing that it was 
bonded into the first jamb. There are other indications of this first 



^leriod, which existed before the second ;iiid third j)eriods ; the second 
period sill being shown at G, G, and the third period sills at E, E. Two 
distinct series of steps were found, all well polished, one set above the 
other. The upper set, indicated by H (front elevation), leads directly to 
the sill G, G, the lower set I (part of which are rock) would thus lead 
to an earlier and lower sill — corresponding to the first period indicated 
by the masonry at BC (Section AB). The upper step of Series I, 
which is rock cut, would thus become the sill of the gate, the jamb of 
which, as was before argued, is shown by Stone D. There were no 



^ cefio n q; l>.- 

steps leading to the upper third period sills, E, E, the road at this time 
having been raised up to reach the sill as shown at K. This road is 
easily traced in the section of the cutting, as it is very hard, and is of 
a darker colour than the dehrifs, showing that when the third period 
gate had been designed, the steps had been left, and merely covered up, 
and the road made above them. The second gate had a wdder jamb 
than the third, as is proved by the fact that the stone L belonging to this 
jamb is cut out for the insertion of the upper sill. The sill of the second 
period abuts against this stone L, and the socket in the inner sill pi'ojects 
beyond the line of the present jamb, confirming the idea that the jamb 
at that time must have projected as far as the point where the lower sill 
G abuts upon the stone L, which is the only stone remaining of the second 



period jamb. The third period jamb is of course the present existing one^ 
the masonry of which closely resembles the wall F G on the genei^l 
plan, the dressing and building being of the same character. The 
examination of the sockets in the upper inner sill shows that the gate 
must have been on two leaves, socket No. 2 being the centre of the jgate, 
and the bolt hole of the overlapping leaf, the small side sockets 1 and 3 
being for extra bolts placed farther in on the leaves {see plan). Socket 
No. 4 I think must have been probably in use at the time of the second 
period gate, of course in a different position, as in its present position it 
is useless because it leaves no room for the thickness of the gate, being 
close up to the outer sill. The sockets below the jamb are of course 
seats for the gate post, the second period one being shown by dotted 

- ^-^M 

lines. Taking socket No. 2 as the centre of the gate, this woiild give an 
opening of 9 feet 6 inches wide over all. 

Meanwhile the work had been actively and successfully carried on at 
other places, and the south-east wall had been followed for 90 feet in the 
direction of the south-west corner. Shafts had been sunk at H and I, in 
botli of which fragments of tlie wall had been discovered. At shaft H 
three courses of masonry were found, the rock bottom being 15 feet 
below the surface, the stones showing the same character as those at the 
gate. Shaft I also showed a similar piece of masonry, five courses high, 
followinti: a rock base 17 feet from the surface. Connecting tunnels were 
made between these shafts, but unfortunately here most of the stones 
Ivad been removed, only the lower foundation courses of rough rubble ou 
rock remaining. Another shaft was sunk at J, where we were again 
successful in finding the wall two courses high, extending a distance of 



28 feet back iu the direction of the pool. The masonry of this part is of 
a much inferior character to the other specimens mentioned, there, how- 
ever, being a few stones with the same characteristic margins and bosses, 

— I^lan- li 

^ ? ^ 

L I I I I 



V,A>N VV/Al-L- 

5 ^iffliiP:' : ^' t 

which I have before described. Following in the opposite direction for 
7 feet 6 inches a similar result was obtained. At this point, the side of 
a tower was come to and disclosed itself to the extent of two courses 

5 cxlic n CT>,. 

of roughly-squared large stones set on a rock scarp, out of which the 
beds for the stones had been cut. This did not at first look particularly 
hopeful, chiefly from the fact that neither of the courses was bonded 
into the wall, which ran straight on behind the stones. However, on 



following this clue, the building became more reassuring, the stones now 
beinf much larger, better set and woi-ked, and altogether of a better class 
than any I have before described. Great difficulty was experienced in 
driving this tunnel, on account of the huge fallen stones which blocked 
the way. These stones had become firmly wedged together, and in some 
cases the workmen had to resort to quarrying before they could be 
removed . One of them I measured, and found it to be 6 feet 6 inches 
lone and 23 inches high, well worked on bed and joints, having drafted 
margins and rough bosses. The rock liere falls rajsidly and is stepped 
out to form the seats for the stones. The corner being reached, the 
tunnel was then pushed along the face of the tower, the same superior 
class of masonry still continuing. On sinking down to the foundation, 
it was found that for 13 feet from the corner, the rock dipped 6 feet, 
displaying a magnificent piece of wall, at this point ten courses high, 
measuring over all 13 feet. 

This part is particularly interesting, in so far as it shows two distinct 
classes of masonry. The dip of the rock is filled in with six courses of 
finely-jointed stones, frotn 10 inches to 10| inches high, the longest stone 
being 5 feet 8 inches, each course having a back set of from ^ inch to 
I inch. The dressing is ordinary chisel pick dressing, with drafted 
margin in some cases, and the vertical and horizontal joints are worked 
close and true. Above this, rising from the main base line of the rock, the 
stones are of difterent proportions and of more varied character. Four 
courses of this masonry are standing, varying from 20 inches to 23j inches 
high, the length of the stones varying from 11 inches to 6 feet 5 inches ; 
chisel-picked stones and margined and rough bossed stones being placed 
indiscriminately. The same accuracy in the jointing and setting is also 
•observed in these upper courses, although the general appearance is 
similar to the other parts of the wall. On examination, it seems quite 
certain that the shallow courses have been inserted into the dip of the 
rock after the tower was built, and as the rock rises rapidly towards the 
inside of the wall, this part would form a sort of facing to the rock, the 
reduced height of the courses may also be accounted for in this way. 
Beyond this, along the face of the tower, the rock again rises, and the 
wall was lost sight of, but was again picked up in the same line, within 
10 feet of the corner. Here 10 courses 13 feet high wall are still standing, 
the upper two courses being similar to the upper courses of the last des- 
ciibed part. Below this the stones are of a very i-ough character, being 
unhewn and very roughly squared and of massive proportions ; turning the 
corner and following on, the same characteristics continue until the wall 
abuts up against a scarp 12 feet high, and is again lost. This scarp was 
followed in its irregular form to where connection was made with a 
tunnel from a shaft, whicli had been sunk at K, following a wall founda- 
tion of good masonry from K to L. This does not, however, appear to 
have been connected with the tower, as, in the first place, it does not 
correspond in direction, and from its position is likely to have been the 
right ingoing wall of the first jieriod gate, but must certainly have been 


removed before either tlie second or third period gates were built, as its 
position woukl render these gates impracticable. Following the argument, 
the tower is certainly a later addition, possibly of the time of the two late 
period gates, and may have been cut back at some point above the scarp, 
giving the desired proportion to suit the widths of these gates. 

The drain had by this time been opened, but I will finish my notes 
on the wall which was being followed in the direction of the cemetery, 
before commencing my description of this most interesting discovery. 

This wall I have dealt with from the point D, where the first shaft 
was sunk, down to the corner of the gate, and I will now follow it back 
up the hill in the direction of the cemetery. 

At a point M a tunnel was bored in from the face of the hill, and within 
a few feet of the outside, a plastered wall of rough rubble was come to which 
on examination proved of no importance, and was consequently cut through, 
the real wall being reached 4 feet beyond this. A connection was then 
made between this and the first shaft, and a tunnel was pushed upwards, 
following the wall which continued four courses high of the same 
character as when first seen. At a point 57 feet from the corner of 
the gate, the wall rises up on a rock scarp, 8 feet high, which strikes 
out at an angle from the wall ; here a connection was made with 
the tunnel coming in the opposite direction from a shaft sunk at N. 
Beyond this scarp the wall is very much broken, but sufficient of it 
remains to show its direction ; and at the shaft it stands 4 courses high, 
the rock being 13 feet below the surface. Beyond this it entirely 
disappears, the direction being still shown, however, by a rock scarp which 
was followed for 15 feet, but as the soil now became loose and dangerous 
it was deemed advisable to sink another shaft, at O, beyond this, in the 
liopeof picking up the lost wall again. Here, however, the same difficulty 
was experienced : the rock was reached 13 feet below the surface, but no 
stones were found ; tunnels were driven to right and left, with no more 
satisfactory result ; and thus it remains up to the present moment. The 
very loose and disturbed nature of the debris, together with the absence 
■of any fallen stones, both tend to diminish the chances of any remains of 
the wall being found near this point ; but, in spite of this, Dr. Bliss is 
still hopeful of again picking it up. 

At P the first opening in search of the drain was made, and within 
3 feet of the surface it was found, the debris at this point being very 
slight. After clearing this out to the bottom, the line was followed for 
a distance of 15 feet, at which point the first cover was found ; these 
covers continuing intact for a distance of 86 feet. The drain was entirely 
silted up and within a few inches of the soffit, the section of the deposit 
showing a mass of rich black soil with thin layers of washed sand at a 
few inches apart near the top. The work of removing this soil was an easy 
task, and very soon a distance of 112 feet had been cleared out, the line 
being followed until it turned in an easy curve following the direction of 
the valley. The walls of the drain are partly of rock and partly of stone, 
^nd unless in places where the rock is cut out to form the bottom, there is 

R 2 



only a rough filling in of stones, probably to allow the sewage to filter 
through. The heights vary from 7 feet 9 inches to 5 feet 10 inches, and 
the widths from 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet. Walls ai-e built of rough 
squared stones, pointed in mortar, no regularity of courses being observed, 
and the stones being of massive proportions. At intervals along the drain, 
where shown on the general plan, there are four branch inlets measuring 
2 feet 10 inches, 10 inches, 11 inches, and 12 inches wide respectively at 
various heights from the bottom of the main drain. The covers are of 
large stones roughly squared, having good solid bearings of 15 inches- 
to 20 inches, these stones averaging 14 inches high and 22 inches broad. 

On examining the covers a very interesting discovery was made of 
what proved to be two surface water inlets from the street above. 
These inlets are formed in stones set above the covers, by cutting a slit 
through 1^ inches wide and 11 inches long, the underside being bevelled off. 
They remain quite perfect, and are in situ, showing the ancient's idea of 

Key Plan 

what we now know in the technique of nineteenth century sanitary 
science as the street gully. Beyond the point where this section 
of the drain was cleared out, another shaft was sunk, and the drain 
followed for a distance of 100 feet, where the same characteristics are 
noticeable ; no covers were, however, found in this section, and no branch 
inlets. Going back to the first shaft, we then pushed down in the direc- 
tion of the ffate for a distance of 72 feet. No covers were found, and as 
the drain a])proaclies towards the gate it widens out to 3 feet 7 inches, and 
is almost entirely rock-cut, the bottom falling rapidly until at the point Q, 
where it is now being excavated, it is 13 feet deep. Here it seems todij) 
down and get through below a rock-cut and partly concrete tank, which 
has a rock-cut channel outlet to the drain, but until it is properly 
cleared out, it is difiicult to form a theory as to whether this may be a 
catch pit, or mei-ely a sinking to suit the levels. However, a week will 
decide that point. Outside the wall at L, where shown, the outlet of the 
drain was discovered, and we are at jjresent following encouraging clues 



in the direction of the dotted lines on plan, in the hope of findiuo- a 
cesspool,, or a series of settling ponds as a fitting termination to such a 
scientifically constructed system of drainage. 


-^ eelio n 


— ^ ^lye^im c n qTa — 


. CecTiop. 


,3 ,4 Feet 

-_ Sj ^eeir neii cX B . 

The drawings showing specimens of masonry — drawn to scale — 
will hel]D to illustrate my description of the wall at the different points, 




_<v cd'io r>— 


Sj jceir pe p aK C . 

♦ FEtT 

g ccri o n— 


4. Fcri. 

_^3[ oe^irn e n qr P , 



and also support the arguments brought forward. Specimens A and B 
are from the two points where the wall enters and emerges from the 
Jewish Cemetery, which were excavated at the end of last season. 
Specimen C is from the wall at the corner of the gate. Specimen D is 
from the tower and bears the same character as the last, except that the 
stones are much larger, and the hewing and setting is of a superior 
class of work. Specimen E is from the nearest point to the pool at 




' . ■ . .° 


.1 .2 


S pzx^iw er yat E 

present excavated, and shows a return to the style of masonry found 
at A, B, and C. (See key plan.) 

The objects discovered consist of potteiy (mostly Jewish), glass, coins, 
and an iron buckle, but these I will leave for Dr. Bliss to deal with. 

Since its commencement, the work has gone on uninterruptedly until 
"Wednesday, 29th May, when it was stopped on account of Dr. Bliss's 
illness, and was not again commenced until the following week. The 
Koorban Bairam holidays were held in that week, so that in any case 
operations would have been suspended for a few days. 


The largest number of men employed at one time was 25, they are all 
from within an area of a few hundred yards of the pool, the majority 
having been employed in the work last season. They are a most efficient 
lot, and go about the work in a workmanlike manner, vmder the able 
management of Yusif, whose intelligence and interest in the work, together 
with his untiring attention to duty, was a matter, I must admit, of 
surprise to me on my first initiation into the mysteries of excavations. 

By the kindness of the Augustinians, our camp was pitched on their 
property, in a charming position overlooking the Valley of Hinnom and 
the Hill of Ophel, with the Mount of Olives as an immediate background, 
the picture being flanked by the walls of the Haram area on the left, and 
on the right by the ragged village of Siloam, scattered irregularly over 
the face of the hill, each little square block, with its tiny dome, rising 
from the solid rock in a rude simplicity, producing a peculiarly natural 
and charming effect. Towards the middle of May, the heat, however, 
became so oppressive as to be almost unbearable, our surroundings 
shutting us off from the wind in every direction. This continued for three 
weeks, the temperature in the tents for three days being at 96° F. It was 
at this time that Dr. Bliss's illness reached its climax, which necessitated 
his removal from camp, but it is to be hoped that ere long he will be 
back in Jerusalem, with a fresh store of health, fit for the completion of 
the season. 

The relations with the owners have been most harmonious, chiefly 
owing to the presence of Ibrahim Effendi, whose judgment and tact iu 
such matters are of much value. 

During the season we had numerous visitors at the works, the eccle- 
siastical orders being strongly represented. 


1. The Muristan.—lw the year 1889 I rejwrted on a large newly dis- 
covered cistern, near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and immediately 
north of the Muristan. My report was published in the Quarterly Statement, 
p. Ill, illustrated with a plan. Afterwards I sent sections, &c., of this 
remarkable building, which were also published in the same volume, 
p. 210. At that time I could not possibly say whether the southern wall 
of the cistern was rock or masonry, as the old cement covered it still. 
I had an idea it might be a rock scarp, and then the second wall might 
have stood on it. But recently I became convinced that it is not a 
rock scarp, but consists of masonry. It came out in this way :— 

In the rebuilding of the former church at the Muristan, just opposite 
this cistern and south of the road there, the foundation work is even now, 
after sixteen months' labour, not yet completed. The southern wall of the 
church goes only from G to 10 feet down into the ground, and has to be 
provided with new foundations. The architect wishes to preserve the old 


wall, and is nuderpinning it bit by bit, but notwithstanding, I fear he will 
finally be obliged to take it off, like those on the other sides — on which 
sides the new building is brought up about 4 feet above the surface— all 
of it new and fine masonry. The deepest point where the rock was 
found is in the north-east of the church, 16^ metres, or about 52 feet, 
below the surface. The architect told me that he found the rock in high 
steps, so that the new masonry for walls or piers stands, in some parts, 
4 to 5 feet higher on the rock than in other jjarts. When they made the 
diggings for the foundations of the northern wall of the church, notwith- 
standing much propping with strong timber, it was feared the mass of 
debris, over which the road runs, might fall down and smash the supports, 
as the ground had broken all along the northern line of the road. Even 
the new Greek building standing over the large cistern had become 
cracked, so that they became afraid lest it also might become injured or 
fall, which certainly would have been the case if the road had actually 
given way. The work was therefore carried on very quickly, and the 
whole trench filled with new masonry, all the propping being left unmoved 
and buried. The danger was then ovei', and no further cracking took 
place. This state of things i^roves that the southern wall of the great 
cistern under the Greek building is not rock, but masonry ; otherwise it 
could not have given way. This foundation for the church is said to 
require about 135,000 cubic feet of new masonry, all underground. 
Although the old entrance on the north side will be built up again with 
the old stones, the new church will have also an entrance in its centre on 
the west side, in the new road there — running from north to south into 
David's street. A few steps will lead up to the threshold of the church 
gate. The cloisters in the court of the former convent are now restored 

2. Church at Deir ez Zeitxiny. — This is an Armenian Convent for 
Women, situated east of the large Armenian Convent of St. James, and 
about 300 feet north of Bab Nebi Daud. In the Ordnance Survey Plan, 
scale 2^^oo, it is marked as " Convent of the Olive Tree." As there is no 
entrance from the south, and in the east are other houses, and in the 
west the large convent, a narrow lane leads to it on the north only, so 
travellers very seldom come to it, unless they make special enquiries for 
it. Hence, in itinerary books it is seldom mentioned. Baedeker says : 
" Near it (the great Armenian Convent) is the Deir es Zeitun or 
Armenian Nunnery, with thirty inmates, which is said to occupy the 
site of the ' house of Annas,' the father-in-law of Caiaphas." In the 
Quarterly Statement^ 1889, p. 9, Dr. Chaplin says : " The house of Annas 
appears to be now included in the precincts of the Armenian Convent, 
and is probably part of the nunnery and girls' school known as Deir ez 
Zeituny." Eobinson mentions the place, but does not describe it. The 
fullest account of it I found in Tobler : " Top. Jerusalem," I., p. 364, et stq. 
(Berlin, 1853). Recently I have examined the place, and found a convent 
of various and irregular buildings, large and small, and of no special 


interest. In its centre is a rather nice church of some interest, and 
connected with it sevei'al sites. It is believed, as already said, to occupy 
the house of Annas, the father-in-law of the high priest Caiaphas. Tradi- 
tion says that when Jesus had been arrested at Gethsamane by the 
servants of the high priest, the}- brought him first to this place, which 
was the house of Annas, and bound him to an olive tree standing in the 
courtyard, and from hence he was taken to the house of Caiaphas further 
south, the site of which is now outside the wall. As I found the church 
of some interest I made a plan, which I enclose. It is inside 27 feet wide 
and 36 feet long, without the apse, divided by four piers into three parts, 
a nave and two narrow aisles, which end in the east in regular apses, the 
middle one much larger than the side ones. At the first glance one is 
struck by the very narrow side aisles, 4 feet 2 inches, whereas the nave 
is more than three times as wide, viz., 13 feet 8 inches. The reason for 
introducing the piers seems to have been that the building might have 
the basilica form, and that windows might be made in the central higher 
part, as round about the lower part were other buildings, and hence no- 
place for making windows. In the walls standing on the arches con- 
necting the piers one with the other, are on each side three windows, so- 
the central part or nave has full light, whereas the aisles are somewhat 
dark, and still more so the rooms attached to the church on the north and 
south. On the south side there are three apartments used as vestry, &c., 
the eastern of which is closed up by a large apse similar to that of the 
nave, but, like it, without any window, having a little side chamber east 
of the small southern apse. At the middle of the northern side there is 
a recess with an altar, which is called the " Prison of Christ " (like that 
at Nebi Daud). And east of this recess is, in the open air, the " olive 
tree," now renewed by branches sprung up from the remains of the old 
tree or its roots. To this tree, according to tradition, Jesus was bound 
when he received from the high priest servant the stroke on his cheek 
It is now surrounded on two sides with a modern wall having many 
windows, so that visitors can see the tree through them. On the other- 
two sides it is 25i'otected by the church walls, where there is at the 
outer corner a stone (Jewish dressed) with a cleft somewhat resembling 
the open mouth of a man, or rather of an animal, which was opened 
when our Lord was here ill-treated, and uttered some praise to the 
Lord and rebuke to the evildoers. One can put his hand in the cleft. 
Perhaps I may here mention that the Greeks have also such a stone on 
one of their convents north of the Khankeh (No. 23 of the Ordnance- 
Survey Plan i^ify-i^), which has this form, and which also cried out when 
the disciples were silent. 

In this church, as in nearly all Armenian churches, the walls are 
covered inside with white and blue glazed tiles, giving a very clean and' 
nice ajjpearance. The entrance is on the west side, and before it is a 
rather large atrium or vestibule 17 feet wide and 51 feet long, and arched, 
without the piers, having formerly in the west three openings, each 
12i feet wide, but now walled up and furnished with windows in the 



centres. Under the floor of this porch is a large cistern, the month of 
which is in the centre, near the south end, where there is now the 
general entrance to the vestibule and to the church. The church, with 
its surrounding buildings, stands nearly free, only towards the south-east 
it is connected with the convent. In the north-western corner of the 
courts and passages going round the church is the entrance to the whole- 
convent and church — a lane outside leading to this gate ; and at the 
north-eastern corner is a gate leading to a vaulted tunnel going in a 

Chuech of the Convent of the Olive Teee. 



^'^^^ *///ZW«Wil'-i:-'^^'^'^ "'^y^M^W/. 

r^'d, ...f... 




north and north-eastern direction, 60 feet long and 20 feet wide, having 
only a few sky-holes on the top of the arching, and no other windows^ 
and hence a very dark place. Under it also there is a cistern. The 
people told me that when the Mohammedans drove away the Franciscans 
from the " Church of Zion," or Nebi Daud, a few of their brethren took 
refuge in this tunnel until they could go out again with some safety. 

In the fifteenth century Felix Fabri' paid a visit to this convent and 
to the church, which at that time was dedicated to the Holv Angels.. 

1 « 

Pal. Pilgrim's Text Society's Trans.," I, 314. 


Armenian monks then dwelt in the place, but 200 years later it was 
inhabited by nuns, or rather widows, as it is now. To Fabri the olive 
tree was shown and the place w^iere our Lord was buflfetted (John xviii, 22). 
Bernardino Amico, a.d. 1596, gives a plan of this church, which shows 
that at that time it was just as now. Marino Sanuto's plan is the first 
showing the Domus Annae, but puts it erroneously east of the Church of 
the Sepulchre, whereas it is south of it. The Ijuilding of this church 
seems to me to be Byzantine, not Crusading. 


April \(ith, 1895. 


By Eev. George Adam Smith, D.D., LL.D. 

It is pretty generally agreed to accept the LXX reading of Joshua 
xii, 18 : " Tlie King of Aphek in Sharon, one." This Sharon Aphek 
seems to be implied, as Wellhausen has pointed out (" Composition of the 
Hexateuch," p. 254) in the addition which Lucian's recension of the 
Greek text makes to 2 Kings xiii, 22 : " And Hazael took the Philistine 
out of his hand from the Western Sea unto Aphek," a description which 
would seem to imply that Aphek lay close up to the foot of the hills on 
the east border of Sharon. Further, Wellhausen ("History," Eng. Ed., 
39) and Eobertson Smith (" Old Test, on the Jewish Church ") have 
argued, I think, successfully, for the identification of this Aphek in 
Sharon with the Aphek from which the Philistines attacked Israel at 
Eben-Ezer (1 Sam. iv) and with the Aphek at which they mustered 
when they marclied to the Battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. xxix, 1, which ought 
to follow on to xxviii, 1-2, leaving xxviii, 3-25, till later). In my " Hist. 
Geography of the Holy Land " I have suggested that the Sharon Aphek 
may be Kakon, at which Napoleon was attacked by Arabs from the 
mountains of Samaria, and which lies opposite the opening of the chief 
pass into Samaria. A careful examination of the modern place- 
names in Sharon has not enabled me to discover, either at Kakon or 
elsewhere, a trace of the name Aphek. But in the list of towns in Pales- 
tine taken by Tliothmes III, No. 66 is Aj)aqn. Maspero takes it for the 
Aphekah of Judah (Josliua xv, 53), and the Rev, Mr. Tomkins also 
assigns it '"'Records of the Past," Second Series, v, 48) to Judah. But 
W. Max MLiller (" Asien v. Europa nac!^ altiigyptischen Denkmiilern," 
p. 161) gives good reasons for supposing that iu these lists of 
Tliothmes III we have no towns south of Ajalon. However that may 
be, Ai)U(pi belongs to a group of towns which are divided between South 
Sharon— 62 Jopjja, 64 Lydda, 65 Ono : and North Sharon— 67 Suqa, 
probal)ly the modern Shuweikeh, 14 miles south-east fi'om Ctesarea, and 


68 Ihnia or Yhm, " where tlie king held a council of war as to which 
route he should take over Carmel " (Max Miiller, p. 160). That is to say, 
Yhm lay on the extreme north of Sharon as Joppa, Lydda, and Ono did 
on the extreme south. Apukn and Suqa must have lain between, and if 
Suqa be, as is probable, Shuweikeh (Tomkins identifies it with the 
Judfean Shuweikeh), then Apuqn must have lain near by Sharon. But 
this is another link added to the evidence for an Ajjhek in Sharon, an 
important military point ; and the only link still wanting to complete the 
argument is some modern trace of the name. W. Max Miiller (160) 
admits that Apuqn is an Aphek, but is unable to suggest which Aphek. 
He adds in a note that the final " n " might be amended to " i." 

Among the sites in Northern Shai'on, which might be the ancient 
Aphek, are, besides Kakon (mentioned above) Baka el Gharbtyeh, a 
village on the plain, with wells and springs to the west and north of it, 
and with the main road passing through it ; and Jett, " evidently an 
ancient site " on a high mound at the edge of the plain, beside the main 
road, near the junction of the latter with the road to Shechem, and about 
2i miles from the road through 'Atttl to the great ])lain. 


By Lieut. -Colonel C. M. Watson, C.M.G., R.E. 

Monsieur Clermont-Ganneau, to whom the Palestine Exploration 
Fund owes so much with regard to the investigation of the antiquities of 
the Holy Land, has recently devoted considerable attention to the exami- 
nation of a passage in the writings of a little-known Arab historian of the 
fourteenth century, wherein is given an account of a stoppage in the flow 
of the waters of Jordan, bearing a remarkable likeness to the miraculous 
arrest of the river at the time of the passage of the Israelites under 

Monsieur Ganneau has been so good as to place his notes at my 
disposal, and believing that they will prove of interest to the readers of 
the Quarterly Statement, I propose to give a resiime' of his observations 
on this interesting question. 

Those who have studied the history of the wars between the Christians 
and Mohammedans in the Holy Land will remember the tierce struggle 
which took place after the last crusade, a struggle that ended in the com- 
plete defeat of the Christians and their expulsion, so far as any power 
was concerned, from the land of Palestine. One of the greatest leaders 
on the side of the Mohammedans was the Sultan Beybars I of Egypt, 
who, during his reign from 1260 to 1277, conducted many success- 
ful campaigns in Syria, and proved a worthy successor of the great Salah 
ed Din, better known as Saladin, the foe of Richard I of England. 



It was during one of the campaigns of Beybars that the event took place 
<to which Monsieur Ganneau has drawn attention) in the year 1266, 


OF THE RIVER IN A. D. 1267. 

.^ / 


.f- / /■ 


y J / 


irJ % 

\sEA OF 

^o Tiborias \ 



^> 1 


^r '^^ 

1 X 



) "^ 






' -w 

Beisari^ K 


^ Approxirruxle 

Tel es Sareiif / 

point of stoppage 

(^Zarethan) ( 





Samaria -^^ 




T7te hficlf^tLj 


of Beybars \ 

Tel Damieh 


(^\darri ) 

Jericho^ \ 

O /f^ 


/■/ *^ (( 


11/ '^ .'i 

Scale of Miles 








when it was important for the Sultan, for strategical reasons, to transport 
an army across the River Jordan. The event is related in the history of 


the Sultcan, written by the Arab chronicler, Nowairi, a copy of whose 
work is preserved in the National Library in Paris. 

Having said so much by way of preface, I will now epitomise Monsieur 
Ganneaii's notes upon the subject. 

A question which has always been discussed with much interest by 
commentators on the Book of Joshua, is the passage of the Hebrews, 
■dry shod, across the Jordan, and anything that can throw light upon the 
miraculous stoppage of the river in its onward flow to the Dead Sea 
must naturally call for serious attention. According to the Biblical 
account of the entry of the children of Israel into the Promised Land, 
what took place was as follows : — After the death of Moses in the land 
of Moab, Joshua took command of the Israelites, and, by command of 
Jehovah, prepared to lead the host across Jordan into the plains of Jericho. 
The river was at the time in full flood (" for Jordan overfloweth all his 
banks all the time of harvest," Joshua iii, 15), thus adding to the wonder- 
ful nature of the event. At the command of Joshua, as directed by God, 
the priests, carrying the ark, advanced into the rivei-, which, when their 
feet touched it, divided to give them passage, the water below flowing 
towards the Dead Sea, while the water above rose in a heaj) a great way 
ofi", at Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan. All Israel then marched 
■over past the ark, the bearers of which stood in the empty bed of Jordan 
until all had gone over safely. The passage completed, the bearers of the 
ark also followed ; Joshua then caused twelve stones to be taken from 
the bed of the river to be set up to commemoi'ate the passage, and also set 
up twelve stones in the midst of the river at the place where the bearers 
of the ark stood. 

Numerous explanations have been given of the Biblical story. Some 
have tried to reduce it to less marvellous proj^ortions, and have suggested 
that there may have been a fortunate diminution in the amount of water 
in the Jordan at the time of the passage. Josephus, in his " Antiquities 
of the Jews," apparently tried to diminish the mii'aculous nature of the 
event, perhaps to make the story more easy of acceptance by Roman and 
Greek readers of his history ; while some modern critics have gone so far 
as to suggest that the crossing may^have been eff'ected by means of an 
ordinary ford. But the Biblical account is perfectly clear that the Jordan 
was in full flood and overflowing its banks, a time when, as can still be 
ascertained from an examination of the river, all the fords are impassable. 

It cannot be questioned but that the author of the book of Joshua 
speaks of an absolute stoppage of the river at the time of its full height, 
and to explain how this could have occurred it has been suggested that 
the waters were obstructed by some physical obstacle, and that the 
miracle consisted in this obstruction having taken place at the actual 
moment when the Israelites had to cross the Jordan. But, hitherto, this 
idea has been purely hypothetical, based on facts known to have happened 
with regard to other rivers, but not known ever to have taken place in 
the course of the Jordan. If, however, it can be shown that such a 
stoppage has actually occurred, within historic times, in the case of the 


Jordan itself, the conjecture would naturally assume a high degree of 
probability. And it is just such a stoppage which is described in the 
writings of the Arab historian, Nowairi, as having been observed in the 
thirteenth century of oiu* present era. 

The chronicler relates that in the year of the Hegira, 664, correspond- 
ing to A.D. 1266, the Sultan Beybars caused a bridge to be built across 
Jordan to facilitate the strategic movements of his army. The Arabic 
text of the passage in the manuscript i-uns as follows : — 

cLy<\^ j^:>- 'ij\i*^ ri-> 
^ j^j» ^^Ux-' jl^ j^J ^;^1 J^-*>^ jry-"^^ ^^ ;^(lkLJl 1^^ 

i^_jji ,ju ^^^-!^ (n^j c)J3J i'^JjJl ^^.;^-i_^ ^Uji jj,A*^r^ ^^\ 

\yt..*.:^t ( jU-a^l ^j^i=^^ ij^^!^'-> ^^^'* J'>=^J c;:' SA>si^^ 

aJ.Uj: l::--L<\^" Uii (^Uil^J^ Aj ^^-^ U ^^Li ^jj-^ ^>A\ 

(jlxJs}) jsxj^i cSiJ JiJ'} j*i& jU^j j»-,^i^ (^.<3l) ^CU c3JJJ 

^JLs- a>x.yl.n Lo ^-kiijl 1^^^-^^ '^^-'^ ^^-*— • J^-^ t^L-' J^'V^ c;"* 

j^iaJ^^ i^^io^ uW^ ^^jix^^^j ^j^ji^ii a:...c ^ L,.' jLu ^ 

Jj^\ lyUj AjjUjII i^X^b jJ^ ^JlJlL ^j^ ^^>^JJ '^'^^ c!^^' 


,.,^ U^ -.-Lii-'L „w!b l.jUi ,.C^!i U, U,c ,,AS^ L.:^ ^ ^is. 

tUjUvH .^lA;^J S",U>t!l (c:->^J^ i^r.<) ci-j'^^yj cJIa,c ^1^ U U!^ J-^^^» 

Some of the words in the Arabic MSS. of Nowairi are rather obscure, 
in consequence of the absence of diacritical points or apparent mistakes 
in writing, and in the above copy of it the readings of these, as proposed 
by Monsieur Ganneau, are given in brackets after the words which are 
thus doubtful. The translation of the story runs thus : — 

" Constmction of the Bridge of Damieh. 

" In the month of Jumad the First, in the year 664, the Sultan issued 
orders for the building of a bridge over the River Jordan. It is a river 
which flows through the low-lying valley of Syria, which is called the 
Sharieh. The bridge is in the neighbouihood of Damieh, between it 
and Kurawa, and there happened in connection with it a wonderful 
thing, the like of which was never heard of. The Sultan charged the 
Emir Jamal ed Din ibn Nahar with the erection of the bridge, and com- 
manded it to be made with five arches. Ofticials were assembled for the 
purpose, and amongst them the Emir Bfidr ed Din Mohammed ibn Eahal, 
the Governor of Nablus. They obtained supplies, collected workmen, and 
erected the bridge as commanded by the Sultan. AVhen it was comjileted 
and the j^eople were dispersed, part of the piers gave way. The Sultan 
was greatly vexed and blamed the builders, and sent them back to repair 
the damage. They found the task very difficult, owing to the rise of the 
waters and the strength of the current. But in the night preceding 
the dawn of the 17th of the month Rabi the First of the year 666 
(8th December, a.d. 1267), the water of the river ceased to flow, so that 
none remained in its bed. The peojale hurried and kindled numerous 
fires and cressets, and seized the opportunity ofl"ered by the occurrence. 
They remedied the defects in the piers and strengthened them, and 
effected repairs which would otherwise have been impossible. They then 
despatched mounted men to ascertain the nature of the event that had 
occurred. The riders urged their horses and found that a lofty mound 
(Kabar) which overlooked the river on the west had fallen into it and 
dammed it up. A " Kabar " resembles a hill, but is not actually a hill, 
for water will (piickly disintegrate it like into mud. The water was held 



up, and had spread itself over the valley above the dam. The messengers 
returned with this explanation, and the water was arrested from midnight 
nntil the fourth hour of the day. Then the water prevailed upon the 
dam and broke it up. The water flowed down in a body equal in depth 
to the length of a lance, but made no impression upon the building owing 
to the strength given it. The water carried away the apparatus used in 
the work of repairs. 

"The occurrence is one of the most wonderful of events, and the 
bridge is in existence to this day." ' 

This is the story related by Nowairi, and, considering what a striking 
resemblance it bears to the occurrence chronicled in the Book of Joshua, 
it appears strange that no one, from Quatremere downwards, seems to 
have thought of comparing them with one another. Nowairi's account 
bears the evidence of truth on the face of it. It is not at all likely that 
he had in his mind the miracle related in the Bible, of which he probably 
had never heard, nor does he claim any miraculous character for the 
occurrence, which he might perhaps have felt inclined to do, as the stop- 
page of the Jordan rescued the Sultan from a very awkward difficulty. 
In fact, for Nowairi the event was simply matter of history, a very 
•exti-aordinary circumstance, but not outside the bounds of natural pheno- 
mena. And the explanation he gives is fully corroborated by the 
■configuration of the valley of the Jordan as it exists at the present time. 

In order clearly to understand the narrative, it is necessary, in the first 
place, to fix, if ])ossible, the position of the two localities referred to by 
Nowairi, and to ascertain the site of the bridge built by order of the 
Sultan Beybars. The historian says that the bridge was situated between 
Damieh and a second locality, the name of which is not clear in the Arabic 
MSS. In fact, Quatremere appears to have regarded the latter word as 
illegible. Damieh is found without difficulty, as on the east bank of 
.Jordan, near the spot Avhere the Wady Zerka joins the latter, there still 
•exists a mound called Tell Damieh, where are the remains of an ancient 
town, which is, without doubt, the Damieh referred to by Nowairi. The 
other place named by him is not so easy to find, and it is not stated clearly 
whether it was on the same bank as Damieh or at the further end of the 
bridge on the west bank of the river, but it is probable the latter is 
intended, as it is not likely that the historian wiwhed to indicate that the 
bridge was between two places on the same bank. And on the west bank, 
just opposite Damieh, there is a locality which bears the name of Karawa, 
a name that at present is rather applied to a district than to a fixed 
point. But in the Middle Ages, according to the testimony of the Arab 
geogra})her Yakut, there was formerly on the banks of the Jordan a 
market town named Karawa, which was in the centre of a district whei'e 

■ The above English trausktion was kindly made by Mr. H. C. Kay, and is 
practically identical with the French translation made by Monsieur Ganneau. 
Mr. Kay lias pointed out that anotlier ti-anslation of the passaj^e in French is 
given in Quartrcniere's " Ilistoirc des Sultans Mauduks," vol. ii, p. 26. 


the sugar cane was largely cultivated. It was probably the same as the 
ancient town Corea, which is mentioned by .Josephus in the account of 
Vespasian's march to Jerusalem, as being one day's journey distant from 

Jericho.' The Arabic name is written i_5^^ Js and \^\y . Comparing 
this word with the word in the manuscript of Nowairi, it will be seen 
that it is only necessary to add the points of the letter j to obtain the 
form of the word Karawa as it is written once in Yakut, and as it is also 
written at the present day. An examination of the ground leads to the 
same conclusion, as near the place where the Wady Zerka joins the bed 
of the Jordan, there is now an important ford on the road of communica- 
tion between Nablus, west of the river, and the ancient city of Salt to 
the east of Jordan. At a short distance above this ford are the remains 
of an old bridge, which have been regarded by some as Roman, while 
others have considered it to have been built by the Arabs or the Christian 
crusaders. There appears, however, to be little doubt that this was the 
very bridge erected in a.d. 1266 by command of the Sultan Beybars, in 
connection with which occuired the remarkable phenomenon described by 
Nowairi. It is much to be desired that some explorer would make a more 
minute examination of the remains of the bridge, and possibly some 
inscription might be found similar to that upon the bridge built by the 
same Sultan Beybars at Lydda, or at least one of the lions passant, the 
badge of the Sultan, usually sculptured on buildings erected by his orders. 
Now let us turn to the physical character of the phenomenon of the 
stoppjige of the river which recalls so forcibly the Bible narrative 
According to the statement in Nowairi, the damming up of the Jordan 
took place at a time when it was in full flood, just as at the time of the 
passage of the Israelites it was also in full flood. But these were not at 
the same period of the year. In the Arab story the date of the event 
was the 8th December, a time of year when the winter rains had com- 
menced and caused the Jordan and its tributaries to swell. In the 
account in the Book of Joshua, the stoppage took place in the time of 
harvest, which, in this region, where a tropical temperature prevails, is 
in the month of April or even in March, when the melting of the snows 
of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon also causes a swelling of the Jordan. It 
is clear, therefore, that on both occasions, although not at the same 
time of year, the Jordan must have been, as stated, in full flood, and 
therefore the same physical cause would act. To understand it, it is 
necessary to consider the nature of the Jordan valley, which has a very 
unique character. Eising at the foot of the snowy Hernion, the Jordan 
descends rapidly to the lake now called Huleh, anciently known as the 
Waters of Merom, the surface of which is about 7 feet above the 
level of the Mediterranean. Thence it descends rapidly for a distance 
of 11 miles to the Sea of Galilee, 682 feet below sea level, leaving which 
it falls deeper and deeper in its course of 80 miles to the Dead Sea, and 

' Josephus' " Wars of the Jews," Hook IV, chapter viii. 

s 2 


is there no less than 1,290 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, a 
depression without parallel elsewhere on the surface of the globe. This 
remarkable fissure in the earth's surface, possibly due to volcanic action 
in prehistoric times, may, in past ages, have formed a long and narrow 
inland sea, which has now disappeared, leaving only the lakes of Huleh 
and Galilee and the Dead Sea, and the traces of its existence in the 
gypseous marla strongly impregnated with salt, of which the bed of the 
River Jordan is composed. In this thick deposit of marl the river has 
gradually hollowed out its present bed, whereon it deposits, year by year, 
a stratum of yellowish alluvium, quite distinct from the marl deposits 
forming the bed of the ancient sea. The bed of the river, properly so 
called, is practically a narrow winding trench, the line of which frequently 
alters in consequence of the friable nature of the soil. In a district 
east of Beisan, and from 15 to 20 miles south of the Sea of Galilee, the 
river passes through what might be described as a gorge between steep 
banks of marl, sometimes nearly perpendicular, which, on the right or 
left bank, exceed 150 feet in height. These marly banks are frequently 
undermined by the water and fall in, making it dangerous to approach 
the river in times of flood. 

Having regard to the geological formation described above, it is easy 
to understand what happened in the time of Beybars, as related by the 
Arab historian. The Kabar, or hill of marl, undermined by the action 
of the river, had fallen into it and completely obstructed the passage of 
the water for a certain time. The water thus dammed up accunudated 
for some hours, until, by its weight, it overcame the marl obstruction 
and swept it away. The point indicated above, east of Beisan, and about 
25 miles above Damieh, is just the place where such an accident would 
l)e most likely to occur. 

The narrative in the Book of Joshua states that the damming of the 
Jordan in the case of the passage of the Israelites took place at a point 
a long distance above the city called Adam, which there can be little 
doubt was the same as Damieh. The Arabs frequently suppress the 
initial vowel in the ancient names of Hebrew places, which will explain 
llie change in the spelling of this name. 

It is interesting to observe that it was a considerable distance above 
the same place, where the landslip occurred, which Nowairi has described 
in his history. And it is at the same part of the course of the river 
where landslii)s occur at the present day, one of which might, if on a 
sufficiently large scale, again dam up the Jordan and let it run oif into 
the Dead Sea, leaving the bed dry for a certain time. Indeed it may, 
and possibly has happened at other times, and not have been recorded, 
in consequence of not being connected with an important event, such as 
the passage of the Israelites or the building of the bridge of Beybars. 

In order to illustrate Monsieur Ganneau's very interesting remarks, 
I have appended a small map of the course of the Jordan, upon which 
are marked the various places which have been mentioned. Headers who 
are jirovided with the excellent maps of Palestine issued by the 


Palestine Exploration Fund, will be able to examine the question more 

There is another point which appears to me worth noticing-. 
Tell es Sarem, a mound about 3 miles south of Beisan, and the same 
distance west of the Jordan, has been identified as the site of the ancient 
Zarethan, and it is in the vicinity of the marl gorge through which the 
river flows. If this identification is correct it would add still greater 
force to the conclusions of Monsieur Ganneau. If the passage in the 
third chapter of Joshua is read : " The waters which came down from 
above were dammed up beside Zarethan, that is far above the city 
Adam," the place thus described would correspond exactly with the 
place where the temporary dam was formed in the time of the Sultan 
Beybars. It is for Hebrew scholars to consider whether the verse might 
be thus translated. 


By Eev. W. F. Birch. 

Perseverance is irresistible, while swiftness is not often accompanied 
by accuracy. Careful research in Palestine, begun by Eobinson, has at 
last brought us near to the discovery of the sepulchres of David. Many 
will be extremely disappointed if the present excavation work at 
Jerusalem does not end the dispute as to the correct site of the City of 
David, by the actiial discovery of the long-lost tomb of David. 

As soon as Dr. Bliss turns the southern extremity of Ophel and 
begins to follow the wall of Jerusalem northward towards the Virgin's 
Fount, he will have two most important points to settle. On his right 
hand there will be Schick's aqueduct {Quarterly Statement, 1889, p. 35 ; 
1891, p. 18) to be traced to Gihon (Virgin's Fount), and on the way to it 
he ought to alight on the old pool (Is. xxii, 11), which possibly may 
be the perplexing "pool that was made" (Neh. iii, 16). On his left 
hand, before reaching this pool, he will pass "over against" (i.e., if 
the rock was bare, in sight of) the sepulchres of David (Neh. iii, 16). It 
is much to be desired that ample funds should be at once forthcoming, to 
enable Dr. Bliss to make a successful dash at the magnificent catacombs 
of Israel's greatest and wisest king. He must, in due course, certainly 
pass in front of them, and not improbably very near to them. All that 
is practicable ought to be done to find this grand treasure. The present 
golden opportunity of making such a splendid discovery must not be lost 
for the want of a few hundred pounds, as such a good chance may not 
occur again for years. 

Let me therefore earnestly appeal for aid to the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, that it may this year gain a glorious victory in its topographical 
campaign. The contest raging when I entered the lists 18 years ago, has 
been long, as well as keenly and obstinately maintained, on the one side 


by tradition and numbers, on the other by patient investigation. The 
small body of the Ophelites, like David's three mighty men after the fall 
of Zion, makes little account of the numerical superiority of its 
opponents. Our constant watchword is : " No peace with error." We 
rely on sound consistent Biblical evidence, and are as thoroughly con- 
vinced that Ophel is the site of the Eoyal Sepulchres, as we should be if 
amid its labyrinthine recesses we had already actually gazed on David's 
empty locuhts and threaded the maze to Solomon's costly rock-hewn house 
where he lies in glory ; or had examined Asa's sarcophagus, " which was 
iilled with sweet odours .... prepared by the apothecaries' art," and 
explored the sepulchral chambers of venerable Jehoiada, pater patrice, or 
of Jehoshaphat and other honoured kings of Judah. It remains for 
Dr. Bliss to find and describe these monuments of ancient Jerusalem. 

The desired discovery seems to me practicable enough. Money, 
however, is necessary for carrying on the excavations. Surely a Bible- 
reading land will not grudge it ; while, further, the valuable experience 
gained by Dr. Bliss in his past work well qualifies him to turn the right 
stone and discover the entrance to the right tomb. 

Meanwhile, if need be, let me encourage to this task our exj^lorer of 
happy name, and try to win some interested waverers' money for the 
work, by showing that Mi-. Samuel Bergheim's proposed (April Quarterly 
Statement, p. 120) stronghold of Zion at the north-western part of 
Jerusalem is only a castle in the air, and by pointing out once more that 
the trustworthy evidence for the site of the City and Sepulchres of 
David cannot possibly admit of any other site than one on Ophel 
(so called). See Quarterlij Statement, 1885, pp. 100, 208 ; 1886, pp. 26, 
152 ; 1888, p. 42 ; 1890, p. 200 ; 1893, pp. 70, 324 ; 1894, 282, &c. 

Lest any should despise the Ophelites because they are few, let me 
add that we are a growing party. Indeed, since 1879 some notable 
recruits have dared to join us, coming over Jordan in the first month. 
Besides, we have excellent testimonials even from opponents, e.g. : — 

(1) Sir Charles Warren in 1871 (" Jerusalem Eecovered," p. 303) said : 
" The principal difficulty I find is, that in the Book of Nehemiah the 
City of David, the House of David, and the Sepulchres of David, all 
appear to be on the south-eastern side of the hill of Ophel, near the 
Virgin's Fount." 

(2) Professor Eobertson Smith ("Jerusalem," "Encycl. Brit") observed : 
"A third view places the City of David on the southern part of the 
Temple Hill, and this opinion is not only confirmed by the oldest post- 
Biblical traditions, but is the only view that does justice to the language 
of the Old Testament." 

To pass over favourable remarks from Thrupji, Lewin, Fergusson, and 
Major Conder, I come to Sir C!harles Wilson. 

(3) He says {Quarterlij Statement, 1893, p. 325) on Neli. iii, 16 : "This 
passage, when taken with the context, seems in itself quite sufficient to 
set at rest the question of the ))Ositiou (on Ophel) of the City of David, 
of the sepulchres of the kings, and, constMiuently of Zion ; all which 


could not be mentioned after Siloah, if })laceil where modern tradition 
has located them." 

With such splendid certificates in black and white, why should we 
Ophelites hide our heads, as if we were detected imposters ? We know 
that we speak sober truth, and do not wish opponents to be silent, as the 
more they say {e.g., Mr. Bergheim's fresh theory) the worse their case is 
seen to be. Therefore I say, Give ! Excavate ! and the Bellum Topo- 
graphicum will end. 

" Hsec certamina tanta 
Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescent." 


ZiON NOT AT "Goliath's Castle." 

By Eev, W. F. Birch, 

As I invited {Quarterly Statement, 1883, p. 151) any one to upset " Zion 
on Ophel," let me point out how Mr. Samuel Bergheim's " fresh theory " 
utterly fails. 

It ought to be premised that in the controversy about Old-Testament 
Jerusalem, the quality of the evidence is of more value than the 
quantity. One verse of the Bible is better than a page of Josephus or a 
tome of Jerome. 

Mr. Bergheim accepts on p. 120 (above) the A, B, C, of Jerusalem 
topography by admitting that the three terms Zion, the City of David, 
and the stronghold, are equivalent. That they are such is clear from 
the Bible (1894, p. 282), and ought to be cheerfully admitted, but is often 

The locality to which the most reliable evidence assigns even but one 
of these three terms ought to be the right site. 

I have pointed out repeatedly (1) that in the Bible Ophel (so called) 
is refen-ed to as the site of the City of David, of the House of David, 
of the Sepulchres of David, which were in the City of David ; and 
(2) that the Akra of Josephus, which was the Akra of the Maccabees, 
which was the City of David of the Bible, is consistently placed on 

Mr. Bergheim makes no attempt to meet these practical demonstra- 
tions. He could not wisely do so, I know well that the Ophel position 
is impregnable, and that the attempt would be useless. 

Error, however, has as many lives as a cat, and must be met as often 
as it reappears. 

I have therefore to show that what Mr. Bergheim alleges in support 
of his fresh theory that Zion was at the north-west portion of Jerusalem, 
and more precisely at Goliath's Castle, carries no weight at all, or at least 
not enough to prove his case. 


(1) If existing names are to settle the question, then as the south- 
west hill has been called Zion for the last 15 centuries, there is no place 
whatever for discussion. Names, however, do not settle the question. 

(2) Mr. Bergheim says : " We are distinctly told :— 

" (2) That this Zion was the highest of all the hills of or in Jeru- 
" (3) That Zion was called the Upper City." 

He adds that his site is actually the highest point in the city. 
The conclusion, then, would seem to be that his site must be Zion. 

It is not, however, stated luho dvitinctly asserts (2) and (3). I venture 
to say that here is some misapprehension ; and that neither the Bible, 
nor Josephus, nor anyone whose testimony is worth anything, makes any 
such distinct statement. 

I presume Josephus has been misunderstood. He says that the 
Upper City (the south-west hill) was higher than the Lower City, but 
Mr. Bei-gheim is pleading for the north-west hill, a different place 
altogether, so that this statement of Josephus does not help Goliath's 
Castle to be Zion. 

Again, if Josephus, who never uses the term Zion, means (as I 
understand him) that the (fjpoipiov, so called by David, on the south- 
west hill, was the " stronghold," and if the statement were true (which 
it is not), it would then be the south-west hill that was Zion and not the 
north-west hill at all. Thus neither (2) nor (3) affords any support for 
the " Goliath's Castle " site, which has nothing to do with the south-west 
hill referred to by Josephus in both cases. 

Further, it is stated (p. 121) that Zion is described as occupying the 
north and also north-west portion of the city. The authority is not 
named by Mr. Bergheim, and is unknown to me. I suspect that here 
also is some mistake. The north side in Psalm xlviii, 2, hardly bears out 
this interpretation {(^uarterhj Statement, 1888, p. 44). 

It has already been shown (1886, p. 26) that the Maccabsean Akra 
was on Ophel, and not near the Church of the Sepulchre, so that to place 
the Sepulchres of David at that church is simply a freak of fancy and 
not according to any sound evidence. 

A footnote on p. 122 rightly observes that the account of Nehemiah's 
Wall is orderly, and that the House of the Mighty, the Sepulchres of 
David, and the pool that was made were comparatively contiguous. It 
is utterly imi)ossible, however, to fit them in near the north-west portion 
of Jerusalem, and Mr. Bergheim makes no attempt to do so. They were 
all towards the south-east. 

I welcome the deep interest thus manifested by Mr. Bergheim in the 
position of the City of David. It is no fault of his if an incorrect site 
cannot bear investigation, and if a north-west site shares the fate that 
has befallen other wrong sites and must befall every site except the true 
one on Ophel (so called). 




By Rev. W. Ewing. 

Edited !>// A. (t. Wright, Esq., of Aberdeen, and A. Souter, Esq., M.A., 

of Cains College, Cambridge. 

{Continued from p. 160.) 

No. 117. This stone is just over the lintel of the "Kasr." The lintel 
itself is part of a sarcophagus said by the Sheikh of the village to hav(» 
once contained treasun;. (= Wadd., 2419.) Rimet el Luhf. 

AYT"y)ICNT£lce£<:ci9)AHTAAoX (xit noiWCt N 
ec0AHcetvCTPAT/HCNVNdoyfleftS>r€imrA c^ o 

■OYT(i;kAlHe'^'tHlT^o^«VN KpoNoNaAPA»'CZl 
4c i. A/ HKNTHPA^KeNT AC€ Y flA I M ° ^'AC T<K NWC AN 

KeXeo'Tcn'os' ttivvto^ jlic cci/iimo tic?,' evi "^wpw 

tiinic Kui TeKseaai (piXij t' aXo-^io eiroinffev, 

I'ljor Yl\oi>T)j'i Kai eTTCinjij Ueptrec/ioi'ciij, 

cfrOXij^- vK (TTpaTii]^, Nt/i' c' oi'CGj/[oj9 ei/iit rdc^o^' 

OvTw Kci) /Lieive/ULt voXvv ')(ji6vov ' \jEi\ h' upa Kb 0?, 

Ce^cifOji' -p]pd(rKOVT(i<f, evdaifiova^., TCKVioaaurcfg 

" Celestinus the jirudent built me on this spot ; for himself, his 
children and his dear spouse he made me, a temple to Plutus and dread 
Persephone ; they are of a noble band. But now I am the tomb of 
no one. So may I long remain. Yet if it must e'en be, let me receive 
them when they grow old, full of years and happiness, and leaving their 
offspring on the earth." 

Waddington gives the following note : the words e'o-0X^? eV arpari^s 
perhaps indicate that Celestinus was a Christian. This epitajjh is similar 
to that in the Anthologia Palatina, VII, 228, which runs : 

Ai'T/i' Kdi reKccrrm 'ivraiki re ri'fi/3oi> LCcif.iei' 

^ SvCpoTuoi'. oi'TTw r/ ovcei'd eifii racpo^' 

oinw h(ti iicii>(ti/[(i TToXvi' ■^pot'oi'. ei c' upa K(u. Set 

r ( trai mil' cu eiioi toi'v 

irpoTcpovi Trporcpovi 



No. 118. This stone is uow the keystone of an arch over a doorway. 


o r 

The inscription is on an incomplete shield shaped stone, tlie letters 
being separated by the arms of a cross. 

No. 119. In garden. (^ Wadd., :i421.) Rimet el Luhf. 

n .- 



5" (u.'^ 

— WTTd-pOv ftlKOtOHO^- VKTllaUTO 

No. 120. In cellar. v= Wadd., 2418.) Ei'met el Luhf. 

rov c7?-(tiij(T(i> r)ji' Oupica 

Waddington reads Moe'Xe/xoy, which is probably right, cj). MoaUpoi. 
Moslenujs apparently belonged to Sia (2a'a), a village near Canatha, 
(see ours from this place, 3') ft'.). 

No. 121. In ;i garden in the village. Rimet el Luiif. 


No inscription. A large ornamental stone with the figure of a man 
in armour holding a shield carved on it. The figure seems intended to 
represent a Roman soldier. The upper part of the stone on which was 
the head could not be seen. 

No. 122. In letters very deeply cut, over old door. (=: Wadd., 2424, 
and C. I. L., iii, 123.) Rimet el Luhf. 



•^^LuAlAPuN /^ 



didus vetera- 

nus exfdup- 

l(icario) Val(eriae) droni(e(lariorum). 

Julius C/'andidus veteran, formerly soldier on douLle i)ay of the 
Valerian camel-corps (understand alae). 

No. 123. On side of street. Rimet el Ldiif. 


^AMePoYToYTA (p^ 
)A/\OYii[iYeo / 


;:: >LATocef/€KA > ^ 

Letters in relief 2i inches in length. 

'Afiepov Tou Ta(p- 
aXou le[_pjeii^- o'l- 

/HUTO'i fl'CKa 


No. 124. Beside Medafeh. Rimet el Luhf. 



No. 125. Over window on roof. Rimet el Luhf. 


Ropvrfi Qaifiov 

No. ]26. In floor of Medfifeh. Rimet el Luhf. 

A wheel with four spokes, and the A on one side, the O on the other. 
See No. 26. On the right we have the monogram of Jesus Christ, XpiicTTos). 

No. 127. (=Wadd., 2391.) Murduk. 

IhNlhC ^€3- 

Fragment of a metrical inscription. 

]s^ TG (T(tO(pl)(C)'. II 

fic^'^japov .... II 

ai/^nTTdV/ia fic/ifTTOV 
ycwTT^oi'nfv .... II 



No. 1 28. In floor of shed, Murduk. 


cKTijamo Ma<^p/o^ 'A'^/piTrm- 
I'ov TOO KUi 'O'ye^eXoi' /iCTrt 
iice\(pwi' e^ eiciicv Ka^iciTivi' 


stone liiis Krit^uTO)!' and i7pajcoor. Something iw missing at the 
begiuuiug where tlie stone has been broken, perhaps . . . Xavddvei. 

"Life passes impercejjtibly away (?). The possessor was Magnus, 
sou of Agrippinus, who was also called Ogedelos, along with his brothers ; 
thev with their own labour erected this monument." 

No. l:i!t. In Sheikh's Medafeh. Murduk. 



' ' r ' 

'^/fiafl/UdTtKOi- T6 yUtf^al^? KCtt 

OVK eOeXivu Kei(T6a\^i ')(^u>pls' 7ra~ptrov re (pi'Xici' tc 
oi ^piOTov awTrip\_n f^jeveaOai 

Tiie stone has been broken in half on the light hand side, and the 
other part is missing. On the right was probably Q. corresjjonding to tlie 
A on the left. This is apparently two elegiac distichs. 

No. 130. In floor of court. Murduk. 

leYH £ 


Fragment of a larger stone. Nothing can be made of it. 


No. 131. In old building. Murduk. 

2. ^ 11. i-<r 

[r]o>7;[ff]G [eX'Si')]/ 

No. 132. In old building. MuRDUK. 





fos a- 

9 *" 


2 aX\o»^. 

Two inscriptions on same stone. That on the left is not complete. 

No. 133. Over door of Sheikh's Medafeh. (= Wadd., 2330.) 

' YTl€Pf«.THPIACAYToi(P4TFAlWoy©. 
I, A4piAN0KM/C-te6-ToYKVF<ovAlA€> 

I <^ PoYHoiNioYfUiAHH^YccAfteAToYrAYToy 


'\V("/» fTW7iji>i'(iy Aj''-ov/j(((7o/>os) T i)di\ji\i'ov 
'Ai^/ndi'ov Kr((W(r//JOv) i:r/i(f((TTor») to?' kv/)iou, But 
' \aovardi'oi< '()(T(iic\ot>, Qin'juov Bara- 
pov, Monn'oi' X\f(/</<<'o('v, 2«/<(«toi' Vcivtoi', 

ft V ' 

Qaijiiot' \(>iiii>i', , iroi'y ij , 

a^lopavoixovvTu^ M. Ov\~i(H' fhiXnnriKoo 

Kanawat is the ancient Canatha. It formed part of the province of 
Syria till 295 A.D., :ni<l then was incorporated in Arabia. The date of the 



inscription is 104-105 ad. The names preceding the word trovs have 
been erased. There is no otlier mention of an dyopavojxos (aedilis) in the; 
inscriptions of the Hauran. 

No. 134. Raised letters in front of ol<l temple. (= Wadd., 2.340.) 
Kan A WAT 

See No. 133. 

:/CTa;6kt6o N 

T<t(o9) 'Al'TlOX^O^ 

fievo^ An fie- 

'YJ^O'TW t/L TU.1l' 

ifiijwi' uven- 

No. 134a. On doorway of Serai at Kanawat. (= Wadd , 2362 



which is 

VTroari TaKJiz th kar ijy\<i ijrrjj.ei'o^ ct~ofTTo\tKos! iiuou 06k,cs; 

VTroTCTdKrat o K(ntj~/\(nauevo's aTromuXtKov yfiwu 6u:K0<i, 


Nos. 135-136. (Wadd., 2365.) Sia'. Much damage has been done 
recently to sculpture and inscriptions on this picturesque hill. 

(STTi (3(tcn\Lwi- jLic^/aXov ' A'^/l^piTTTra (ptXoKd^iaapo^ cvtrijiuvv (/)i\opu</[i(ii- 
ou Toi> eK (iacriKews jiie<^/d\\ov 'A^/atTTTraJ (f)i\oKtiifT<iiiov cvacjiou<^' ku^i cjii- 
\opi"f((ii'oi> 'A(/)apct'9 ci7re^\ev6epo<f /caJj 'AypiTTTrav luov ai'c'9tj\_icjai'. 

The date is between 37 a.d. and 44 a.d. Sia' is close by Canatha, a 
little to the south of it, and like it was in Syria till 295 a.d. (cf. above 
and Wadd.), and thereafter in Arabia. The ancient name was 2e/u (see 
Xo. 120). This inscription is important as giving the complete titles of 
the two Agrippas. 

No. 137. (Wadd., 2369.) Sia'. 


The stone contains only this one word, having been broken since 
Waddington saw it, who reads : 

MaXct'x^aOo'f (^Mo)onpoi' 

Nos. 138-139. (Wadd., 2368.) Sia'. 

MaXci'^aOus- Ai'[rrJo(» rar Moan poi'. 
l"or foiin Avaov, see No. 61, note. 



No. 140. Si a'. 


The inscription is much mutilated and quite indecipherable. 

No. 141. Sia'. 

No inscription. 

No. 142. Sia'. 


No. 143. Sia'. 


No. 144. Sia'. 





Nos. 145-146. Scul])ture of head (from front and back). Found in 
.rarden, but now in the of the Sheikh. El Kufr. 

No. 147. On street. El Kufh. 



/oi /r 

No. 148. In MedMeh. (= Wadd., 2294.) El KuFR. 

C6 hiM/^tiMocTiPdne 



Mptw to e7ro\e'/i[<-] 

0-61' Md^ifio'i Trpore{KTWf)) t- 

Tuifi') (7' ''^ i* a\aOoi' t'KT[_i- 

ffci' ti/ (e)T(c)« vo// (?) «' lfc(cKTiivi'0<!) 

The date is not certain, but is reckoned by the provincial era. The 
date of Nos. 150, 151, 153, is by the era of Bustra, being all after 295 a.d. 



No. 149 shows that El Kufr was originally iu Syria, but it was incor- 
porated in Arabia after 295 a.d. 

The word dXadov or craXadov is found also iu Wadd., No. 2358, but ia 

No. 1 49. House wall in street. El Kufr. Same as No. 185: Wadd., 2071. 

AVt-o Kf/vropciKAi 

rreroyc love Y/i h koJ 

AinoKpaTopffi K«/o-[n/j(T( M. Av/)>jXt'-'\ 
(I' 'Ai'rwi'eifit.' k\_(u 

. . 26/3(rt(TT0ts) TOtV K.Vf)l'o\_{^- ewl WcipTt'oV Ov-'] 

ijpov 7rpF(Tft(^evTou^ 2c/3(f(fTTdr) tii'[^rif7Tp(^(iTi'j'yov) e(pe(TrwTO'i^ 
YleTOVffi'ou Evci'jfio\^i' 

The name of Connuodus, who reigned along with Marcus Aurelius 
from 176-180 a.d., has been erased from the inscription. He was one of 
the emperors who were " damnati memoriae." Martins Varus governed 
Syria from 175 to 178. 

No. 150. In wall. El Kufr. 

EKTt'jffOl 6 oiKo{<-) T[o]r/ [(^COyJ oi»To(s) ('tTTO OsfieXlOV 

fcV /i(?y)i'(t) 'EcTrrcju/Bpt'ov ;\;/Jo(j'ofs) 6.' ii'{ctkTtu<i'os:) l'tov^ X[/c' 

Cf. Wadd., 2028. The date is 720 a.d. See No. 148. 

The latest dated inscription in Waddington is of the date 665 a.d. 
(No. 1997). These Christian inscriptions of a later date than the 
Mohammedan conquest come all from the Eastern j^art of the province 
near the desert. 

" The house of God was built from the foundation in the month of 
September in the 4th indiction in the 615th year of the province." 




No 151. In wall of house. El Kufr. 

npo N On|^ 

ro) ^4• o I K o 

oa&/vinhmi on 



Av/j(i]\io^) M/«\6[\o]v Hovpcov /i/3 t|^ 
Iciwv A:a[^(rtjT£<.'j' o'lk-o- 
c6/xr]ffe\^v tJo /iiin]^7ou 
TToovoin [_'A^jTrt7r7r/ys- ''jvvc- 
KO<i hd't B"[/j/3]n/>o(' K(ii Boi'f)- 

COl' KUl M[_{i\\ffXOl' TCKI'WV 

aVTOv \_e^\v ^tv ctf-ie 

The date is 350 a.d. See No. 148. For the letters (9/3 winch some- 
times follow names in Syrian inscriptions, no .satisfactory explanation has 
been oflf'ered. 

No. 152. Over doorway. El Kufr. 



Vl)^ 'AT(tOV<< CK tTTTOV- 

" The wine cellar of the holy monastery of Ataos, built under the 
supervision of the Abbot Iledylos." 

No. 153. In cattle shed. El Kufr. 


6 T £ 8 H C A N TA9 H M^ AlATiAp^ N A 

MAPnT£6opri)rrHA£ruRATHaBArHN in. 

ereOijcrai' ra 6)}/ue\ia too a[]'y(/ot')J efco^^ov 

/u.ap\jTvj{/)ov reiopyiov rrj SevTcpa T/y? fc/3c(o/tacos') rn 

. . . fi{)j)i>6^ c(T[p^a]T( )y) 'A7r^p^(tXiov) xfK^''o^^') '' ivhiKriwvo^ 

€To(i's) 0/tf ca: Kdjti/iapoKov 

The reading of the last two lines is veiy doubtful. The date i.s 
652 A.D. See No. 148. 

"By the grace of the holy and life-giving Trinity the foundations 
were laid (of the church) of the martyr George, holy and glorious, on the 
Monday following (his festival), the last day of April, in the 10th 
iudiction, in the year 547 of the province, by Cambarocus." 

No. 154. In roof waterspout. (=Wadd., 2286a.) Hebran. 


?A7 op oC AN TCO\/" -^ ' 



'Yirep (Tu>Trfpi'a%- AvTOK\^pdTopo9 'Avtw- 
veivov 'SiCJiaaTou Oc^w AvKOvpfyw 

0\VCTpai'0^ UTTO- 

XuOel^ euTcifitv^ t/t Tjil'i' Iciwv uve- 
drjKev tvaejieia^ X"'/-"!''' CTOfv i6' 

We have restored this after Waddingtou. 

The date is 156 a.d. The indiscriminate use of the provincial era or 
the year of the reigning emperors by which to reckon the date, which is 
seen in the inscriptions of this place, shows that until 295 A.D. it miist 
have been on or near the border line of the original provinces of Syria 
and Arabia. After 295 a.d., when Arabia was extended towards tlie 
north, the addition of the districts of the Hauran and Jauldn placed it 



wf 11 within the bounds of Arabia (see Waddington on the inscriptions 
of this town). 

The stone is now used as a waterspout. 

No. 155. Over door. (= Wadd., 2288.) Hebran. 


To(r) I'aoi' Kvfjioi' A/09 tKoi'irjcra 

No. 156. In roof of cellar. Hebran. 

T<'/^^r€4>ANoY TOY 


TO . . . (2)t('0«J'OI' to/"' 

No. 157. Over doorway of cattle shed. Hebkan. 


^ hcyf^ — ^ 

G. Iul[ius Jilliis vetr 

No. 158. Broken lintel in yard. Hebran. 


'i>7rt:f) ffWTTipia'^ M(ip{Kov) A i'/j[//Xi'oy 'APTWfCivov 

Kai{ffaf)o>i) 'AXc^dfCpov ^oi/1/j.ov at 

eiiacfilas- evcKCtf ainou 



No. 158a. Over dooiway of Temple. Es Sanametn. Wa/ld., 2413f. 

VTref) atOT>]iii'nv Kot vtiK/jy rou Ki'pior A iiT()KfK'n\^opov 'S,(ft(^fH77oi') 

fvac^(^oT)<i)einv'x^ouv 'loi'X/ov Vcp/iavo^ (ncaToi'Tai^-^)]^ vvepr^fi^-rrfs 

Atprfffi'ioi' Kdi KTi'crr)j<i tot aijKov cnrn rfjv dTriyixiC^fj^ (Ttn>cre\cafv uriii 
TO Tv^^^ftioi' aCpl^ilepwaci' croi'v iv. 

For the safety and victory of our Lord the Emperor — Augustus Pius 
Felix, Julius Germanus— the patron and founder of the Airesians, com- 
pleted the burial place in accordance with the deed, and consecrated the 
temple of Trxv in the year Ifci, i.e., a.d. 192. The names of Commodu.s 
and of the legion III Gallica have been erased. 

No. 159. In Sheikh's Medfifeh, (= Wadd., 2018.) 'Orman. 


K5I-N j\ 


VTTario^ ^lapKi- 

-nl'OV ^U)l>70V TOO 

TTinpo^ TO{o)v 

The date is 341 a.d. As the inscriptions of 'Orman date both before 
and after 295 a.d. by the era of Bostra, it must always have been in 
Arabia after the formation of that province in 106 a.d. For other 
'examples of inscriptions of 'Orman dating thus, see Nos. 162, 163, 164, 
Wadd., 2016, 2018, 2019. 

No. 160. In Sheikh's MedMeh. (= Wadd., 2021.) 'Orman. 

*Avaio^ To- 

-^6 atifxa t- 

-OtV KU^U- 

-Toiatv eT- 

There is a copy of this inscription in Kaibel, Epig. Or., No. 457. It 
forms a hexameter verse. 

" Anaios fa-shioned this monument by his own labour." 


No. 161. In Sheikh's Medafeh. (= Wadd., 2020.) 'Orman. 

TIC e e, M 


eTyou9 ff^s 


Ti{o)<f Oefi- 

aWov 7o8e 

atj/iia eo7<i ercv^ei' 

The date is 401 a.d. See No. 159. 

No. 162. In Sheikh's Medafeh. (= Wadd., 2017.) 'Orman. 


y^^uz-witc eA<^ V 

KAoCK/*loYAAe M 



ON«Al iftT-/oY<*WNo'^^ 

Mi'ij^iij^ cii'eKa TTOTC 

roKao'i K(n ()('f(\( /'tov 

ovoi^tmi ^\ov\iai'0'i 

. . . u'l'fiari ToV^* iheifimo rv/njioi' irci fij^i 

f>efore tlic last line cf>me the letters Ta>r)afu> = Wadd., cuT/ao-w, perhaps 
Tw ryd/o) aifiari ^ e^ tSio)!/ KafitiToiv, seeing the man is a sol<lier. 
The date is 245 a.d. See No. 159. 

{To be continued.) 


By Rev. W. Ewing. 

( Contin ued from page 1 84. ) 

The advent of the Sunday brought no change in the ordinary routine 
of village life. The cattle were driven foith ; the women came gliding 
from the pool with the great water jars poised gracefully on their heads ; 
the sounds of threshing came from the Beidar, where the tribulum, the 
foot of ox and ass, were busy upon the wheat, while from the shovel of 
the winnower the grain rose to fall in a golden heap at his feet, and the 
light breeze carried clouds of chaff and yellow dust far over the fields. 
As the morning advanced a troop of soldiers, heavily booted and spui'red, 
with clanking swords and rattling muskets, came swinging into the court- 
yard. They formed the escort of a proud overbearing Sham// — a money- 
lender from Damascus. He carried a light whip in his hand, and stalked 
about with an air of great self-importance and general proprietor-ship. 
He wore a white turban of multitudinous folds ; a long great-coat of 
European cut hung loosely over his striped cotton ghiimhdz, and the feet 
of his white baggy pantaloons were gathered into the legs of a huge jmir 
of riding boots. Round the waist, under the great-coat, he wore a belt, 
from which swung a dangerous-looking revolver in a leather case. The 
two outstanding features of this man wei-e his religiousness and his 
profanity. Most punctilious in the performance of his devotions, I saw 
him once actually stop in the middle of his prayers to curse an offending 
villager ! The variety of his oaths, and the facility with which he 
brought them to bear on every subject, I have never seen equalled even 
among the voluble Arabs. His brow was a. perpetual threat, and his lips 
seemed ever set for blasphemy. The officer in command of the trooj) was 
a courteous well-favoured young man ; one of the number was a Kurdy 
—a Kurdish horseman, and the others were of the ordinary ragged 
loutish tyj)e of Turkish soldier's, who look so raw and fight so desperately. 
The Kurdy appeared to receive more respect among them than their 
ofHcer. His people are well known for brave men, but withal have a 
somewhat evil rejjutation for cruelty. No one williirgly oftends a Kurdy, 
and no better guard can be taken by travellers wishirrg to explore the 
country to the east of the Jordan. This man was full of tales illustrating 
his own prowess and daring, to which Ihe others listeired with a jocular 
appreciation of his grim humour, which served only to make more obvious 
the depth of their admiration. As the result of grave misdemeanours 
which had reached the ears of Government a price had been set on the 
head of a Beduwy chief in Mount Gilead. The regular soldiery had long 
struggled in vain to secure him. At last this fellow got together a group 
of his kinsmen, and started an intrigue with some women of the tribe — 
itself an excessively dangerous ])roceeding. Through thenr the where- 


abouti^ of the Sheikh was discovered. Choosing a cloudy moonless night, 
the women met them in a quiet wady. There they donned Beduwy 
garments, hiding their own among the bushes, and, following the directions 
of the simple Bedawhjdt, they soon reached the tent where the unsuspect- 
ing chief lay sleeping. By the dim light of a smouldering fire they 
marked out their victim. Suddenly springing into the midst they hewed 
off his head, and dashed out again before his amazed companions could 
realise what had happened. Too late the women saw what a dreadful 
game they had been playing, and filled all the mountain with their cries. 
Swiftly returning to the valley they threw off their disguise ; resuming 
their own garments they made their way to the Government, triumphantly 
cai-rying the grinning horror in their hands. There they claimed and 
received the price of blood. 

This motley company added to our own quite overcrowded the narrow 
quarters. They ordered about the villagers like a set of slaves, and had 
whatever they desired brought to them at once. It was a great relief 
when they went forth to transact the business on which they had come, 
leaving us once more in quiet possession. My Arabic Testament was 
brought into requisition, and the Epistle to the Romans perused with 
more than common interest and profit. Later in the day, Mohammed 
and T escaped from the place and rode down again to Tell 'Ashterah ; in 
this peaceful place we spent an ideal Sunday afternoon. A plunge in 
the cool stream was a fit preparation for the night, and helped to brace 
one for the sufferings that should follow ! Of course we were careful to 
have what water we used carried from these sjnings. Mohammed's 
anxious, nervous eagerness to get back to the village as the sun approached 
the western horizon was a sad commentary upon the conditions prevailing 
in these regions, where man's chief dread is the approach of his brother 
man in the darkness. It is a fear shared by the domestic animals : the 
horse you ride and the beasts of burden all sensibly quicken their pace as 
it approaches nightfall. As the thick gloom that baffles the keenest eye 
creeps over the mountains and tills the air, the belated traveller is 
oppx-essed with a sense of utter helplessness, and exposure to all manner 
of evil : while the townsman peers cautiously beyond the circle illumined 
by his lamp, and thanks heaven that he is not abroad in the darkness. 
The cooler hour before the sun has set is beloved by all : but you must 
be an Oriental to realise the full charm lent by that promise to the city 
of our hopes, "There shall be no night there." 

The boisterous conduct of the soldiers, and their rude overbearing 
treatment of the peasants, made &upper a less enjoyable meal than usual. 
They had come hither to protect and assist the Shamy in collecting his 
debts. At no time, but especially then, in the disturbed state of the 
country, would the money-lender venture forth among his debtors alone, 
fie is not a welcome visitor, and these uncultured folks have an awkward 
way of relieving themselves of disagreeable company ! The escort asked 
for is always granted by the Government for a consideration. It is quite 
a good time for the soldiers, who are complete masters of the situation ; 


their lightest wish is law ; and the peasantry know that to resist would 
only be to bring worse trouble on their heads. One wonders that, aware 
as they are of the consequences, these men are not afraid to borrow : but 
the truth is, that every village in the Haurdu is overwhelmed with debt. 
The improvident Fellahy cannot apparently look a single day ahead. A 
few gold pieces in his hand, their glittering sheen obscures all the future 
for him. Such inquiries as I was able to make elicited the fact that 
while much of the debt incurred is for seed in unfavourable years, the 
most of it is taken on for far different purposes. There is an inborn 
love of display in the soul of the oriental. One of the most obvious 
tokens of grandeur is the possession of a fairly numerous harim. But 
marriage is an expensive business ; for, not to speak of the feast that 
must be provided for the neighbourhood, there are the dresses and the 
<lowry of the bride to be provided : and few men would consider them- 
selves properly married if they did not make an impression of prodigal 
liberality. This is the opportunity of the wily money-lender; the 
necessary cash is forthcoming, at a ruinous rate of interest ; but who 
thinks of interest at such a time ? When the festivities are over the 
man may make a heartless ineffectual attempt for a little to meet his 
obligation : but, by and bye, he settles down to forget it as far as possible, 
with no hope and less purpose of ever paying it. The interest is collected 
in kind. Immediately the threshing is in full swing, the creditor swoops 
down with his minions, and carries off what he is pleased to consider 
right, the peasant, as a rule, grimly acquiescing, and longing only to see 
the back of his oppressor, Khalll, our host, was under a debt of some 
twenty or thirty piastres — not more, I think, than five shillings — but it 
did not seem to occur to him to pay it off, while his creditor appropriated at 
least that value of wheat by way of interest on the loan 1 Khalil's brother 
was in worse case ; he is more of a marx-ying man, has greater expen- 
diture, and therefore is much deeper in debt. He mooned around these 
days with a very listless air, while his share of the harvest was pretty 
well disappearing. I asked him concerning his affairs ; how many wives 
had he when he borrowed last ? •' Only one." And why did he borrow 

the money? \ ■ ~^\ \^ Jiatta (tjawazni; "That I might marry 

myself." " Marry 1 " I asked, " how many more wives did you marry \ " 

i.^}j, thalathah, " Three," he replied, with the greatest composure. Between 

the addition to his family expenses, and his responsibilities to the Sluimy, 
he had landed himself in perfectly hopeless obligations, and was doomed 
to spend the rest of his days vainly endeavouring to satisfy the rapacity 
of his erewhile accommodator. 

It must not be supposed that the fabulous sums named as passing 
from the hands of the bridegroom to those of the bride's parents on 
occasions of betrothal and marriage, represent anything like real values. 
Hard cash is not often given ; more commonly the gift takes the form of 
cattle or other goods, dress or jewellery ; a perfectly preposterous price 


is put upon these things, and the sum swiftly runs up to imposing figures. 
In Mount Gilead, calculations are made in this connection in " bags." 

c::.-od2r^ U-*n^ ^^ ^^"^ ^'^^ Aatoi^ " How many bags did you pay 1 " is 

a common question addressed to a bridegroom. The kts or bag is reckoned 
to contain so many gold pieces. But payment is not made in gold ; 
generally it is made in cattle. An ox worth about £5 is valued at £40. 
A few of these, with a camel or two estimated on the same scale, soon 
represent a very handsome heap of bags ! 

This same custom prevailing among the Jews in Palestine often 
leads to awkward results. If the wife divorces her husband, she has no 
claim upon him under the Jewish law^, but if the husband put away his 
wife, save for obviously sufficient cause, he has to make good to her the 
whole estimated amount of the dowry. As the estimated amount is 
usually a long way beyond the sum total of all the man's earthly posses- 
sions, some security is thus afforded the woman against frivolous and 
arbitrary dismissal. As this is often the only security she has, the 
custom, stupid in its conception and purpose, having regard simply to 
display, yet comes to serve a valuable end. 

The Shdmy did us some real service by indicatiiig places worth 
visitinff. In the course of his wanderings he had seen most of the 
country, and in several ruins had observed inscriptions. In consequence 
of his report, and with an inti'oduction from him to the Sheikh which we 
did not present, we resolved to journey towards 'Akrabah. Our road 
lay again through El Merkez, by way of Sheikh Sa'ad and Nawa. 
Mohammed found a nephew of his own among the soldiers in El Merkez. 
He had been in the array for about a couple of years, and during all 
that time nothing had been heard of him. Tlie meeting of nephew and 
uncle reminded one of the prodigal son and his father. They fell on 
each other's necks and kissed, with every demonstration of joyful surprise 
and aflFection. It has happened more than once to the present writer, 
to be similarly embraced by stalwart Arab friends, after an absence of a 
year. If these affectionate moods do pass rather rapidly, there is no 
reason to suspect their sincerity or intensity while they last. 

We did not linger in Nawa : fragments of carved stones we saw here 
and there, but nothing ])romising great interest. The dark shaky- 
looking towers that rise far overtopping all the houses in the village 
excite hopes, when seen in the distance, which closer acquaintance sadly 
disappoints. A tale is told in connection with Nawa which possesses 
more than a passing interest. Not many years ago in Judeideh the 
missionaries had an ajiplication for admission to the full pi-ivileges of 
church membershij), from a man who had been nominally Protestant for 
some time. The man's reputation, however, was not specially good. 
His ignorance of sacred things, also, might almost be described as 
colossal ; it was equalled only by his self conceit. His wife, a most 
respectable and trustworthy person, was a church member. When it 
was intimated to him that at present the way was not clear for his 


admissiou, he vented his displeasure on his wife, and the life she led with 
him was proof enough that the missionaries had acted wisely. He 
returned with his demand with great persistency, and at last was told 
that until there was a decided change, his request for admission could 
not be entertained. Then, with a considerable flourish, he deserted his 
wife and children, took his way to the Haurcln, and became a Moslem. 
Finally settling in Nawa, his mountain education gave him an easy lead 
among the illiterates there. He was appointed Khattb, literally " Orator," 
in the village. It was his duty to act as teacher to the boys, and to take 
the lead in the public devotions. He attained a joositiou of great 
influence, and grew accustomed to have his ideas acquiesced in without a 
murmur. But there is a point beyond which innovations may not safely 
be carried with a superstitious and lawless people. In the enclosiire, 
beside the wely, or village sanctuary, there grew a thorn tree, which was 
both an obstruction and an eye-sore. Everything within the enclosure 
is sacred to the spirit of the saint or prophet whose bones are laid there, 
and generally may be removed only at peril of death. Being now, as he 
thought, secure in his authority, he proceeded one night to cut down the 
tree. Great was the consternation in the village when the dawn revealed 
the wely's tree laid prostrate, and dread forbodings of evil to follow, 
oppressed all hearts. It was discovered that the Khattb had cut it 
down : it was whispered that he was only a Christian in disguise ! and 
soon there were hoarse cries for his blood. Only his death might expiate 
the crime, and deliver the village from impending calamity. The crowd, 
armed some with whips, others with sticks and clubs, rushed around the 
now trembling Khatib ; attacking him furiously on all sides, they 
literally beat him to death, and so ended his strange career. His widow 
took service with a medical man in Galilee, and provision was made by 
the charitable for the education and care of his children. 

J§,sem was our first real halting-place. Built entirely of basalt, 
resting upon a hill of the same material, it looks particularly black as 
you approach it. A considerable extent of ground is covered, but, for 
the most part, by ruins. Entering from the south we pursued a 
tortuous path among the irregular huts that clung to the hill side, until 
we reached the top, close beside an ancient mosque. Through a gateway 
in a rough modern wall, we entered a small court, paved with the 
building stones of a past age. The mosque was in a ruinous condition. 
Several reed mats covered the centre of the floor, and there one or two 
pious villagers were engaged in their devotions. My Moslem attendant 
assured me that we might walk around these mats, without uncovering 
our feet, so long as we did not tread vipon any sjoot where men were 
wont to pray. We stepped boldly over the threshold, and proceeded 
carefully to examine the walls, and the pillars that support the 
remaining portion of the roof, when suddenly there came from the 
doorway such a volley of blasphemy as might have overwhelmed a much 
stronger building. Turning round I beheld the guardian of the mosque, 
with flashing eyes and uplifted hands, declaring to the crowd the sacrilege 


of which we infidels had been guilty, and invoking calamities upon all 
our relatives, male and female, for many generations. The threatening 
looks of the populace did not add to our comfort. The guardian was in 
no mood to accept apologies ; but instant compliance with his command 
to come forth evidently gratified him, as his importance in the eyes of 
the villagers was doubtless thereby enhanced. 1 engaged him in con- 
versation, turning his attention away from the burning subject by a few 
cautious questions about the place, and kindly inquiries as to his own 
welfare. When, finally, Mohammed stripped off his shoes, and I sjjrang 
u]:)on his back, to be carried round the sacred place, his stern features 
relaxed into a pleased grm, and he at once constituted himself my 
p]-otector and guide. But for his assistance I should have seen but 
little ill the village. In his company all doors were open to us. In the 
mosque I found nothing to show that it had ever been used as a church. 
Bits of rude carving adorned the arches, which, resting on pillars, some 
with plain capitals, others with ornamentation resembling the palm 
branch, held up the roof. Over the northern doorway, however, inscrip- 
tion No. 8, with its two crosses, proves Christian occupation. No. 9 

stands over a built-uji doorway in the south end of iju^,rll f^-c\:>~ 

Jihni' el 'Attq — " the ancient mosque " — .so called by the natives to 
distinguish it from the modern {V) stYnctnre on the hill. This building 
stands near the base, close to the house of the Sheiiih. No. 10, lying 
face up in a courtyard, seemed at almost obliterated ; but an 
obliging young woman brought a jar of water and a brush of hard grass, 
and, working with a Avill, speedily revealed the inscription. The stone 
with No. 11 adorned the entrance to the courtyard of the Sheikh. To 
pi'Qve their goodwill the people brought us delicious draughts of delight- 
fully cool lehan. Ere we mounted to ride northward, several of the 
men came forward with looks of some anxiety. They explained to us 
that according to an old tradition among them, there was at one time a 
copious spring of clear cold water in the near neighbourhood of the 
village. For many generations it had been absolutely lost sight of ; the most 
careful search by their fathers and themselves had been perfectly fruitless. 
They trusted that with my instruments— a pocket compass and anei'oid ! 
— I should be able to direct them to the spot where the coveted liquid 
was to be found. It was a trial to be obliged to disappoint their hopes ; 
and I fear they only half believed me, when I told them that in this I 
could not help them. Cisterns they have; but they long for "living 

Leaving Jasem behind us, our road led at first almost directly towards 
El Hurrah, one of the highest and most shapely of all the conical hills in 
the district. The name of the wely whose sanctuary crowns the summit 
is 'Omar ShaJud. In something less than an liour we passed a large ruin, 
covering a mound on tlie east of the road. Ou tlie west are extensive 
and deep quarries, partly filled with water, from which, obviously, the 
stones must have been taken to build the ancient town. That these ruins 


are of hoary antiquity cannot be doubted. Many walls, built of square, 
well-hewn blocks, without mortar, are still standing ; but, while many of 
the slabs that once formed the roofs may be found among the disordered 
heaps, I did not see one in position. The earthquakes of ages have 
shaken these dwellings to pieces, and for centui'ies the dark lichens have 
crept silently over all. Umm AVi^^r;*, " Mother of Saddlebags," was the 
name a counti'ymau gave to the place. We passed near to El Harrah, 
the village nestling under the eastern slopes of the hill of that name. 
The natives of Jasem assured us that it contained no antiquities, being 
comi>osed entirely of poor i^easants' huts. The night was coming on 
apace, and we were anxious, if possible, to reach 'Akrabah before sunset. 
A steep, rocky descent here brought us to more level country. These 
far-stretching uplands, dark, stony, sterile wastes, with the 
unearthly stillness that reigned around, combined to make a rather 
gloomy impression upon the travellers. As the shadows grew longer we 
went down towards the bottom of a wide valley, and in the distance, 
eastward, we could see the Avhite smoke curling above the black tents of 
the 'Arab, telling of busy preparations for the evening meal. The 
anxious looks of my companions proclaimed their sense of insecurity in 
the presence of such neighbours. A troop of camels wandering slowly 
homeward, cropping the scanty remains of withered herbage in their 
track, were tended by one who crouched half asleep on the hump of one 
of the largest in the Hock. He proved civil, and communicative. 
Endeavouring to follow the direction indicated on the map, we were 
holding too far eastward, and now might not hope to reach 'Akrabah 
before dark. Would we not go with him, and pass the night among his 
kinsmen 1 The hospitable offer we declined, desiring to get nearer our 
goal. The yellow dust, marking a threshing floor on the further hillside, 
and which we had thought was 'Akrabah, he told us, was Umm el 'Osij, 
"Mother of the Box-thorn." Pushing upward we found a very poor- 
looking village, with few traces of human habitation. Many days had 
])assed since the last tenants went forth from the portals of these dark 
houses, for many were still standing, built for the most part of older 
materials, the character and abundance of which proved the importance 
of the town in past times. We found that a worthy Beduwy, of mature 
age, had pitched his tent in an ojjen sjjace to the west of the village. 
Ever preferring the airy tent where it is to be found, before the confined 
and stifling houses of the peasantry, we turned aside to claim the old 
man's hospitality. And right hearty was his welcome. His store was 
neither large nor varied ; yet, as he phrased it, had he enough, food foi- 
the men and fodder for their cattle. Sheikh JlakdiviJ, as he called himself, 
had learned the secret of contentment. He was not at all averse to 
having his slender supplies reinforced from our stock ; and while they 
pi'epared for suj)per, I emi)loyed the remaining minutes of light to 
wander among the ruins, and visit certain stone heaps at some distance 
from the village. I found a short, stout, ragged, fiery-whiskered, rosy- 
cheeked, bright-eyed man, who told nie he came from Sufsaf, near Safed. 


We were speedily on the best of terms. He had come hither some two years 
before, when the j^lace was occupied again after ages of vacancy, to seek 
his fortune. By all accounts the search was likely to last a good while 
longer before much came of it. In short, Umm el 'Osij held out no great 
attractions as a sphere for agricultural skill and industry, so he had pretty 
well decided to turn his wandering footsteps westward again. He proved 
a very satisfactory guide, although he could not distinguish between an 
inscription and a bit of rough carving. No. 12, e.g., he told me was a 
very fine inscription ! He conducted me to the stone heaps east of the 
villafre, which must be in the neighbourhood of an ancient burying 
rn-ound. Here the other inscriptions were found. Broken slabs of stone, 
with rudely cut crosses, were frequent. Returning to the village, I made 
a hasty sketch of a curious stone, which had evidently once been a pon- 
derous lintel. While engaged with this, the usual band of wondering 
spectators came together. One big, dark-looking fellow, with an air of 
very great importance, elbowed his way through the bystanders to my 
side, and demanded my business in thus " writing down the country." 
Had I a Government order 'I Amr min el Hahomeh. Armed with this, 
one may do almost anything. I had nothing more formidable than my 
British passport, but a look at the man convinced me that it would do as 
well as anything else for him. I did not immediately answer him, and I 
observed that the brows of the crowd were darkening. He, however, 
seemed to waver when I tui-ned sharply and looked him in the face. I 
asked what right he had to interfere : would he be good enough to show 
me his authority. He then obviously gave way. I pressed him, and he 
fell back among the people looking rather sheepish. When I pulled out 
a book and demanded his name, suggesting the possibility of a visit to 
the Mutesarrif on the morrow, he laughed an uneasy laugh, and said it 
was only a joke. " Yes, ya Khawdja" echoed the crowd, " it was only a 
joke." The would-be guardian of his country's sanctities now looked 
rather foolish, and slipped quietly away, while I was left unmolested to 
finish my explorations. 

As night dropped her sable curtains over the uplands we assembled 
to supper beside the tent fire of Sheikh Mukt1,wij. Whatever else is 
lackin<'' at this season among these hospitable men, the traveller can 
always depend upon abundance of beautiful fresh milk. As the humble 
meal proceeded, the villagers gathered quietly, one by one, and sat down 
on the ground, in a shadowy circle, around us. Most of them had share 
of what was going, after we had finished, as very liberal ])rovision had 
been made. These men are usually all medical practitioners. They are 
prepared to prescribe for every ill that flesh is heir to, with perfect 
confidence ; and, as they charge no fees, their practice is often extensive. 
How little reliance they have on their own specifics is shown by the 
eagerness with which they gather round a medicine box. I had taken 
with me a few simple things in case of illness by the way, and in many 
places found peojde whom I was really able to hel]). In the long run I 
gave the box into Moliammcd's care, and he ]JOsed as a very great doctor 


indeed ; some of the cures he effected were held to be wonderful as 
regarded both rapidity and completeness. As the medicines, for the most 
part, could do little harm, and he was never disposed to give too much of 
anything, I could leave him with comfort to dispose of his patients^ 
making sure only that he would not give away all the quinine. Poor old 
Sheikh Mukawij had suffered for years from a persistent and painful 
internal complaint, and had endured unspeakable things at the hands of 
the rude surgeons of the desert. One of their chief rules aj^pears to be 
this : when there is a pain inside, set up a greater pain outside ; the 
greater will absorb the less, and as the greater heals, the less will dis- 
appear. The principle of setting up greater pain outside had been faith- 
fully observed with the poor Sheikh, and that night it had taken a 
peculiarly savage form. Over his stomach a passage had been cut under 
the skin, and a tuft of coarse wool had been drawn through to keep the 
wound open. He bore it all without a murmur. His case was rather too 
serious for us amateurs, so I gave him a note to a friendly doctor, with 
instructions how to reach him ; at first he seemed disposed to go, but I 
have no doubt, on my departure, the good Sheikh would again resign 
himself to Ullah, and submit with grand fortitude to the well-meant 
cruelties of the ignorant Bedawy physician. To journey all the way to 
Safed or Damascus for medical treatment, would not that be to put a 
slight upon his friends in the desert ? Nay, would it not evidence a lack 
of confidence in the Most High, to whom his fathers had looked up for 
help from these solitudes, what time life's troubles fell heavy upon them T 
Medical discussions were soon followed by entertainment more to the 
taste of the general audience. It was a strange company that lay thus 
around the fire, by the solitary tent of Sheikh Mukawij, on the lonely 
uplands of Jed/ir. With the darkness a chill had crept over the hills, 
and we were glad to draw to our coverings. Through the still night the 
stars shone down in wondrous splendour. Looking upward, one could 
understand in some measure how, in the twilight of the dawnine thouo-ht 
of man, the mind should have been almost overwhelmingly impressed 
with the glory of these shining orbs. Some such feeling must have 
touched the soul of the old Sheikh. He was full of stories of the far 
past days, when men bowed down to the stars, and worshipped all the 
host of heaven. These things all hajipened in the Jd/i ill i/e/i, *■' the time 
of ignorance," ere yet the morning star had arisen, in whose kindly 
beams the dwellers amid Arabian sands have ever since rejoiced. Foi- 
did not "the Prophet" put end to these idolatries, and usher in the 
true worship of God 'I 

Then we had tales of those distant days in which the majestic figure 
of the great progenitor of all the Arab tribes, K/ialU (Abraham), " the 
friend of God," with a fine contempt for chronology, was made to walk in 
familiar converse with Mohammed and saints of later times. Some who 
in the first fading of the shadows, being only partially enlighteneil, yet 
had strength and courage to endure persecution at the hands of hardened 
idolaters, were kept long time in hard bondage, and finally were guided 


l)y a clog to a mighty cave in the heart of the mountaiu which looks down 
upon Damascus from the north. Safe from the hands of their foes iu the 
secret depths of Salihiyeh, they were yet not judged fit for admission to 
tlie sweet groves of Paiudise. There, through many centuries, they have 
slumbered serenely, waiting the final summons, when all men shall 
receive according to their deserts. In their sleep they are still guarded 
by the faithful dog that guided them hither. He sits beside them all the 
week ; only on Friday nights a feeling of loneliness and impatience comes 
over him, and if you stray near the mountain at the turn of night you 
may hear strange noises issuing as it were from the bowels of the earth. 
The weaiy canine comes as neai" as may be to the surface, and indulges a 
little in vain bowlings, then returns to his long watch, aud the silence 
around you is broken only by the sharp yelp of the jackal and the rattle 
of the loose stones far up the cliffs, which are started by his passing feet. 

The snowy mass of Great Hermon shone resjilendent in the first beams 
of the morning. From Umni el 'Osij you obtain a magnificent view of this 
famous mountain. His white glittering steeps lising grandly from the 
Ijlack stretches below stood out in bold relief against the blue of the sky. 
I could trace the toj) line from the summits that look over Banias, almost 
to where, sinking in the north, they open a jiassage through rocky jaws 
for the highway from Damascus to the Syrian coast. Sitting down on an 
old dyke, to the no little wonder of the old Sheikh, I made a hasty sketch 
of the snowy outline, which gives a very fair general idea of the 
a]jpeaiance. The Arab will never "speed the parting guest" ; his fare- 
well is as brief and unsentimental as his welcome is profuse. Khaterak 
he will say, which cannot be literally ti'anslated ; but it is as if he should 
ask, " may thy thought turn to me betimes " ; then he turns his back 
upon his guest, nor gives one look behind him. I glanced round after a, 
1 i ttle and saw the Sheikh already sitting calmly by the fi re, with his back 
.still towards us, and all about the place had assumed its wonted aspect, 
as if we had never been there. But the visit of a Eui^opean will mark 
an era in the quiet life of the place, and be spoken of long after in 
many an evening circle, and the mysterious box of medicines will figui'e 
in their tales. 

It was about an hour's ride to 'AUrabah, over about the wildest and 
most desolate country I have seen outside the borders of el Leja'. We 
rode almost due westward, and at last, rejiching the western extremity of 
a low eminence, there stretched out before us the ruins of what, beyond 
all doubt, was once a city of great magnificence, both in extent and 
character. From the regular lines of stones that ran across the country 
in tlie neighbourhood of the city one might infer that in olden times some 
jibtempt had been nia.le by the citizens to bring these wilds under 
inUtivation. How f;ir they may have succeeded we cannot tell, for long 
now it has been left in peace, trodden only by the feet of the flocks by 
day, and of the night prowlers in lioura of darkness. 

We jiassed a level jtiece of ground, enclosed by crundtling dykes, which 
may liave been the threshing flooi- in cailier days. The modern beidar, 


similarly enclosed, lies to the south-west of the village. Beyond this 
enclosure we entei-ed the burying-ground. On the headstones here we 
found a few Cufic inscriptions. Most of the stones were broken ; the 
inscriptions were nearly all in Arabic, and it was quite common to find 
half an inscription on one grave and half on another ! Among the graves 
which were evidently of small account, there were a few larger ones, on 
which a little more labour had been spent. The most imposing one of all 
the native boys called el Mizdr, but the name of the saint w^hose slimibers 
it protects I did not learn. At the head of this grave was a large stone 
with a Greek inscription, but it had fallen forward on its face, so T 
proposed to return later in the day with some means of raising it. On 
the north of the graveyard stands a building known locally as the kasr, 

y^s^\ — "the palace." It most resembles the Palmja-ene structure which 

I afterwards saw at Eimet el-Luhf, only it seems to have been consider- 
ably higher. It is built of carefully dressed basalt ; it is between 30 and 
40 feet square ; part of the wall was still about 40 feet in height. The 
inside, which could be reached by a breach in the wall about 18 inches in 
diameter, was blocked up with debris and large stones which had been 
shaken down from above. The large stone at the Mizar, Xo. 31, had 
evidently once had a place in this building. We rode forward a little 
way, and then turned sharply to the right along a broad paved road, 
apparently of Eoman workmanship, leaving a large building with one or 
two straggling fruit trees — the only trees I saw here — on the right, until 
we reached the sjn-ing, where thei'e was a scene of bustling activity, men 
and boys raising water, and pouring it into great sarcophagi for the herds 
to drink. The well is almost on the eastern edge of the ruins. It is 
about a dozen feet from the brim to the water. It is enclosed in walls of 
solid masonry which may be coeval with the pavement of -the road which 
leads to it. It is about 20 feet square, and is spanned above by a couple 
of arches, whence the buckets are let down with ropes to draw the watei-. 
There is also a stair descending at the north-eastern corner, where the 
women fill the jars for domestic purposes. This is now the sole water 
supply of the village ; but here also there is a tradition that of old there 
were other fountains, of which for many generations nothing has been 
seen. Immediately to the east of the fountain rises a huge pile of ruins. 
Bits of old columns, great stone lintels and door posts, and hewn blocks 
lie tumbled about in the wildest confusion, all beai'ing the marks of long 
exposure to the elements. A space was cleared in the midst, and a way 
opened by which it might be apjjroached, passing under a large orna- 
mented lintel ; and this cleared space they dignified with the title of 

.Jaiy.!' f--<^ Jurai^ el kchir — " the great mosque." From the top of 

this pile a capital view of the old city is obtained. The peasants taking 
advantage of the part which in the passage of centuries had suffered least 
from the throes of earthquakes, have built their huts chietly in the south- 
Avest quarter of the city, a few straggling eastward towards the fountain ; 


in tliese directions there were also, however, many bare walls rising 
pathetically amid surrounding ruin. To northward the scene was one of 
wide-spreading desolation. Many acres are covered deej) with the dark 
debris of a once mighty city. A more utter wreck it is impossible to 
imagine. In extent it cannot have been much less than Bozrah, but here 
the overthrow has been more complete. I wandered long among these 
gloomy ruins, but found neither inscription nor sculpture. It was 
interesting to trace the outlines of the houses and the directions of the 
streets. Many of the buildings had been of ponderous blocks of basalt ; 
large shapely lintels, on which the ancients seem to have expended most 
of their skill in ornamentation, were not uncommon, but all now involved 
in equal ruin. I can hardly doubt that there is much of interest hidden 
here, but all the inscriptions I got were found in the southern half of 
the city. 

We made our way to the Medafeh of Sheikh Sa'id el Hajjy. It stood 
to westward, not far from the threshing floor. It was of spacious dimen- 
.sions, and clean compared with any place we had yet visited. It was 
paved througliout with large flat stones ; several fragments of Greek 
inscriptions were found on these. A huge jar of water stood in one 
corner with a tin jug convenient, and with this the villagers who came to 
gaze indiscriminately helped themselves. My two companions professed 
to be sadly wearied now, tempted no doubt by the cool shelter of the 
Medafeh, and so I left them to sleep. Having seen the horses comfortably 
fixed, I got an old man to step round with me to several " written 
stones " with which he was familiar. Happily he was a man of some 
consequence in the village, and when it was known what we sought, one 
and another came with information of curious stones they had seen or 
heard of. While I was copying No. 18 1 asked if any Franjy, " European," 
had ever been here before. " Yes," said the old man, " one came about 
thirty years ago." Thirty years, I may observe, among these people may 
mean anything from five to forty. That Franjy, who had a turjmdn, 
■dragoman, or "translator," with him, had copied several of the stones. 
This particular stone he had read to the peoj^le, and his dragoman inter- 
pieted. It recorded the fact, he said, that King David, of Israel, had 
built this house, and that his daughter had built the Kasr, and lived in it 
ior many years ! The dragoman evidently knew what would please these 
simple folks, and so gave them a thoroughly original version of his own. 

It was in Akrabah that I first heard of an idea — I met with it often 
afterwards — prevalent over all the East. There is a strong belief that 
in the far past the country belonged to the ancestors of the white men of 
the West ; and it is regarded as a certainty that our people will one day 
return to take possession again of the heritage lost for so long. In this 
connection the opinion got abroad that I was doing for my people a most 
necessary work. Our fathers, ere they journeyed vvestwaixl to realms of 
the setting sun, concealed much treasure in and around the dwellings they 
left behind them. This treasure is to be found by means of certain 
mysterious markings on the stones, the key to which they carried with 


them, so that their children on returning might be rightly guided. But 
with the lapse of centuries it began to be feared that ere the day for our 
return had come, the Moslemin might have discovered some part of the 
key, and be thus enabled to appropriate part of the treasure. My busi- 
ness, therefore, was to make certain changes in the markings, which 
should effectually mislead the followers of Mohammed, preserving at the 
same time a careful record, so that on the day of our return we miglit be 
able to walk straight to our precious hoards and find them intact ! 

Many of the young men of the village came round me with great 
eagerness when I was at work in a spot where tradition has localised a 
fabulous hoard. Their own searching had been all in vain, but they were 
sure I possessed the secret, particularly as in my anxiety to get the 
Greek letters on the stone correctly I ran my pencil round them, and felt 
them with the tips of my fingers. They told me that they quite under- 
stood what I was about. I asked if they thought it was treasure. "Of 
course," ma'Mm, they exclaimed. " Ah, well," said I, " if you will supply 
me with camels to carry off my share, I will distribute the half among 
you. Gold is heavy, but thirty camels would, perhaps, be sufficient." I 
suppose a twinkle in the eye of Mohammed, who meantime had joined 
me, revealed to them what was up, so they left me, deeply disgusted at 
the levity with which so serious a subject was treated. 

After midday meal and brief siesta I went forth among the ruins 
again. Armed with one large stick and two smaller ones, Mohammed and 
I made our way by circuitous paths to the burying ground. He did not 
wish to attract attention lest we should be hindered in our attempt to 
raise the stone at the head of the Mizar. Men might think it sacrilege, 
and the saint might avenge himself upon the village. We reached the 
spot safely, but had hardly begun operations when two boys appeared on 
the scene. They stood at some distance in awe-struck silence ; when I 
asked them to come and hold one of the sticks in position, they ventured 
the opinion that our conduct was Hardm, that it was " infamous" work. 
Mohammed tried to coax them, for he feared they might alarm the village, 
but they moved further off. He explained to them, and the idea evidently 
brought great comfort to himself, that we were not doing the Mizar an 
injury ; on the contrary, out of pui'e respect, we were building it up, and 
doing an honour to the saint. He pointed out the disgrace of allowing it 
to go to ruin, and showed how good must come of our action. But the 
boys had had enough of it, and disappeared. Then the good Mohammed's 
anxieties inci'eased. No one need ever wish for a more faithful companion 
than Mohammed ; but the truth was that he himself was labouring under 
no little dread. It affected him none the less that he was more than 
half ashamed of it, and tried to conceal it from me with an air of bravado. 
He burst into a perspiration, and ti-embled so violently over almost 
nothing that with difficulty could I repress a laugh. His usual judgment 
deserted him, and he made absurd suggestions. The Moslemtn, he said, 
would be very angry. The block rested upon some smaller stones, and 
while one end was free, the other was embedded in the earth and jammed 


witli the brokeu wall, which had rushed when the block fell forward. 
Clearing the confined end we prized up the other ; but as it was obviously 
beyond our united strength to raise it straight up, I suggested that resting 
the lever on an adjoining wall he should ease it up while I removed the 
stones from beneath. " But," said he, " I fear that if we do that it may 
go down suddenly flat upon its face, and then no power on earth should 
be able to raise it ! " " O," I said, " that were a light thing." " Light ! ''' 
he exclaimed, with wide open eyes, " don't you know this is a Wely ? " 
It was only a flash revealing the man's soul ; but in a moment reason 
had mastered supei'stition again, and he wrought with triple vigour. 
When the stones were removed he steadied the block while I crept under 
it, and lying on my back succeeded in making a fair copy of the part of 
the inscription which remained. Unfortunately, a large part of the stone 
had been broken off with several lines of the inscription, and of this I 
could find no trace. The break may have occurred when the stone fell 
from its place in the building. But the peasants are terrible vandals ; and 
knowing nothing of their value, many a precious stone has gone to pieces 
beneath their clumsy hammeis. 

( To be continued.) 


By James Glaisher, F.RS. 

The numbers in column 1 of this table show the highest reading of the 
barometer in each month ; of these the highest appear in the winter, and 
the lowest in the summer months ; the maximum for the year is 27 •734 
inches, in December. In column 2 the lowest reading in each month is 
shown ; the minimum for the year is 27 •020 inches, in December. The 
range of barometer readings in the year is 0-714 inch. The numbers in 
tlie 3rd column show the range of reading in each month, the smallest, 
0-140 inch, is in July ; and the largest, 0-714 inch, is in December. The 
numbers in the 4th column show the mean monthly pressure of the atmos- 
phere, the highest, 27-463 inches, is in December; and the lowest, 
27-275 inches, is in July. The mean ])ressure for the year is 27-375. 
inche.s. At Sarona the mean ])ressnre fur the year was 29-834 inches. 

The highest temperature of the air in each month is shown in column 5. 
Tlie highest in the year was 106° -Q on both the 12th and 13th of July ; the 
maximum temjjerature on these days at Sarona was !)0' and 93° respec- 
ti\fly. The fii-st day in the year that the temperature reached 90" 
Wius on March 2r)th. In May the temjjerature reached or exceeded 90° 
on 1 day; in June on 4 days; in July on 18 days; in August on 
13 days ; in Sej)tcmber on 8 days ; and in October on 6 days. Therefore 


the temperature reached or exceeded 90^ on 51 days during the year. 
At Sarona the first day that tlie temperature reached 90" was on 
March 5tli. The highest in the year, viz., 105^ took place on October 19th, 
The maximum temperature on this day at Jerusalem was 94° rj ; and the 
temperature reached or exceeded 90° at Sarona on 39 days in the year. 

The luinibers in column 6 show the lowest temperature of the air in 
•each month ; the lowest in the year was 29°'5 on December 16th. Tlie 
temperature was below 40° in January on Hi nights ; in February on 
■2 nights ; in March on 2 nights ; in November on 2 nights ; and in 
December on 8 niglits. Therefore the temperature was below 40' on 37 
uights in the year. The yearly range of temperature was 76°"5. At 
.Sarona the lowest temperature in the year was 37°*0 on January 11th. 
The temperature was below 40° on only two nights in the year. Tlie 
yearly range of temperature at Sarona was 68 ""O. 

The range of temperature in each month is shown in column 7, and 
tliese numbers vary from 30° in November to 53° in March. At Saroiia 
the range of temperature in each month varied from 26' in August to 58° 
in March. 

The mean of all the highest by day, of the lowest by night, and of the 
average daily ranges of temperature, are shown in columns 8, 9, and 10 
respectively. Of the high day temperature the lowest, 49' '7, is in January, 
und the highest, 93°-2, in July. At Sarona, of the liigh day temperature 
the lowest, 61°'7, was in Januaiy, and the highest, 88°-5, in July. 

Of the low night temperature, the coldest, 37°"0, is in January, and 
the warmest, 69°, in July. At Sarona, of the low night temperature, tlie 
coldest, 44°"9, was in January, and the warmest, 70°-3, in August. 

The average daily range of temperature is shown in column 10 ; the 
smallest, IT'O, is in both November and December, and the largest, 24'-4, 
u) September. At Sarona, ox the average daily range of temperature, 
the smallest, 15° '6, was in December, and the largest, 24° '4, was in 

In column 11 the mean temperature of the air is shown, as found from 
observations of the maximum and minimum thermometers only. The 
month of the lowest temperature is January, 43°-4, and that of the 
liighest, July, 81°-1. The mean temperature for the year is 63'. At 
Sarona, of the mean temperature, the month of the lowest was January, 
53°-3, and that of the highest, August, 79°-4. The mean temperature 
for the year at Sarona was 67°'7. 

The numbers in columns 12 and 13 are the monthly means of a dry 
and wet-bulb thermometer taken daily at 9 a.m. In column 14 the 
monthly temperature of the dew point, or that temperature at which 
dew would have been deposited, is shown. The elastic force of vapour 
is shown in column 15. In column 16 tlie water ])resent in a cubic 
foot of air is shown ; in January it was as small as 2-9 grains, and in 
•July as large as 6-6 grains. In column 17 the additional weight 
required for saturation is shown. The numbers in column 18 show the 
<legree of Inimidity, saturation being considered 100 ; the smallest number, 


indicating the driest month, is 52 in July, and the largest, 79, indicating 
the wettest month, is in January. The weight of a cubic foot of air under 
its mean pressure, temperature and humidity at 9 a.m. is shown in 
column 19. 

The most prevalent winds in January were S.W. and N.W., and the 
least prevalent were N. and S. In February the most prevalent was 
S.W., and the least N. In March the most prevalent was S.W., and the 
least was S. In April the most prevalent were S.W., W., and N.W., and 
the least was E. In May the most prevalent was N.W., and the least 
E. and vS. In June the most prevalent wind was N.W., and the least 
was S.E. In July the most prevalent was N.W., and the least was S. 
In August the most prevalent was N.W., and the least were N.E., E., 
S.E,, and S. In September the most prevalent were N.W. and W., and 
the least were E., S.E., S., and S.W. In October the most prevalent 
were N.E. and S.E., and the least was S. In November the most 
prevalent were S.W. and N.E., and the least was S. ; and in December 
the most prevalent winds were S.W. and N.W., and the least were N. and 
S. The most prevalent wind for the year was N.W., wliich occurred on 
108 times during the year, of which 19 were in August, 13 in July, and 
12 in September ; and the least prevalent wind for the year wms S., which 
occurred on only 7 times during the year, of which 2 were in both April 
and June. At Sarona the most prevalent wind for the year was S.W., 
which occurred on 86 times during the year ; and the least prevalent wind 
was N., which occurred on only 6 times during the year. 

The numbers in column 28 show the mean amount of cloud at 9 a.m. 
The month with the smallest amount is July, ()-3, and the largest, 
December, O'l. Of the cumulus, or fine weather cloud, there were only 3 
instances in the year ; of the nimbus, or rain cloud, there were 29 
instances in the year, of which 7 were in December ; of the cirrus, there 
were 11 instances ; of the stratus, thei'e were 8 instances ; of the cirro 
cumulus, there were 96 instances ; of the cumulus stratus there were 67 
instances ; of the cirro stratus, there were 23 instances ; and 129 
instances of cloudless skies, of which 26 were in July, 22 in August, 
and 17 in June. At Sarona there were 90 instances of cloudless skies, of 
which 15 were in August and 13 in both June and July. 

The largest fall of rain for the month in the year was 16"40 inches in 
December, of which 2-91 inches fell on the 15th, 2*90 inches on the 
14th, and 2*75 inches on both the 11th and IGth. The next largest fall for 
the month was 7'99 inches in November, of which 2"44 inches fell on the 
10th and 2-43 inches on the 14th. No rain fell from June 5th to October 
1st, making a period of 117 consecutive days without rain. The total 
fall for the year was 37"79 inches, which fell on 65 days during the year. 
At Sarona tlie larirest fall for the month in the vear was 11 "53 inches in 
December. No rain fell at Sarona from June 4tli to October 1st, making 
a ]jeiiod of 118 consecutive days without rain. Tiie total fall of rain 
for the year at Sarona was 28'84 inches, which fell on 62 days. 

Quarterly Statement, October, 1895.] 




Since the issue of tlie last Quarterly Statement the excavations at Jerusalem 
have been steadily carried on, except for one fortnight in which they had to be 
suspended owing to the illness of some of the chief workers. During the 
absence of Dr. Bliss, to reenut after h.3 severe attack of illness, the operations 
were ably superintended by Mr. Dickie. Dr. Bliss returned to Jerusalem in July. 

Major- General Sir Charles Wilson sends us the following note on Dr. Bliss's 
report : — 

" I have few comments to make on Dr. Bliss's last report on his excavations. 
Those excavations are increasing in interest, but it is still too early to base any 
theories upon them. 

" The wall across the mouth of the Tyropoeon Valley is evidently a masonry 
dam, or embankment, constructed when the Lower Pool of Siloam was made, 
and strengthened at a later period by the addition of the ruder masonry 
described by Dr. Bliss. Wlien the dam was first built, and when it was 
utilised as part of the fortifications of the city, are problems that still remain 
to be solved. It will be sufficient here to draw attention to the somewhat 
similar arrangement at the mouth of the valley in which the Birket Israil hes. 
Considerable interest attaches to the manner in which the wall joins the rock 
on the east side of the valley, and also to the size of the Lower Pool, which is 
apparently much larger than was generally supposed. 

" The portion of the wall uncovered by Dr. Guthe, to which Dr. Bliss 
alludes, did not seem to me, when I saw it, to have been part of the fortifica- 
tions of the city. It looked more like a retaining wall partly built with old 
material ; on this point, however, we must wait for fuller information. The 
excavations now going on in the plot of ground on the hillside near the Neby 
Daud road promise to yield important results." 

In answer to the question whether it has ever been ascertained whether the 
rock in the Greek Chapel in the Church of the Holy Sepidchre, in which are 
shown the holes where the crosses stood, is really solid rock or a huge stone, 
Herr von Schick writes : " This has never been ascertained beyond doubt. All 
that can be said is that the crack or cleft has just the same direction and 
appearance as other rock clefts around Jerusalem. But this is not a full proof 
that it is rock and not a large stone." 



Herr von Scliick writes tliat as so many people ask him about tlie question of 
Calvai-y, lie intends to make a model of tlie original ground of the city, with 
valleys round about, and showing the lines of the various walls. The scale is 
to be -Touoo" 

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer again draws attention to the manufacture of sham 
antiques which is going on briskly in the Holy Land. Specimens of the famous 
" Moabite pottery " which had been concealed for years, are now again in the 
market, and tourists are warned against purchasing them as genuine. 

Mr. Hanauer reports that the dispute which had lasted for years 
between the owners of real property at Jaffa and the Grovei'nment as to the 
tenure of their lands, has at length been decided satisfactorily, the orange 
groves, for which Jaffa is so famous, having been declared fx-eehold {mulk), and 
not Crown land (meeri). 

He also mentions that all Jerusalem dragomans are now required by the 
municipal government to pass an examination as to what they are to tell 
visitors to the holy places. The examiners are said to be the effendis of the 
mejlis — i.e., the magistrates of the bench — and those who pass successfully are 
to receive a diploma ! 

The narrow-gauge railway between Beyrout and Damascus has been opened. 
On the slopes of the Lebanon the cog-wheel system is employed. Beyond 
Zahleh the line crosses the Bekak, ascends the Yalley Yafufa, and proceeds by 
Zebadani and the Valley of the Barada. The journey at present occupies as 
much as eight hours ; it is worked by the French Company, who own the 

TouEiSTS are cordially invited to visit the Loan Collection of " Antiques " 
in the Jerusalem Associatiok Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David. Hours : 8 to 12, and 2 to 6. Maps of 
Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund ^publications are kept for sale. 
Necessary information will be gladly given by the Rev. Theodore E. Dowling, 
Hon. Sec. 

Mous. Arscnicw has presented to the Association specimens of Phoenician 

Dr. Bliss lends some stones from Herod's Palace, Jericho. 

Mr. Herbert Clark's two glass cases contain seals (Phoenician, Greek, 
Roman, and one Hebrew seal from Silwan) ; Assyrian and Babylonian 
cylinders ; Greek, Roman, and Hebrew coins ; bronze spear arrow heads ; 
stone chisels ; tear bottles, and a mirror. 

The Kcv. Theodore E. Dowling's selection of Jewish and Palestinian coins 
fills a large glass case. 

The Rev. J. E. Hanauer's flying fox is conspicuous. 

Mr. C. A. Hornstein exhibits birds and ancient lamps. 

Mr. David Jaiuul lends a black stone lie.ul, brought by him from one of the 
numerous tombs scattered round about Qalara. 


Mr. G. E. Lees' pliotographs adorn the walls, and Dr. Wheeler's Torah, wluch 
was made use of in his Lectures on " The Jews of Jerusalem," and " Jewish Life 
in Palestine." 

The Committee have to acknowledge with thanks the following donations to 
the Library of the Fund : — 

" Beschrijving van de Versameling Egyptische Oudheden," van Ds, L. 

Schouten, Hz. Leiden, 1885. 
" Catalogus van het Bijbelsch Museum," van Ds. L. Schouten, Hz. Utrecht, 

1895. From the Author. 
" Bible Lands," by H. J. Van-Lennep, D.D. 
" The Land of Grilead," by Laurence Oliphant. 
" Tlie Land of Israel — a Journal of Travels in Palestine," by Canon 

Tristram. From the Kev. John J. W. Pollock. 
"Au Dela du Jourdain : Souvenirs d'une Excursion Faite en Mars, 189-i." 

By Lucien Grautier. From the Author. 

The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
of the Fund, which already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. See list of Books, July Quarterly Statement, 

The following have kindly consented to act as Honorary Local Secre- 
taries : — 

Eev. J. F. Bailey, Eipon, in place of the Eev. Gr. Q-. S. Thomas, resigned. 
H. Gr. Seth-Smith, Esq., Auckland, New Zealand, in place of the Eev. Frank 
Seth-Smith, resigned. 

Sir Walter Besant's summary of the work of the Fund from its commence- 
ment has been brought up to date by the author and published under the title, 
" Thirty Years' Work in the Holy Land." Applications for copies may be 
sent in to Mr. Armstrong. 

Mr. Greorge Armstrong's Eaised Map of Palestine is on view at the office 
of the Fund. A circular giving full particulars about it will be sent on appli- 
cation to the Secretary. 

A new Colotype Print, from a specially prepared copy of the Eaised Map, is 
now ready, and can be had by subscribers, price 25. Qd., post free. 

The print is on thin cardboard, measuring 20 inches by 28j inches. 

Supporters of the Fund will be gratified to learn that this valuable work 
has met with great appreciation in neai-ly every quarter of the globe, and from 
many learned societies. Copies have been ordered and supplied for the Eoyal 
Geographical Society ; the Science and Art Museum and Trinity College, 
Dublin ; the Free Kirk College, Glasgow ; Queen's College, Cambridge ; 
Mansfield College, Oxford; and for subscribers in Eussia, the Netherlands, the 
United States of America, Australia, Japan, and China, besides Manchester, 
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and other cities of our o\vu country. 

X 2 


The following are some of the opinions which have been expressed by 
competent authorities respecting the value of this Map : — 

'' A Eaised Map of Palestine must prove of the greatest interest to all who 
have visited or intend to visit the country, affording, as it does a picture au vol 
d'oiseau of all the physical features. Mr. Armstrong's interesting work will faith- 
fully present to those who have harl the advantage of touring in Palestine the old 
familiar routes they have traversed, and will give to those who have yet to enjoy 
such a journey a clear idea of the sort of country they may expect to see. . . . 
The educational use to which the map will be put will be very considerable." — 
The Times. 

"There are the seas, the lakes, the mountains, and valleys, all so perfect and 
distinct that one can travel over the ground and visit the cities and towns. 
With the Bible in hand the holy sites can be inspected, the historical events of 
the narration can be followed, the movements of the various tribes can be traced, 
the opei-ations of war can be grasped and easily understood. With this Kaised 
Map before him a Moltke could sit and plan a campaign as if it were a chess 
problem."- — Daily News. 

" By the aid of such a Raised Map the untravelled student may picture the 
sceuerj' of Palestine, under the allusions to its topography, and see wliere the 
roads of the country must run ; he can follow the tracks of rival armies upon 
its battle-fields and understand better the conditions attaching to rival sites." — 
Manchester Guardian. 

" It is certainly a most interesting and valuable Maji, and in no other way, 
short of a personal visit, could one obtain so correct au idea of the contour of 
the Holy Land." — Cambridge Tribune, U.S.A. 

" The RelieEMap of Palestine is the most accurate that has yet been pub- 
lished of that country. It is based on tlie surveys made bv Major Conder and 
Colonel Sir H. Kitchener for the Palestine Exploration Fund, and has been 
most carefully constructed by Mr. George Armstrong, who was himself employed 
on the survey. The relief enables tiie student to gi-asp at once the peculiar 
geographical and topographical features of the Holy Land and to understand 
the influence of those features on the history of the country and on the various 
campaigns from the conquest by Joshua to the expedition of Napoleon." — Sir 
C. W. Wilson, Major-General, E.E. 

" Mr. Armstrong's Eaised Map of Palestine is the only correct representa- 
tion of the natui'al features of the country that has been published. It is 
scientifically accurate, and gives a better idea of the country than any flat 
map. It will be of great value to schools and to aU scholars." — C. E. Condee, 
Major, E.E. 

" I wish anotlicr copy of your Eaised Map. I am greatly pleased with it, I 
do not thiidi I would like to teach tlie Old Testament without it." — Professor 
G-EOKOE Adam Smith, Free Church College, Glasgow. 

"It came through in excellent order and has been pronounced the best 
thing of the kind that we have ever seen," — The Very Eev. Dean Hoffman, 
The General Theological Seminary, New York. 

"All the professors and students exjiressed the most complete satisfaction 
and admired thcicorrectness and fine execution which more than answered their 
expectation. They anticijjate great practical and scientific usefulness." — Hav. 
M. LE Bachelet, Biblioth, St. Heliers, Jersey. 


"I need not say that I am well pleased witli the Map, and I must con- 
gratulate you upon the patience and skill which you have displayed in constructing 
it." — Charles Bailey, Congregational Church School, Manchester. 

" The Map arrived safely. I am vei-y much pleased with the Raised Map 
and its colouring ; you seem to have taken great pains with it. I hope Bible 
Students and Sunday School Teachers will come and study it." — W. H. Binder, 
Philosophical Society, Leeds. 

" I had the case opened and found the Map quite safe ; it is a splendid piece 
of work and has given great satisfaction to the Committee." — C. Goodyear, 
Secretary and Librarian, Lancashire College. 

" You have conferred an invaluable boon on all Scriptui'e Students by your 
issue of the Eaised Map. I shall not rest till I have one for my School." — The 
Very Bev. S. W. Allen, Shrewsbury. 

" The Map is a beautiful piece of work and equally raluable to the 
historian, the geographer, and the geologist." — Captain F. W. Htttton, Curator, 
Museum, Christchurch, Wew Zealand. 

" The Map arrived all safe . . . and has given great satisfaction to everyone 
who has seen it." — The Bev. Douglas Terrier, Free Church Manse, 
Bothwell, N.B. 

" The Map has come quite perfect and is much admired. You have erected 
a monument for yourself that will long endure." — Bev. Thomas M. B. 
Patterson, Hamilton, N.B, 

Subscribers to the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society who have not 
sent in their application for cases for binding the translations issued by the 
Society, are reminded that these are now ready, and that the whole issues — 
Nos. 1 to 26 (up to date) — have been arranged in chronological order, so as to 
make 10 volumes of equal size. 

Index to the Quarterly Statement. — A new edition of the Index to the 
Quarterly Statements has been compiled. It embraces the years 1869 (the 
first issue of the joiu-nal) to the end of 1892. Contents : — Names of the 
Authors and of tlie Papers contributed by them ; List of the Illustrations ; and 
General Index. Tliis Index will be found extremely useful. Price to 
subscribers to the Fund, in paper cover, l-s. Gd., in cloth, 2s. Qd., post free ; 
non-subscribers, 2s. and 3s. 

The museum of the Fund, at 24, Hanover Square, is now open to subscribers 
between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m., every week-day except Saturdays, 
when it closes at 2 p.m. 

It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the offices of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 

The first volume of the " Survey of Eastern Palestine," by Major Conder, 
is accompanied by a map of the portion of country surveyed, special plans, 


and upwards of 350 drawings of ruins, tombs, dolmens, stone circles, inscrip- 
tions, &c. Subscribers to the " Survey of Western Palestine " are privileged 
to have the volumes for seven guineas. The price will be raised, after 250 
names are received, to twelve guineas. The Committee are pledged never to 
let any copies be subscribed for tinder the sum of seven guineas. A. P. Watt 
and Son, Hastings House, Norfolk Sti'cet, Strand, W.C., are the Sole Agents. 
The attention of intending subscribers is directed to the announcement in the 
last page of this number. 

Mr. H. Chichester Hart's " Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and the Wady 
Arabah," which forms the second volume, can be had separately. 

M. Clermont-Granneau's work, " Archteological Researches in Palestine," will 
form the third volume. The first portion of it is already translated and in 
Vhe press. 

The maps and books now contained in the Society's publications comprise 
an amount of information on Palestine, and on the researches conducted in 
the country, which can be found in no other publications. It must never be 
forgotten tliat no single traveller, however well equipped by previous knowledge, 
can compete with a scientific body of explorers, instructed in the periods 
required, and provided with all the instruments necessary for carrying cut 
their work. See list of Publications. 

In the year 1880 M. Clermont- Ganneau published, in 19 parts, the first 
portion of a volume of "Oriental Archteological Studies," and has now com- 
pleted the volume by the issue of the remaining parts. The prospectus of 
this valuable work will be found in our advertisement pages. 

Branch Associations of the Bible Society, all Sunday School Unions within 
the Sunday School Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Wesleyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Resolution of the 
Committee they will henceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced price. 

The income of the Society, from June 22nd to September 21st, 1895, was^ 
from annual subscriptions and donations, including Local Societies, 
£199 10*. 6d.; from all sources— £411 lis. Hd. The expenditure during the 
same period was £542 12*. lit?. On September 23rd the balance in the Bank 
was £225 2s. lid. 

Subscribers are requested to note that the following cases for binding, 
casts, and slides can be had by application to the Assistant Secretary at the 
Office of the Fund:— 

Cases for binding Herr Schumacher's " Jaulan," Is. each. 
Cases for binding the Quarlerlg Statement, in green or chocolate, is. each. 
Cases for binding " Abila," " " Pella," and '"Ajian" in one volume, 
\s. each. 


Casts of the Tablet, with Cuneiform Inscription, found at Tell el Hesy, 
lit a depth of 35 feet, in May, 1892, by Dr. Bliss, Explorer to the Fund. 
It belongs to the general diplomatic correspondence earned on between 
Amenhotep III and IV and their agents in various Palestinian towns. Price 
2s. 6d. each. 

Casts of the Ancient Hebrew Weight brought by Dr. Chaplin from Samaria, 
price 2s. 6d. each. 

Casts of an Inscribed Weight or Bead from Palestine, forwarded by Professor 
Wright, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., price 1.?. each. 

Lantern slides of the Eaised Map, the Sidon Sarcophagi, and of the Bible 
places mentioned in the catalogue of photos and special list of slides. 

In order to make up complete sets of the Quarterly Statement the 
Committee will be very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 

While desiring to give publicity to j^roposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 

The authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

The Eev. Thomas Harrison, F.R.Gr.S., Hillside, Benenden, Staplehurst, 
Kent. His subjects are as follows ; — 

(1) Research and Discovery in the Holy Land. 

(2) Jiihle Scenes in the Light of 3Iudern Science. 
(.3) The Survetf of Eastern Palestine. 

(4) In the Track of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan. 

(5) The Jordan Valley, the Lead Sea, and the Cities of 'the Plain. 

(6) The Recovery of Jerusalem — (Excavations in 1894), 

(7) The Recovery of Lachish and the Hehreio Conquest of Palestine. 

(8) ArchcEological Illustrations of the Bible. (Specially adapted for 

Sunday School Teachers). 
N.B. — All these Lectures are illustrated by specially prepared lantern slides. 

The Rev. J. K. Macpherson, B.D., Kinnaird Manse, Inchture, N.B. His 
subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Excavations in Jerusalem, 18G8-70, 1894-5. 

(2) Lachish, a Mound of Buried Cities ; ivith Comparative Illustra- 

tions from some Egyptian Tells. 

(3) Recent Discoveries in Palestine — Lachish and Jerusalem. 


(4) Exploration in Judea. 

(5) Oalilee and Samaria. 

(6) Palestine in the Footsteps of our Lord. 

(7) Mou7it Sinai and the Desert of the Wandei'ings. 

(8) Palestine — its People^ its Customs, and its Ruins. (Lecture for 


All illustrated with specially prepared lime-light lantern views. 

The Eev. James Smith, B.D., St. Greorge's-in-the-West Parish, Aberdeen. 
His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Palestine Exploration Fund. 
(,2) A Pilgrimage to Palestine. 

(3) Jerusalem- — Ancient and Modern, 

(4) The Temple Area, as if now is. 

(5) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
(G) A Visit to Bethlehem and Hehron. 
(7) Jericho, Jordan, and the Dead Sea. 

The Rev. J. Llewelyn Thomas, M.A., Aberpergwm, Glynueath, South 
Wales. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Fxplorations in Judea. 

(2) Research and Discovery in Samaria and Galilee. 

(3) In Bible Lands ; a Narrative of Personal Experiences. 

(4) The Reconstruction of Jerusalem, 

(5) Problems of Palestine. 

The Eev. Charles Harris, M.A., F.R.Gr.S., St. Lawrence, Eamsgate. (All 
Lectures illustrated by lantern slides). His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Modern Discoveries in Palestine, 

(2) Stories in Stone ; or, New Light on the Old Testament. 

(3) Underground Jerusalem ; or, With the Explorer in 1895. 

Bible Stories from the Monuments, or Old Testament Historv 
in the Light of Modern Eesearch : — 

(4) A. The Story of Joseph; or. Life in Ancient Egypt. 

(.5) B. The Story of Moses ; or, Through the Desert to the Promised 

(6) c. The Story of Joshua ; or, The Buried City of Lachish. 

(7) D. The Story of Sennacherib ; or Scenes of Assyrian Warfare. 

(8) E. The Story of the Ilittites ; or, A Lost Nation Found. 

Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D., 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, 
Mass., Honorary General Secretai-y of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
for the United States. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Building of Jerusalem. 

(2) The Overthrow of Jerusalem. 

(3) The Progress of the Palestine Exploration. 

Application for Lectures may be either addressed to the Secretary, 
24, Hanover Square, W., or sent to the address of the Lecturers. 




By F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. 

The admivable report of Mr. Dickie in the last Quarterly, left the work in 
a highly interesting condition. The city wall, traced from its south-west 
H3orner near the English Cemetery, along the steep slopes above the Valley 
of Hinnom, had come to its south-east corner at a gate and tower, and 
-was pointing north-east with every prospect of its enclosing the Pool of 
Siloam. The present report will show how amply this prospect was 
realised, for we have to announce the discovery of the continuation of 
the wall across the valley, still standing to a height of 44 feet, with a 
rebuilding on a somewhat different line. Thus at two epochs was the 
pool within the city, but we have also traced, running u]) the west side of 
the Tyropoeon, a w\all which goes to prove that these two epochs were 
separated by one intermediate when the pool was outside the city. Hence 
at this critical point our work has yielded results of importance in the 
question of Jerusalem topography. 

Before describing these walls, I shall take up the description of the 
drain at the point where Mr. Dickie left off. He spoke of the sudden 
drop in its bottom and of the concrete tank beyond, under which it seemed 
to pass. The matter was cleared up by further excavating. A drop of 8 feet 
in the rock bottom of the drain occurs 5 feet 2 inches before the point a, 
where it is joined at right angles by a large drain, 11 feet high and 3 feet 
10 inches wide, with walls part rock, part masonry. Beyond a the drain 
■continues for about 37 feet, having the same great height, with a fall of 

2 fe^t ; then for 12 feet with a fall of 2 feet to the points, where the tank, 
formed of a concrete of cement and tiny potsherds, occurs. It is 

3 feet 4 inches square, and 25 inches high, its bottom being 5 feet above 
the rock bottom of the drain. But from the top of the tank a higher 
drain, with side walls, runs out at a different angle through the city walls, 
where it is lost. It has a small groove or channel in the centre of its 
rock floor. It is evident that we have here two systems of drains running 
along the same course between the points a and h, the older being the 
larger one at a, which turns at right angles and continues at the same 
low level. This became silted up to the level where we now see the drain 
running from the top of the tank, a level suiting that of the higher 
.system, which, sweeping along the base of the hill, joins the other at a, 
the tank being a catch-pit for tlie later and higher system, which beyond 
this point again diverges from the lower, being actually built on the to]) 


of its rock-cut wall. A transverse section, at a j^oint between a and 6, 
shows the later drain to have been 1 foot narrower than the earlier. A 
lar^e number of coins, found in the upper drain, were examined by the 
Rev. Mr. Dowling, who found them so corroded that only one could be 
distinguished, and that only on the reverse side. It may possibly be the 
cross of a Count of Edessa, c. a.d. 1068, 

From the point under the catch-pit the lower drain was followed, with 
sides partly rock, partly built, to the point where it breaks out through 
the city walls. Beyond there it falls rapidly, its surface worn and 
furrowed by erosion ; the side walls continue, but are further apart. 
13 feet 6 inches beyond the city limits a rough wall nins across the drain, 
built across the irregular rock so as to leave small chinks. At first we 
thought that this had been built to prevent an entrance into the city 
through the drain, and that the greater width beyond the city walls 
indicated a pool from which the sewage would trickle down under the 
transverse wall, but the erosion of the rock represents a more rapid flow 
over this part. That people got into the city by the drain is shown by 
the skulls and bones found in the part within. 

Beyond this transverse wall the water-worn rock was followed for 
some distance, the side walls of the drain having disappeared. A settling 
pool or final outlet was not found, but by a happy accident, which is really 
the excavator's greatest friend, an interesting discovery was made. The 
water-worn rock (see Section EF of Baths) suddenly terminated in a 
scarp, 8 feet deep, covered with plaster and extending east and west. 
It was first followed to the east for 15 feet, where it joined a wall which 
ran at right angles for 3 feet and then turned again. 

"We then returned to the point where we had first seen the scarp, and 
pushed along its face westwards for 55 feet, when we found a corner, 
the scarp turning to the south ; in this direction we followed it for 
20 feet, when the tunnel was abandoned, though the scarp still continued. 
Thus from the east to the west corner we had been working inside a 
chamber 70 feet in length. The flooring was composed of small white 
tesserae, irregular in size and shape, from f to |^ inch square. The 
cement setting was so strong that at first we took the flooring for stone. 
No pattern was found. As imijlied before, the north and west walls of 
this chamber consisted of the living rock to a height of several feet. It 
is probable that masonry once stood on this scarp, though no signs 
remained at the point where we saw the top. The rock-walls were 
covered with plaster in coats, the facing-coat consisting of lime, hard 
an<l well jiolished. 

Work along this tunnel was rendered dithcult, as along its whole 
length the floor was strewn with huge blocks of stone, having a face 
rough chisel-pick-dressed. On an average they were 4 feet 6 inches long, 
2 feet 11 inches l:)road, and 1 foot 11 inches high. From their position it 
was clear that they had fallen from some part of the building above. 
Tiieir character forbade our taking them for wall building stones, so we 
were driven to regard them as cover stones of an arcade running around 


the chamber, as they wei'e also found in the tunnel driven south from 
the west corner. Accordingly we searched for the column bases of the 
arcade, and as the long tunnel was not broad enough to include the line 
of these, we drove in a tunnel at right angles, but found nothing. Still, 
this tunnel may have chanced to be in an intercolumnar space. 

Chamber 2 is divided from Chamber 1 only by a step 3 inches high. 
It has a pavement of stones, large but of irregular size, well squared and 
jointed, originally dressed with the comb-pick but now polished by foot- 
wear. This chamber terminates on the north in an apsidal recess 15 feet 
in diameter, divided from the main part by a dwarf wall (see Section GH) 
and approached by a step up to the dwarf wall from which two circular 
angle steps descend. A distinct water line observed running along the 
plaster which covers the recess- wall at a height of 12 inches above its 
white mosaic flooring proves it to have been a bath. 

This bath is connected with a second one at the north-eastern angle of 
Chamber 2 by a channel penetrating the dwarf wall and running into 
this second bath, which is sunk 4 feet 6 inches in the floor, having a ledge 
between it and the wall, perhaps a seat for the bathers. The length of 
this bath was not ascertained, but its breadth is 9 feet 6 inches. It also 
is paved with white tesserae. 

We broke through the east wall of Chamber 2, finding its thickness to 
be 4 feet. All the walls of the building are covered with the same 
well-polished piaster as is observed on the scarp. In some places it had 
fallen oft', revealing close, well-jointed masonry ; the stones have a rough 
pick-chiselling in the centre, with comb-picked margins, but no bosses. 
The courses are from 16 '5 inches to 24 inches high. 

The small Chamber 3 is approached from 2 by a door 2 feet 11-5 inches 
wide, the sill of which is 4 feet 6 inches above the pavement of 2. No 
signs of steps were found. The door has a bar-socket. The chamber is 

8 feet 5 inches long, and its average width 3 feet 10 inches, as the side 
walls are not parallel. The floor is natural rock, rough and uneven, 
rapidly sloping up from under the sill to the north wall, thus giving 
a rise of 4 feet in 8 feet 5 inches. At this end of the chamber, 4 feet 

9 inches from the top of the rock, there is an opening in the wall, silled 
by a projecting stone 3 feet by 3 feet 5 inches. This small chamber 
remains somewhat of a puzzle. The difference in height between the 
door-sill and the sill of the north opening is too great to permit our 
assuming a stairway, nor did the rough, sloping floor show any signs 
that steps had once covered it. The height of the door above the 
pavement, with no coiniecting steps, led me to think it might have 
been simply a closet or store-room, with a window at the north end. 

We pushed over the north wall of Chamber 3, and went down to the 
rock again, which continued to slope up, and drove our tunnel along the 
"rough foundation wall", shown in plan, to the point where it was 
broken away to give place to the wall coming north from the back of 
the apsidal recess. The masonry of this wall is of the same character 
as described above, and it is in line with the wall of exactly similar work 


running south from the corner of the tower near gate {see key plan), 
plainly older than the tower, as it was broken aM-ay close on to it. To 
this I shall return later. 

At this i^oint we were evidently outside the bath construction, as 
shown by the position of the " rough foundation wall." Going over the 
good wall which runs north from the apsidal recess we found ourselves in 
Chamber 4, which has plastered walls and natural rock bottom. This 
may have been a reservoir, though, Avhile working in the baths, no 
connection between the two was found. 

In our work in this interesting building we wei'e disappointed at 
finding no voussoirs, mouldings, or ornamental work which might give 
a clue to its date. One of the cover stones found in the long tunnel 
was polished, and in the corner were scratched three letters which look 
like LVD. This, and the tessertf , point to Roman times. The building 
is evidently later than the great drain, as proved by a study of the water- 
worn course down which the drain-matter ran {see Section EF). This is 
not only interrupted by small scarps where stones were quarried, perhaps 
for this building, but it ends suddenly in a scarp, 8 feet deep, cut to form 
the base of the wall of the building. It is hardly necessary to remark 
that a bath is not used as a termination of a drain ! 

From the above it will be seen that we cleared out only the noi-th 
part of this large construction. It is difficult to know when and where 
to stop in excavations, but once we had determined the nature and 
extent, east and west, of this building which we had come upon so 
accidentally, I felt that my time and attention should be given exclu- 
sively to our main work, namely, the search for the city walls. But not 
without reluctance. For it would have been interesting to have seen 
whether larger baths were included in its area, to have settled the 
question of the arcade, &c., &c. However, the ground sloi^es down so 
rapidly to the south, leaving so small an accumulation of debris over the 
southern i)art of the building that I am inclined to think we would have 
found it pretty well ruined, if we could have traced it at all. The debris 
over the north-west corner, however, stands to a height of 55 feet, as 
seen in Section CD, showing that the hill above was occupied for a 
lono- time after the ruin of the baths. In excavating the l)uililing, the 
lengths of our shaft and tunnels came to about 241) feet, excluding the 
water- worn course. The soil was hard black earth, and not a frame was 
used for shoring up. The work was complicated by the fact that we had 
to go over several high walls. Now all is being tilled up, and not a 
superficial trace will be left of these interesting remains outside the 
ancient walls. 

In the last report the wall was described as far as the point B on 
the accompanying plan, corresponding to H on the former plan. North of 
B the face was ruined, a shaft was dug in a line with AB, revealing the 
inside face of the wall for some 20 feet at S. The wall here was 
unexpectedly thick, and ,no outside face was found in a direct line with 
AB. Accordingly we pushed across the packing of small stones forming 


the breadth of the wall, and discovered the small birket CD, whose 
dimensions are 21 feet 9 inches by 14 feet, with walls 3 feet thick. 
Cement covers floor and walls. At the corner near C the birket wall 
is stepped down to the floor by three steps. Breaking l)ack through the 
birket wall at D we found that it had been built up against the city wall, 
of which two courses of roughly squared stones were seen on the rock^ 
which here is only 4 feet G inches under the road. the outside 
face of the wall in the line ABD, which north of the point B is not parallel 
to the inside face. This peculiarity was explained later, as well as the 
curious inward curve of the inside face north of S. 

Having recovered the line of the city wall at D we were anxious to 
push straight on, but this could not have been done without tearing up 
the road, and an ascending terrace wall on one side with a descending^ 
one on the other prevented a diversion of the constant traffic along the 
narrow road to and from Bir Eyub. Indeed, the road caved in just 
outside the terrace at D, and we were obliged to fill up our tunnel in a 

Accordingly we made a shaft in the terrace below the road at E, 
finding the wall at a depth of 2 feet. The line was plain, but it was. 
difficult to clear the rough face to any depth as there lay against it a rough 
packing of stones cemented together by a conglomerate, which analysis, 
proved to be pure carbonate of lime, the result of the action of water 
ill the loosely packed stones, full of tiny potsherds : hence the work was 
stopped. In the meantime shafts had been dug outside the points F and 
I. Outside the point F great stones were found, evidently on their beds, 
but with no good face, naturally cemented as in the former shaft. At 
first we thought they might indicate the base of a tower, but search for 
this was in vain, and quarrying back through them we found the true 
wall again at F. But in the face occurred a curious vertical joint, the 
stones to its left being only roughly squared, while the courses to the 
right showed drafted masonry. Was this an old gate filled in ? At any 
rate, this was a point to be examined, so we began the tedious work of 
quarrying down through the massive outside packing of stones, the use of 
which was slowly explained as we descended. For, as seen in the cross, 
section at F, the wall bulges out formidably, and this packing represeuta 
a later strengthening from the outside. At a depth of 18 feet 2 inches, 
from the top of the wall the straight joint ceased, and with it the drafted 
stones observed on its right, as well as the outside packing. Hence the 
work "-rew somewhat easier, and at a depth of 9 feet 3 inches the rock 
was reached, giving the total height of wall at 27 feet 5 inches. Below 
the straight joint the face of the wall has a distinct inward hollow. 

But the problem of the vertical joint still remained unsolved. It was. 
clear, however, that the drafted masonry represented the face of some 
tower or buttress projecting from the original line, and the rough 
masonry, down to the point where the vertical joint ceased, some filling 
in or alteration of the line. Hence at this point we broke through the 
latter, pushing along the ingoing side of the former. The line continued 



for a few feet and then was lost ; so we tried the same expedient higher 
up, but the wall was broken away just short of the internal angle which 
was probably at G. 

Only the corner stones at F of the line FGr were drafted, but tlie face 
of this buttress, as far as observed, consisted mainly of drafted stones. 
The courses vary from 13 inches to 22 inches in height. The dressing 
resembles that of wall near gate, only the bosses do not project much, nor 
has the comb-pick been used. It is impossible to tell the character of the 
setting as the courses at the joints are wrenched apart by pi-essure, but 
no lime was observed. A singular longitudinal cavity between two 
courses suggests that a beam of wood, now rotted away, had once been 


used for bonding. This method is still used in Syria, and I have observed 
it in an early chui-ch near Lebk. 

In our shaft outside the point I we had similar experiences. At first 
we found ourselves among the outside packing stones, only here we were 
glad to see they liad a distinct face. Pushing back to I we observed the 
same difference between draftetl and x'ough masonry, only here instead of 
a vertical joint we found tlie drafted work projecting 15 inches from the 
rougher line, confirming our idea that in the last shaft we had also found 
a buttress. Again we had the tedious job of quarrying to reach the rock. 
At a de))th of 23 feet below the top of the wall the drafted work ceased 
(the level being the same as at the point where it had ceased in the 
.shaft F), the outside packing disap})earing also. This buttress, as the 
furmer, tested in a base wall projecting in a line Avith their faces. The 


rock was at last reached 21 feet below this poiat. The last two clays we 
were working in water, and buckets came into requisition. Girls with 
water-skins flocked to catch the precious water as it was poured from the 
buckets. To reach the rock here was the hardest, slowest job we have 
had since clearing out the fosse around the tower near the Protestant 
Cemetery. The rock, which was not cut to a scarp, was 44 feet below the 
top of the wall and 46 feet 6 inches below the terrace surface. 

Two stones of this second buttress are pierced by circular holes, 
8 inches in diameter, one of them having a stone stopper fitting into it 
broken off flush with the face, but the fracture showed it had once 
projected. This would have produced the same efiect as the biitton- 
projections from the Haram area wall at its south-east angle, shown on 
the cover of this journal. 

We next pushed along the line IH (breaking through the rougher 
work as before) and found the internal angle, H, of the buttress, HIJK, 
12 feet from I. This fixes the point G. 

I wished very much to ascertain the length of the buttress faces in 
time for this report, and an attempt was made at the second one. But as 
said before, to clear the face requires quarrying through the rough 
retaining wall, which in its upper courses is rendered doubly resisting to 
the quarryman by the natural cement. Hence I have postponed this job. 
Such are the exigencies attaching to a report sent in the midst of work. 
However, Mr. Dickie's restoration of this wall on the rock-line shows the 
necessity for such buttresses at this diflicult point where it is carried 
across the deep valley. 

Thus far I have led the reader along the steps of the discovery of these 
two lines of wall across the valley, and I daresay he is as unsettled as to 
their mutual connection and relation to the wall to the south-west as were 
we until we could lay down all our points on paper, though we had our 
hopes and ideas. But an hour or two of plotting resulted in a delightful 
clarification, and our pleasure I shall now invite the reader to share. We 
have shown that the two lines of wall seen in our excavations at and 
beyond the road evidently represent two periods, the first following the 
line GK, with buttresses, which rest on a base-wall projecting in a line 
with their faces ; the second on the line DJ, following the line of the 
buttress' faces, and, in. the recesses between them, resting on the base-wall. 
We also noticed that at the point C the wall was unusually thick. On 
plotting all the remains we find tliat G and H are almost exactly in line 
with AB, thus representing an older and straight wall across the valley. 
The second and later line diverges from the old line at B, running through 
the points DEFI and J. In other words, the first wall fell into ruins 
beyond the point B, but the buttresses and the base-wall remained. 
When the wall came to be repaired, advantage was taken of these solid 
remains, the base-wall between the buttresses was carried uj) to the top, 
completing an unbroken face of wall, and this new line at I, 12 feet 
outside the old line, was carried back to B, with a gradually diminishing 
distance between the two lines till they met at B. This accounts for the 




thickness of the wall at C, which is 14 feet, whereas at B it is only 9 feet. 
For S represents the true inner face of the earlier wall, and the line SC 
includes the original thickness plus the additional thickness caused by the 
divergence of the outer face. A third period, of course, is represented by 
the rough retaining wall of packed stones, which it would be unedifying to 
represent on the plan, but is shown in Sections F and I. Our plotting also 
explains the occurrence of drafted stones at E, forming a possible corner, for 
the measurements would allow for a buttress at this point. But in com- 
pliance with the owner's wish, we had already filled up this shaft before 
the buttresses were found beyond, hence we can only infer one here. 

These two walls represent two periods when the pool was included 
within the city, but I have now to show how these periods were probably 
separated by an intermediate one when the pool was excluded. This also 
formed a part of my theory when the various walls first appeared, but 
I was quite prejjared to submit to the logic of the tape-line and compass. 
These were in the hands of Mr. Dickie, who had no theories, and my 
pleasure may be imagined when he brought to my tent his final plan, the 
details of which not only permit my theory but strongly favour it. 

For we have now to consider a third line of wall which (as it now 
stands) begins at L, at right angles with AL, and runs wp the west bank 
of the Tyropoeon. This had been noticed by Herr Schick at the point R, 
and followed by Dr. Guthe from R to O ; he also saw it for a length of 
6 feet at M, where he believed it rightly to be part of the city wall ; 
taking, however, RO to be an independent wall. As he found the 
thickness of the latter to be only from one to two metres, I assumed, 
before striking it, that it was not city wall. 

Thinking it possible that a city wall did branch off somewhere here 
from the valley line, I sank Shaft 2, intending to push back towards the 
drain. At a depth of 26 feet we struck the cement floor of the birket 
found by Dr. Guthe, and described by him on pp. 136-41, Band V, 
Hept. 2, " Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palajstiua-Vereins." It is a large 
pool, and I take the liberty of adding it to my plan, though we saw it 
only at the corner. As in our lower gallery we thought best not to 
break through the birket wall, we drove another over the top of it, 
getting its breadth at 6 feet 6 inches, where our progress was hindered 
by large stones. We then took advantage of Shaft 1, already dug to 
reach the drain, and made the connection with the gallery from Shaft 2, 
finding a scarp at N, the bottom of which we did not reach. However, 
a glance at section through Shafts 1 and 2 will show that if it did not 
drop at once to the level of the rock under cement in birket, the slope 
of the rock must have been very rapid. We followed the scarp in the 
direction of L, finding in places rough foundation stones resting on it, 
to a point 32 feet from L, where one course of dressed stones beo-an to 
be observed. 13 feet beyond the scarp steps down vertically for 7 feet 
and three courses of masonry, with a foundation of small rough stones 
butt up against it, forming a straight joint. Tiie "specimen at M" 
shows the character of the wall here. The jointing of the masonry is 




fine; the courses are from 2r5 inches to 22 inches high ; the margins 
of the stones are regular, from 4 inches to 6 inches, and are chiselled 
across, the comb-pick not having been used ; the centres are rough picked, 
only one projecting like a boss. It was at this place that Guthe saw 
6 feet of the wall, and our observations agree with his. However, the 
mason-mark given on his Plate III is more elaborate than the rude 
triangles we found carved on the margins of most of the stones ; probably 
that particular stone had been removed with others by the owners, as 
we did not find it. As he noticed, the rock below the scarj) has been 
quarried away for building stones. Had he pushed his tunnel a few 


12 G O ( Z £> 4^ ;S" 

SCALE I'l l 

feet further to the south-west he would have found the point of con- 
nection with the lower wall-system. The scarp ends vertically, turning 
inward, and the inside face of the valley wall, ADJ, now in situ, is built 
up against it. Thus the two walls butt up against each other. As 
both walls are ruined above the level of the scarp-top, we could not tell 
whether they were once bonded together above this point. 

Returning to N, wliere we had first struck this scarp, we followed it 
to the north-west for 9 feet 4 inches, where it breaks outwards for 
8 feet 2 inches and then resumes in general its former direction for 9 feet 
7 inches to the point O, where we again struck Dr. Guthe's work. Here we 



came upon the rude thin wall, OP, running off from the scarp to a point 
under the eastern terrace. On his plan this wall is marked CD. From O 
the scaq) continues for 6 feet 10 inches to Q, the face beiug jjlastered 
with hard, tine lime. At Q it steps down vertically and the masonry again 
appears, butting up against and forming the straight joint shown on 
Guthe's Plate III, which he took to indicate the end of the wall. This 
feature we have already pointed out at M. From Q we followed the wall 
for 25 feet 10 inches to the point R, where it was first seen by Guthe, 
marked B on his plan. Under ordinary circumstances I would not 
reojjen an excavation of a brother explorer, but having found that the 
line of wall continued beyond the point where it had been supposed to 



end, I was anxious to find whether it also continued at the other supposed 
limit. Moreover, we had pushed our tunnel for some distance before we 
were sure of the identity of our wall with his, as the earth resting 
against its face was so hard as to appear untouched. This was explained 
when I gathered from his plan that he had been working in a deep open 
trench, the filling up of which would laot only be more firmly packed 
than is j^ossible in a tunnel, but which also would be directly afi'ected 
by the action of rain percolating immediately through the packing. In 
following the wall OP, however, he was working in a tunnel, the traces 
of which were perfectly evident at its opening, for we did not reopen it. 
Moreover, on laying down on Guthe's plan the point of our wall where 
we first struck it, there was a slight variation in position, which is 

r 2 


explained by diflference of allowance for the discrepancy between true and 
magnetic north. Again, we wished our own drawing of the masonry for 
comparison with the other specimens by the same hand. This is given 
in " specimen at Q." The wall has been robbed of stones since Guthe's 
work, but our measurements of those that remained showed an exact 
similarity with the corresponding ones in his elevation. The courses are 
from 19 inches to 25 inches high. Rude bosses project from 3 inches to 
5 inches from the irregular margins, which are chisel-drafted, further 
dressed by the comb-pick. The jointing is not so fine as at the part of 
the wall at M. A comparison of the two drawn specimens will show the 
differences better than any description. As the rock slopes up rapidly 
behind the face of the wall it was impossible to ascertain the true width 
of the ruined upper courses. 

At Q the scarp ceases, and beyond this point the wall rests for a few 
feet upon the rock, which then dips, the rest of the wall to R being 
carried on a making up of rough stones grouted in cement, extending 
some distance out from face of wall. 

At E, the masonry abruptly ceases, as noticed by Guthe. Here the 
line crosses a birket, whose bottom is 3 feet below. 

Pushing our tunnel for 8 feet 5 inches in the same direction, we were 
fortunate enough to find a stone of precisely the same character, on a 
similar foundation, proving that the wall had continued to this point, 
though it was again lost up to the point under the terrace, where the 
work was temporarily suspended, so that we could give our undivided 
attention to the work in the field on " Zion," where we had been inter- 
rupted last autumn, and to which I had returned at the request of the 

The wall where last seen points in the direction of a scarp exjwsed at 
the west of the old pool. Later on, it will be of jiaramount importance 
to learn whether there is any connection between them, and whether the 
wall crosses the valley higher up. The owners declared that they had 
removed the stones of a gateway near the point where the wall is lost 
beyond R. Tliis testimony corresponds with that of a former guard of 
ours, who s]Joke of this destroyed gate long before we had ever seen the 
landowners. We excavated among confused foundation remains near the 
line of the wall here, but without finding any j^roper clues. The I'ock 
was not found. 

Notwithstanding the differences between the masonry at M and Q, 
the scarp that connects them proves that they are on the same line of 
wall LR. We shall now return to the corner L where the inner face of 
the wall ADJ butts up against LR, and endeavour to see which is older. 

This wall ADJ we have shown to have diverged fium the original 
line ALK whose inside face would have cut the line of the wall LR 
several feet beyond L ; hence the line LR must have been laid out when 
the wall ALK was ruined just beyond L, as it shows an unbroken face to 
that point, forming a corner or right angle with the line AL. In other 
words, it seems probable that the original wall ran in the line ALK, 


enclosing the pool ; falling into ruins it was rebuilt from A as far as L, 
the part LK being left ruined, and the line altered, running up to the 
west side of the valley to exclude the jiooi, forming tlie wall ALE, with a 
corner at L. Later, when it was again desired to include the pool within 
the city, the old wall across the valley was rebuilt, as shown before, on the 
line ADJ, which diverges from the old line ALK. 

The line ALK is certainly older than the line ADJ, and older than 
the wall LR ; it is also older than the line ALR, supposing the latter to he 
truly a line excludiny the pool, in which case ALR is older than ADJ. 
There is, however, another possibility, i.e., that the wall LR was joined on 
the wall ADJ and existed along with it as an inner wall, the pool still 
being included in the city by ADJ. In other words, LR is more recent 
than ALK, but the remains do not positively prove that it is older than 
ADJ. Against this possibility is the fact that beyond the point S the 
inner face of the old wall was found to curve as if to give additional 
internal strength behind a true corner at L, where the wall ALR 
excluded the pool. Moreover, it should be noticed that while the inner 
face of the wall ALK is preserved for 20 feet at S, and jirobably also 
exists where the outer face was seen at H, all traces of it have disappeared 
just beyond the point L. It looks as if remains here had been removed 
to form the new corner of the line ALR. Had LR been built on to the 
wall ADJ we would have expected the junction not at L, but a few feet 
beyond in line with the inner face remaining at S and probably at G 
and H. 

Hence I prefer the first view presented that ADJ was built on to LR. 

The facts thus very well suit the theory which I broached in a letter 
to the Committee after reading Sir Charles Wilson's notes in the last 
Quarterly Statement. He held that the wall which seemed about to run 
across the valley must be Eudocia's, as she included the pool, which at 
Herod's time was excluded. I wrote that it still remained to be proved 
whether the wall did run across the valley, or up its west side, or both. I 
added that if the wall ran across this might prove that it was not Herod's, 
and that it was Eudocia's, but that she may have rebuilt in a line older than 
Herod's, for I could not and cannot believe that Hezekiah, or whoever the 
constructor of the Siloam tunnel may have been, would have umlertaken 
this expensive work merely to bring the water from one point outside the 
city to another point outside. In Herod's time it may have been 
convenient as well as safe to exclude the pool. "Well, the spade has 
brought to light not only a line of wall crossing the valley, with a 
separation in a somewhat divergent line, but also another wall running 
up its west bank, probably representing an alteration of the line to 
exclude the ])ool, at a period intermediate between that of the original 
valley line and that of its i-ebuilding. Hence I affirm that ALK corre- 
sponds to my view of the position of the wall in Hezekiah's time 
(Nehemiah's as well), ALR to Herod's line and ADJ to Eudocia's, but 
with the present data before us it would be unscientific definitelj' to 
assert that the three walls must belong respectively to Hezekiah, Herotl, 


aud Eudocia. The key to the various styles of masonry in wall building 
has not yet been found (and I for one am sceptical of its discovery), hence 
the argument at present must rest on the lines followed by the walls and 
their correspondence with historical data. An inscription may at any 
moment upset our theories. But the above correspondence is highly 

It cannor be argued that a wall 44 feet in height could not have 
remained unused and perhaps unknown from the time of the supposed 
alteration of the line to exclude the pool at or before the time of Herod 
to its rebuilding by Eudocia. For this same height of wall as repaired 
has remained unknown for centuries till we found it the other day. 
Granted that before the rebuilding it was buried in debris as it is to-day, 
once having found the top while laying out her line, Eudocia cleared the 
face to the base-wall in line with the buttress faces and carried it up. 
Nor can it be said that as the debris she found over the top of the wall 
could not have been deeper than the debris now, which is in places hardly 
2 feet (though before the present terraces were made it was somewhat 
higher), therefore, the wall she repaired could not have been buried so 
long before. For the wall as standing to-day, its top the same distance of 
2 feet under the surface, could be repaired to-morrow, and yet an even 
longer time has elapsed since its ruin. 

We have in this report been considering the line (or lines) of wall 
beyond the point B, and we must now glance at the connection with what 
has been described before. For reasons to be given later, I shall begin 
the comparison at the point where the wall enters the Jewish Cemetery. 
On pp. 245-246 of the last Quarterly Statement may be seen specimens 
of the wall as it enters the Cemetery, leaves the Cemetery, and at 
its north-west junction with the gate, i.e., "Specimens at A, B, 
and C." These evidently belong to one period, which is the same 
as that of the first gate at this point. The tower near the gate 
(Specimen D, last Quarterly Statement) is of superior masonry, but 
it was shown to have been added on to the line of wall which runs 
straight behind it. The wall here is built of roughly hewn stones, 
plastered, with good masonry only at one point {see Specimen E, last 
Quarterly). The reparation of the old wall ALK on the line ADJ is also 
of roughly hewn stones, but as seen at the buttresses this old wall is like 
the Specimens A, B, and C, which may thus re]n-esent the building of 
Hezekiah (and earlier), to whom also the first gate belonged. The 
repaiatiou of the walls by Eudocia began somewhere beyond the gate, 
though she found the inside face of the old wall intact at S. The tower 
nr.ght thus be later than her time, aud this view is sup])C)rted by the fact 
that the tower is later than the apparently Roman Baths, as shown before 
by the fact that a wall belonging to the baths was broken away for its 
construction. The third gate might lielong to Eudocia, and the second to 
the intermediate jieriod indicated by tlie line ALU. 

Si)ecimens of masonry M and Q show that the wall LR may have been 
used in two periods. The mason marks at M are curious. We are most 


familiar with these in crusading work, and these stones certainly corre- 
spond to the masonry in Kalaat el Husn, as described by Major Conder. 
It is ditficult to imagine a crusading wall at this point. Has it been 
proved that mason marks were unused in early masonry ? The masonry 
at Q is very like the wall north-west of gate. Consi'(feration of position 
showed us that the balance of proof lay in favour of the laying out of the 
line LR before the line ADJ, and after the line ALK. The work at 
Q may represent its original masonry, and that at M some rebuilding at 
any period. But all this is tentative. Could a gate be found with some 
ornamentation, or best of all some inscription, our task of solving the 
chronology would be much easier. 

The above x-epoi't does not cover the whole labours of the last season, 
for three weeks' hard work have been done in the ground where the 
Committee desired me to make a section across the line of our wall, 
somewhat east of the " inferred tower " {see map in January Quarterly 
Statement), running it north to the road coming from Bab Neby Dafid. 
It was thought we might strike another line of wall, as the masonry of the 
wall we had found here was not regarded as very ancient. This wall was 
in use during the three ]3eriods of the gate near the Protestant Cemetery. 
Unexpected light has just been shed on the third period of this gate by 
Professor Kennedy, of Edinburgh, who observed a Latin Graffitto on the 
base of a quarter-column pilaster used in the making up under the paved 
road leading to the highest hill, proving that the third gate was built 
in Roman times or later. We found the tower exactly at the place 
inferred. This was a decided gain. We also sank a shaft along the 
inside face of the wall, finding this was built on a few feet of rubble, 
resting on the earth. Going down for a few feet more we came on the 
top of a massive wall-foundation, just inside the line of the upper wall. 
Clearing its face, we found it towering from the rock for more than 
10 feet in massive courses of roughly-squared stones, not dressed. We 
have also struck this grand foundation at a point far below the tower, 
which rests on rubble and earth, and hope to connect the two points. 
The discovery delights me. It proves that an old wall existed here 
so long before the upper wall as to have been buried and forgotten 
when the upper wall was built. I have never maintained that the 
masonry seen last autumn at this point was ancient, but that the 
ancient wall had once followed this line. To have now found the old 
foundations a few feet inside the later line, proves my point more com- 
]:)letely than to have found rough foundations directly under the later 
wall. The line of wall we traced from the Protestant Cemetery to 
Siloam showed smooth masonry as far as what I have called the 
inferred cower ; beyond this ])oint no dressed masonry was seen till it 
enters the Jewish Cemetery, where the drafted work appeared and was 
seen at various points to Siloam. But for 100 feet or more in a field 
between the inferred tower and the Jewish Cemetery, large founda- 
tion stones, similar to what we have just found, were discovered. In the 
January Quarterly Statement I said that the smooth masonry, built on 


the old line as far as tlie inferred tower, might represent a later 
wall, perhaps branching off to Burj el Kebrit, while the older line 
continued to Siloam. This point is now in a fair way of being settled, as 
we are following both lines. 

During the first six weeks of the season I was absent in Beyrout, 
owing to illness. After I left, the work was continued at half speed. 
During this time the baths were partly excavated, but the tunnels were 
still open on my return. At the end of 16 days, the health of Yusif, the 
foi-eman, demanded a rest, and the work was suspended for three weeks. 
It began again a few days before my return, when it went on at full 

The summer has been unusually hot, and a great conti-ast to the last. 
Our camp is now pitched near the work on the slope of the hill, which 
I have been watching all day while Yusif overlooked the excavations at 
Siloam. These, of course, I visited daily. It seemed as if we never 
would be finished with Shafts F and I. So slow was the process of 
quarrying that sometimes 2 feet represented a day's j^rogress, and a 
month had passed before they were completed. The baths also 
took a great deal of time, the lengths of shaft and galleries required 
amounting to 240 feet. We have managed to dispense with frames 
almost entirely. Meanwhile not the slightest accident has occurred. 
Nor has the season been attended with annoyances, gieat or small. 
The landownei's have given no trouble : usually no bargain is necessary. 
Perhaps the fact that we were pi-actically obliged to emjiloy a man 
while digging in his own field, without the option of dismissing him 
for incorrigible laziness, might be set down as an annoyance. Yusif 
certainly took this view. It was in this field that we made a curious find 
along the wall LM. It was an adze, probably left by one of Dr. 
Guthe's workmen, as he excavated at this point. 

We were glad to welcome to the camp the Governor of Kerak, who 
rendered us so much assistance in his district. His Excellency Hamdi 
Bey continues his cordial interest and Ibraliim Effendi is as devoted to 
the work as ever. The work grows more interesting every day, and I 
hope that the next report will throw more certain light on the gradu<ally 
clearing question of Jerusalem topography. 

The i)lans of Mr. Dickie speak for themselves and need no commenda- 
tion from me. But I cannot close without expressing my gratitude for 
the invaluable assistance he has rendered me in the general work at a 
time when I most needed it. 

Jerusalem, September bth, 1895. 

Co j:-tce p.'ziv, 

Plan of Jerusalem showing the Situation of the Churches. 





1. Old Churches in Jerusalem. — A good many of the old churches in 
Jerusalem, described by various authors, and existing in the time of the 
Crusades and the Christian Jerusalem kingdom (of which many date 
back into the fourth century), are still well-known ; but some of them 
are not yet discovered or no longer exist. The Boi'deaux Pilgrim speaks 
in the fourth century also of seven synagogues which once existed in the 
neighbourhood of the tower of David, one of which at that time still 
existed.' So the six others were then destroyed, or, what is more likely, 
had become converted into chui-ches or used for other ecclesiastical 
purposes. Now, as in the quarter in which the tower of David stands there 
are several half-ruined buildings, some once used as piayer places for the 
Mohammedans (mosques), and some in good preservation still in use as 
churches, I thought it would be of some interest to examine all of these 
closely and to compare them one with the other, as, even if the proofs of 
their having been once Jewish synagogues could not be discovered, yet 
the better knowledge of them might at least throw some light on the 
time when they were built. So I examined seven such places, and have 
already reported on one of them, namely, the church in the Armenian 
" Convent of the Olive Tree." I will now describe the six others, and 
append plans of them, respecting which I have to make the following- 
remarks : — 

No. 1 {see Situation Plan), forming the corner in the street Harat al 
Arman, is a mosque, but out of repair, and no longer used as a prayer 
place. About thirty-six years ago a Moslem, fearing lest the building, which 
was lying in ruins, might one day go into the possession of the Christians, 
began to repair it, closing it on the east side, and making a new door for 
the enti-ance at the western vestibule. But this work has already become 
dilapidated, and so the place is still in possession of the Mohammedans, 
but out of use. 

Very often during forty-eight years when I passed the road I looked 
at this old half-ruined building, but had never occasion to see the inside, 
as it was always locked and blocked up. So when I was ia the last eight 
months about to seax'ch for things, I asked a Moslem acquaintance how I 
could see the inside. After a few days he came and said if I would go 

' See " The Bordeaux Pilgrim," translated by A. Stewart, and published by 
the Palestine Pilgrims' Test Society. London, 1SS7, p. 23. 



with him he would show me the inside, but that I must take with me 
an assistant and a ladder about 12 feet long, as the key of the door was 
lost and the lock rusted, but he had permission from the administrator of 
the mosque to go in by the window, taking out the stones with which it was 
blocked up and afterwards replacing them. This we did, and I was able 
to measure the inside. The roofing has fallen in, and so I could not see 
the floor because of the debris lying on it ; but most probably it consists 
of flagstones (balats). I was surprised that the inside is of quite different 
workmanship from the outside, which latter is very rough masonry of 
stones not fully dressed, whereas inside the stones are smaller but much 
better hewn. A cornice goes round about at the height of the springing 

Plan of the Church of "St. Thomas." 

of the arching, which I think is Byzantine ; and so seems to be the 
western entrance with the two windows situated very high uj). The little 
rooms near the a])se are filled with stones, so I could only to some degree 
ascertain their size, but not the workmanship. The eastern wall with a 
large window is rather modern, but had formerly a regular apse, which 
appeared when a few years ago the street was levelled and the water- 
drain and new pavement were made ; accordingly, I have ])ut it in the 
drawing. The building had originally the entrance in the south wall, but 
this was afterwards blocked up and the western door made — at which 
time there seems to have been a road or lane in front which afterwards 
became converted into a vestibule, and when the church was turned into 
a mos(jue tlie niilirab (or prayer niche) was made in the south wall, where 
formerly the original entrance had been. Besides the modern work there 


can be recognised, even on the outer surface of the walls, two building 
periods. The oldest part goes up to the height of the narrow windows ; 
higher uj) is restoration of jimaller and a little better cut stones. At the 
entrance is a new arch of well-dressed stones. It is difficult to fix the 
time for each of these restorations and alterations. My impression is 
that the oldest parts are Jewish, the new entrance arch, the cornice, and 
some windows Byzantine, and that in the Crusading time a restoration 
took place, whilst afterwards in the eleventh century the building was 
converted into a mosque. From the thickness of the walls I made the 
conclusion that the arching was always, even in the time of those restora- 
tions, tunnel-like. Opposite the southern wall, the wall of the Armenian 
Convent seems to stand on an older wall, as far as this church goes, but 
what is further east has no foundation at all, which was proved recently 
when the drain and the pavement of the street were made. So that in 
ancient Jerusalem there was no such corner, but the street went straight 
eastwards. Taking all things into consideration, I am inclined to think 
that we have in this building that one of the seven synagogues which the 
Bordeaux Pilgrim saw in the fourth century. As a church it is by later 
writers mentioned as the Church of St. Thomas. Tobler says that the 
first notice of a " St. Thomas Church" is given about 1520, and it is 
stated that Christ appeared here to this Apostle. Later on, it was said 
that the Apostle Thomas had here his house, and that no Jew or Moslem 
could go into the church without risk of dying the same day ; and as it 
had no more a roof, so if something had fallen in no Moslem or Jew, but 
only a Christian, could take it out. In the year 1651 the eastern part 
had fallen, and twenty-two years later it is stated that the church was a 
ruin. In the year 1681 it was already converted into a mosque,' but, as 
it seems, not used as such, or very seldom, just as it is now. This circum- 
stance, together with the fact that for some centuries it was not used 
even as a church, but permitted to fall into ruin, seems to indicate that 
there must have been some bad sayings respecting the place, and that it 
hence was superstitiously avoided. 

No. 2. The chapel, called the " Prison of Christ," in the small Arme- 
nian Convent outside the town, near the Neby Datid buildings, is only 
interesting in this line of study so far as it bears resemblance to the others 
of this kind, and is very nearly of the same size. • It is now in good 
preservation, and seems to have undergone some alterations in course of 
time. To me it seems that originally it had a half -circled arched roof, 
and that afterwards, in order to get more room, the side walls were 
made thinner, and arches erected over the space so gained, like those 
which were in the west and east, and that on these a cross-arched roof 

' Maunclrell also says, 1697, " About 150 paces further (from the Churcli of 
St, Mark in the Syrian Convent) in the same street is that building which they 
call the house of St. Thomas, converted formerly into a church, but now a 



was erected, as it is now. Here also are small side chambers, as at No. 1, 
but much smaller, such as are found in several other churches. 




20 Fecit 


Pla:x of the Chapel of the " Peison of Cheist." 

No. 3. The mosque " Yakubiyeh," behind the English church. 
Although very seldom used and still more seldom repaired, this building 




Plan of the Mosque "Yakcbiyeh." 

is in c(jnip:iratively good condition, has no marks of restoration or 
alterations, and seems to be intact just as it was built. Most probably it 



is Crusading, and was once connected with a convent, as it is even now 
connected with a house. In former times it was the prayer place for the 
soldiers in the castle, but for about fifty years they have very seldom 
used it, as there is another place of worship in the citadel itself. At 
the time of the Crimean War the building was for a short time used as 
a barrack. In front of it (west) is a small court. This building has 
nothing to do with the seven synagogues, and is more modern than No. 1. 
It has no little rooms near the apse, but is roofed with a half-circled 
arching. As its name indicates, it was dedicated to St. James. 

No. 4. Church of Mar Jerias, in the little Greek Convent of the same 
name, in the Armenian quarter, and east of the large Armenian Convent. 
This is in good repair, and much frequented by pilgrims. The rooms of 





Plan of the Chuech of " Mae Jeeias.' 

the convent are built on three sides round it, and joining it, and this 
accounts for a difference in thickness of the walls. Apparently it has 
undergone restoration and alterations, but seems originally to have been 
half-circle vaulted like the others, but later, when rebuilt after ome 
destruction, it was covered with two cross archings. It is remarkable 
that its original size was like that of the others, 20 feet wide and, on an 
average, 28 feet long inside space, or 560 square feet without the apse and 
small chancel. 

No. 5. "Dar Disse," or the dwelling-house of the Disse family. 
Situated opposite the barracks, and on the east and south of David's 
Tower (see plan). It was formerly a church, as not only the inhabitants 
told me, but as the building itself i^roves. The walls are very thick, 
for supporting a half-cii'cled arching, which is still good and in situ. 
The entrance has been and still is on the north side, like the Church 



of St. Maiy Major by the Muristau. The eastern j^art of this church, 
having become ruined, was made into a house, by erecting there a 
straight wall with the necessary windows, and the room made into 
two stories by putting in (a little below the springing of the arch) 
a flooring formed by smaller archings resting on piers and intersecting 
walls, so that one family may live below and one above. On the eastern 
wall can be seen (as the plan shows) that there were once the little rooms 
near the apse, which I have given in dotted lines. The western windows 
are the original ones. The building has no marks of other alterations or 
restorations except those already mentioned, so I think it has never been 
more fully destroyed. The stones are of ordinary size, and there is 


5 K) 

I J I I . I L- 

10 Feet 

Plan of " Dar Disse." 

nothing more remarkable in the building than its old apjiearance. The 
stones were not nicely cut, but left somewhat rough. May this also 
have been originally one of the synagogues? If so, then the apse was 
added to it in the Christian time, and again broken down when it came 
into possession of the Mohammedans. At the time of Felix Fabri, 
A.D. 1484, it was already a Moslem house, and he considered it as the 
site of the Three Maries. Fabri says : "When we had seen the things 
aforesaid (the Church of St. James and the Armenian Convent) we went 
further along the street, and on our way we came to a place, where a 
great stone is set up in the public road. This stone was set up by the 
Christians of old on that spot, because at that place on that road the 


Lord appeared to the three Maries when they were coming back from 
the Sepulchre, saying, ' All hail ! ' and they came and held him by the 
feet and worshipped him (Matthew xxviii, 9). So here we bowed 
ourselves to the earth and kissed the place which Christ's feet had trod. 
.... Once there stood here a great church, which the Saracens have 
destroyed, as they have done many other churches. Past this stone goes 
the way down from Mount Zion to the Lord's Sepulchre, so that every 
day we jiilgrims used to pass by this place, and I have sometimes passed 

by it six times in one day Whenever we passed by the aforesaid 

stone we used to kiss it." ' As they went farther, they came, at a short 
distance, to the citadel of David— the present Kala, or castle — and when 
they had seen it, they went back the same way as far as the corner where 
the blessed Mary stood — which seems to have been more south than the 
great Armenian church there — nearer to the house of Caiaphas. 

The stone mentioned as being in the public road of course no longer 
exists there, but in 1517 it was still there, as Tschudi bears witness ; and 
about 100 years later a Mohammedan " house " was considered to be the 
place of the greeting, which house had a corner projecting into the street, 
and this corner was kissed by the pilgrims. This house in question 
(Plan No. 5) has just such a corner (see " Quaresimus," ii, 71, et seq.). 

Maundrell, a.d. 1697, alludes to this place, saying, after he has men- 
tioned the house of St. Thomas : " Not many paces further is another 
street crossing the former, which leads you, on the right hand, to the 
])lace where they say our Lord appeared, after his Eesurrection, to the 

three Maries The same street carries you, on the left hand, to the 

Armenian Convent." So there is little room for doubt that the present 
Dar Disse is the old site of the three Maries, and most probably originally 
a synagogue, then converted into a church, and later into a dwelling- 
house. In the CDurt of this house is now a kind of cemetery, containing 
several Mohammedan tombs, at one of which a light is burned at night. 
Close to this tomb is set apart a place for prayer, or a kind of mosque. 
The house itself escaped the fate of becoming a mosque, such a praying 
place being made on its outside. 

No. 6. The Church of St. Mark, in the Syrian Convent. This is an 
old building, and apparently somewhat variously restored. The gate 
leading from the street, first into the convent,, and about a dozen paces 
further to the church, has some remarkable decorations. It is said to be 
the gate at which Peter knocked (Acts xii, 13). The rooms of the 
convent are situated round the church, so the inside was always rather 
dark, as the pilgrims state, until the latest restoration, when, over the 
former western entrance, a large window was made, so that it now gets 
more light. Its roof is now formed of two cross archings. The font 
is shown as a veiy old relic, even as coming down from the times of the 
Apostles. Blackburn says of this church : " It is supposed to have been 
the first ecclesiastical building of the Christians." Although this assertion 


' Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society's Trauslation, I 32S. 



cannot be proved, still it is probable that the erection of all these small 
and simply formed churches at Jerusalem falls in the early Christian 
time, before Byzantine art became flourishing. 


There are move similar buildings in Jerusalem, which I will, if the 
"Lord permit, examine and describe. 

2. Cross at the Russian Ground near the Church of 'the Holy Sepulchre. 

The ancient arch in the Russian ground near the Sepulchre Church has 

lon<T been known, and was described by me in the QwirterUj Statement of 
1888, p. 58, and plans Nos. 2 and 3. On the capital of the pillar is a 
cross in relief, about ^ inch high, the bars 2 inches broad and 9 to 
10 inches long, which has either been made recently or which I Uiink to 
be the case is old, but had not been observed, or if observed people paid 
no attention to, as it is roughly done like the capital on which it stands. 
I think it was made when in Crusading times the arch was restored. 
The new builditig over the whole is marvellously well done. It forms a 
very high church-like hall, very plain but exceedingly well lighted, so 
that the pictures hanging at considerable height round about the plain 
walls can be very well seen. The broad steps are restored with reddish 
and polished stones, and on the top of them is a screen, so that the ujjper 
level space is tit for divine service. The stairs leading up to it are not for 
use, but simply in remembrance of the old ones. A lodging for the 
attendants and a small hospice for pilgrims have been added. 

.3. The Village of Silwan has in the last ten years become much 
.enlarged and extended by the erection of new houses. Nearly all of 
them are either above the village higher up the hill, or on the slope of 
the mountain south of the village. Formerly there was a free space 


more than 1,000 feet long between the last southern house and Bir Ajoob. 
This is now dotted with new houses, and so the village extends south- 
wards even a little lower than Bir Ajoob ! On the eastern slope of the 
hill there are the two lepers' houses, and a cluster of dwellings of the 
Yemenite Jews. 

The Old Large Pool of Siloam, for a long time used as a garden, is 
now filled with filthy fluid, as the chief sewer of the city pours out its 
contents there, so that people working in the neighbourhood are much 
annoyed by the bad odours, and suffer in their health. 

4. Another Tomb at the Muristan. — As I have already reported, the 
whole face of the northern wall of the northern cloister — formerly forming 
the south wall of the large chui'ch — being found to have no proper 
foundations had to be taken down in order to dig for new foundations. 
About its middle, some 8 feet below the surface, a tomb was found of 
some interest. It was walled in like those which I formerly reported, 
lying in a direction from west to east, but single, and the body had been 
put in a solution of lime, which had in the lapse of time become hard 
and in it was a cavity of the size of the body, now nearly emj^ty, as even 
the bones had nearly all become " earth." The architect thinks that the 
person very likely died of a contagious sickness, and hence was buried in 
lime. Many years ago I found on the Mount of Olives, a little higher 
up than the tombs of the Prophets, a tomb in which the bodies had been 
laid in lime. The skeletons were there still preserved, and there were 
large cavities in the mass of lime. Eespecting this tomb newly found in 
the Muristan there arose in the city a rumour that it must be the tomb 
of a very eminent person, as it was found an unusual one, to which people 
added that the lid was gilded, which is not true, nor were there any 
carvings or writings on it. 

5. Perpendicular Rock-cut Tomh and Stone Basin in it. — His lordship 
the English Bishop of Jerusalem, Dr. Blyth, has bought a large piece of 
ground and intends to build a church, schools, and bishop's residence on 
it, for which a firman has been issued and the work already began. 

The ground is near the " Tombs of the Kings." On the Ordnance 
survey plan, aVoo' ^^ i^ ^^^^ triangular piece between the two roads, 
extending from about the middle of the Tombs of the Kings at their west 
side towards the town (or southwards) for a length of 550 feet. 

When the digging for the foundations of the church was being done, 
some tombs were found, the one I have seen is cut perpendicularly into 
the rock, like those described by Sir Charles Wilson in the "Ordnance 
Survey of Jerusalem," p. 76, and sketch 7, Plate 26. The direction of 
this newly-discovered tomb, or grave, is from north to south : it is distant 
about 140 feet due south from the Tombs of the Kings. The rock-cutting 
is rather rough, and at its southern end the grave is about half a foot 
deeper than at the other part, forming a pit intended for the accumu- 
lation of water penetrating into the tomb. The most interesting thing is 




a stone basin, or bowl, found in the grave. It has a diameter of 
10 inches, on two opposite sides ears, or handles, and on one side 
between these a beak with a groove on its upper surface, so that when 
the basin was taken by the two ears, or handles, and tilted sidewards 
towards the beak, its fluid contents would run off (sec the drawing)^ As 

Sketch of a Stone Basix. 

there was found with it a stone rubber or grinder, I think the basin was 
once used for rubbing paint, and that tl)e implements were put into the 
grave of their owner who had used them in his lifetime. The basin is of 
ordinary Jerusalem stone, and the rubber of the red Jerusalem marble, 
so called. 


By Major (.'. R. Conder. 

There appears to me to be no doubt that the line of wall and scarp 
discovered is that of the ancient Jewish Wall of Nehemiah and of 
Herod. The directicm is that in which Dr. Robinson drew this wall, 
and which a])pears on most of the later maps, including those which I 
have made at various periods since 1879. 

As regards the masonry, two periods seem now to be clearly indi- 
cated : 1st, the rubble and rough masonry on the rock ; 2nd, the hewn 
masonry of three kinds— smooth, drafted with smooth face, and drafted 
with bosses. The two walls are not, I imderstand, exactly on the same 

The whole of the hewn masonry, as described and drawn by Dr. Bliss, 
resembles, in the pro])ortions, the finish, and tiie wide irregular drafting, 
as well as in the admixture of smooth and drafted stones, the masonry 
of the Byzantine monasteries throughout Palestine with which I am 


familiar, belonging to the fonrth, fifth, and sixth centuries, a.d. Dr. Bliss 
compares it with that masonry on the south wall of the Haram, which is 
later than Hadrian's age, and usually attribut«d to Justinian. 

In 1881 I saw the wall on Opliel uncovered by Dr. Guthe, south of 
"Warren's great tower. The masonry was of the same character as that 
described by Dr. Bliss, and I was at the time convinced that it was not 
Jewish, but Byzantine masonry. I also saw the wall found by Dr. Guthe 
immediately west of the Pool of Siloam, and this also appeared to be 
Byzantine. Dr. Chaplin informed me, at the time, that the hewn masonry 
of the Opliel wall, discovered by Sir Charles Warren, was similar to that 
found further south on Ophel by Dr. Guthe. Hence it would seem that 
a Byzantine wall went from the Protestant Cemetery to Siloam, and 
thence to the south-east corner of the Haram. 

On the other hand, Sir Charles Warren found rough masonry at the 
base of the Ophel wall, which seems to answer to the rough masoniy of 
the older wall found by Dr. Bliss. No excavator has found any masonry, 
on the south wall of Jerusalem, resembling that of the Haram foundations 
which — following De Vogue — I have always attributed to Herod the 

As legards the gate found by Dr. Bliss, and which appears to be the 
Gate of the Essenes and the Dung Gate of Nehemiah in Bethso, three 
lintels are determined, of which the lowest belongs to the period of the 
rough masonry, the second is directly superimposed, and the thii'd is 
separated by a thickness of rubble, and belongs to the period of hewu 
masonry. The lower lintels are not exactly imder the upper, the gate 
having been shifted to one side. It is possible that the gate may have 
received a new lintel, av hen much worn by traffic, without the wall having 
been rebuilt, but the topmost lintel seems to belong to the Byzantine 
wall. The paved street seems to belong to the older period. 

The conclusions to which I think we shall finally be forced to adhere 
are : — 

1st. That the rocky scarp is that of the Hebrew kings. 
2nd. That the rough masonry may represent the work of Nehemiah. 
3rd. That the Byzantine wall is that of the Empress Eudocia, about 
450 B.C., as Canon Dalton supposes. 

I shall be surprised if it can be proved that Josephus was wiong as to 
the course of the wall, in his time, at Siloam. If the Spring was within 
bowshot of the wall it would be protected. It is highly important that 
the excavations near Siloam should be exhaustive, and that the older 
line should be sought above the pool, as well as the Byzantine line traced. 
Canon Dalton will, I think, find that the passages in the "Jerusalem" 
volimie of "Memoirs" (pp. ^30, 231, 393), bear my signatiu-e, and that 
Sir Charles Warren is not committed by them to any opinion. My view 
was based on what I saw of Dr. Guthe's excavations in 1881. 

Balla, Co. Mayo, 

July 1th, 1895. 

z 2 


By Major Conder, E.E., D.C.L. 

July, 1895, p. 195. The so-called coins of Bar-Cochebas aud of the 
Second Revolt were denounced as forgeries by M. Renan. They seem to 
have been struck by modern forgers on much-defaced Roman coins. 

P. 209. In the seventh century a.d. the Christian Era is used on 
texts in Palestine. I think, considering the development of Mariolatry 
in the Madeba text, that the Cathedral is more probably of the seventh 
than of the fourth century a. d. 

P. 232. The Cufic grafite at Mashitta ought to be published to aid in 
deciding on the probable character of the building, Cufic (so-called) was 
the alphabet of Syria before the Moslem Invasion, and also as late as 
the eighth century a.d. It is by no means certain that this palace is 
really Persian work. It may have been built for one of the early 
Khalifs of Damascus, by a Persian architect. These Khalifs employed 
Persians and Greeks, as is well known. To call it the " Palace of 
Chosroes " is fanciful. It is a great disappointment to find that, like the 
'Annnan building, it is entirely without inscrijjtions. 

P. 258. The Kerdica of this Arabic writer is shown on the survey map 
in the Jordan Valley itself. It is not the site of Corea, which was in the 
mountains at KuriiU. I believe Kerawa to have been Archelais. 

By Eev. Canon Dalton, C.M.G. 

It might perhaps interest some of the subscribers to the Fund if their 
attention were drawn to the fact that there exists intact in England the 
fortification of a Roman military town almost ])recisely similar to that 
lately found by Dr. Bliss in Moab, the ground plan of which is figured 
in the July Quarterly Statement, \). 222. Di'. Bliss there says : " The 
town (of Lejjfm) is rectangular, about 670 feet north and south by 
850 feet east and west. The town wall is built of small smooth stones, 
aud is over 8 feet thick . . . Besides the four corner towers there are towers 
along the walls between ; six on both north and south, and four on both 
east and west. These intermediate towers are hollow, they project 
38 feet from the wall, and are 28 feet across. They have straight aides, 
with a (? semi) circular termination . . . The whole suggests a Roman 
militaiy town with strong outside walls and towers." 


In Mr. George Clark's " Mediaeval and Military Architecture bi 
England," 1884, vol. ii, pp. 388, 389, is a description with ground plan of 
Porchester Castle, in Hampshire : " In its present and tolerably perfect 
condition, Porchester (which is unquestionably a Roman work) is a walled 
enclosure., square or nearly so, containing within its area close upon 
9 acres. The investing walls measure, by the larger Ordnance Survey, 
630 feet north and south, and 621 feet east and west. They range from 
15 feet to 40 feet high, and from 6 feet to 10 feet thick. They were 
supported outside by four mural bastions on each face " (the same number 
as on the east and west faces at LejjAn), "and one at each angle, in all 
20." (There would seem to be 24 at Lejjftn.) " Those bastions which 
remain are half round, 19 feet to 20 feet in diameter, and have slightly 
prolonged and flattened sides. The angle bastions are of the same 
pattern . . . Most of them are closed, and probably all Avere originally so, 
for the interior work is very rough indeed, and seems intended to have 
been concealed with earth and rubbish, as was often the fashion in Roman 
bastions . . . They stand from 123 feet to 126 feet apart, from centre to 
centre, the distances being slightly unequal . . . The walls are built mainly 
of flint nodules, laid in courses with as thick or even thicker beds 
of mortar. Occasionally are seen single and double flat courses of red 
tiles and tile-stone, and sometimes of herring-bone work, characteristic 
peculiarities, especially strongly marked in the bastions. The work seems 
late in the Roman period." There is still an east and west, a water and 
a land gateway, and the street ran straight through the centre of the 
rectangle from one to the other, as at LejjAn. The rest of the very 
accurate and elaborate description given by Mr. Clark need not be here 
quoted, as it sketches the additions and changes made by the English, 
Normans, and others down to the 18th century to this ancient Roman 
town (pp. 390 to 400). 

There is a railway station now at Porchester, and the place is within 
a few minutes of Portsmouth or Southampton. Here then in Britain, on 
the north-western verge, as at Lejjfm on the south-eastern verge, of that 
empire which once embraced all the countries of Europe, as well as the 
southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean, we have two instances 
of Roman work almost iilentical in shape, character, and general 
dimensions. The brains that planned and the hands that built the one 
may even have been the same that raised the other. For Palestine and 
England were under the same civilishig sway in the earlier centuries of 
the Christian era. 


By the Eev. Cauon Dal ton, C.M.G. 

Eegarding Colonel Watson's enquiry on p. 261, I would like to draw his 
attention to the two English versions of Joshua iii, 16. The Revised 
Version reads, "rose up in one heap, a great way off, at Adam, the city 
that is beside Zarethan." 

This rendering follows the Kethih of the Massoretic Hebrew. 

The Authorised Version reads, " rose up upon an heap, very far from 
the city Adam, that is beside Zarethan." This rendering follows the 
Keri of the Massoretic Hebrew. 

Of course the difference depends on whether ^^ or Q is read before 

If we are content with the latter, perhaps it would bear the uiterpre- 

tation Colonel Watson desires. " The waters rose one mound a 

great way off from Damieh, that is (it happened) oi)posite to Zarethan." 
But the LXX rendering would appear to show that there must have been 
a wholly different reading here in their time. They knew nothing of 
"the city Adam," or "Zarethan" either. The first three letters of 
□f j^^ they took for a repetition of "T't«^?2 that precedes, and translated 
a-cfiobpa o-^oSpwr. But how they got e&s fxtpovs KapuiBiape'ifi out of the 
subsequent Hebrew letters as they now stand is not clear. However, all 
Colonel Watson will care for jjrobably is to know that the AV and the 
Keri of the Hebrew will perhaps bear the interpretation, though not the 
exact translation, he desires. 

The new edition of " Smith's Dictionary of the Bible " gives some 
further information under the names "Adam" and " Kirjatli-jearim." 


By W. E. Stevenson, Esq. 

In vol. ii, p. 99, of the " Survey," Major Conder mentions that " it has 
been suggested that the waters of the Jordan were suddenly dammed 
up by a landslip or similar convulsion : the adherents of this theory 
might perliaps point to the present ap!)earance of the banks and the 
curious bends of the river near this place hi support of their idea." 
But till Colonel Watson's paper in the Quarterly Statement for July, 
no evidence has been forthcoming of such a landslip having actually 
occurred. The passage from the historian Nowaiii must have a bearing 
on the story of the miraculous passage, and in particular on the inter- 
pretation of iii, 16. The Septuagint rendering of this verse, with 


the various readings given in Field's "Origenis Hexaplorum," present 
such remarkable divergencies from the Hebrew that it is desirable to 
exhibit them side by side. 

i«D pn')n in« 12 rhyr2hr2 □■•ii^n o'-nn m^T") («) 
a^ hv D^Ti''m ]nni^ -r!^n "i^« "y^yn (Qei'i D-it^?2) D"i«n 
.in^'' 1:1: ^'):1V avm irr^s: ^r2r^ rhr2r\ n^ nn^rn 

(b) Km eaTT] to v8aTa ra KaTa^aivovra ava6(V i'arrj irriyfia iv d^eoTJjKos 
fMKpav a(p68pa a(j)o8pas ews pepovi Kaputdiaplp' to 8e Kara^aivov Kart^r) eis 
Tt]V Bakacraav, "Apa(3a Bakatjaav akhi ea)j ei's to TfXos e|e'X(7r6' koI 6 Xaos 
(laTtjKei dnivuvTi 'lepi)(<^. 

(c) Sym. foi' TTTJypa, aa-Kcopa. 
(d) LXX alia ex. omit o(jio8pS)s. 

(e) LXX alia ex. for Kapiadiapip, 2dp6nv. 

(/■) LXX alia ex. for ocfiodpuis — Kapiadiapip, utto \8dpeL tiis TTuXtuis 7 
e<TTiv eoos pepovs Kapiuduipip (Trjs- -ecrTLu marked with an asterisk) 
(g) Sym. for a^oBpoiS, ano Abop. 

I. The Hebrew (Kethib) must be rendered as follows :— "The waters 
coming from above stood still and rose in one heap a long way off, at 
Adam, the city neai- Zarethan ; and those descending to the Sea of the 
Desert, that is, the Sea of Salt, were utterly cut off." 

For Adam, Major Conder suggests Khurbet el Hamreth, the Red 
Ruin, one mile from Tell es Sarn, which is identified with Zarethan. 
Such a solution has the advantage of presenting no exegetical or textual 
difficulties. The translation is obvious and straightforward. Readings 
(/) and (g) certainly come from an original Qli^^, but the Kethib is 
to be preferred. For a scribe, after writing li*^^ pmH' ^^ begin the 
name of a place with ^ instead of 2. would be a most natural mistake. 
"Far away," he would say to himself, "from," not "at," and write 
accordingly. But the reverse change, from ^ to 3,, would be exceedingly 
unlikely ; nothing would suggest it. Further, "fi*^'^ pHnn i^ i"^^ what 
one would expect the writer to say. The Israelites had been enabled to 
cross the Jordan in a very wonderful way. An incident of the wonder 
could scarcely escape his attention ; instead of the waters being dammed 
up a few miles from whet-e they were stationed, the damming up took 
place nearly forty miles away. This was certainly worth chronicling. 
Again, -|^72 )" ^jy the side of," means close proximity. It is used else- 
where only of Ai and Bethel, and though the nearest site for Ai is three 
miles from Bethel, the fuithest is not more than five, so that, at any rate, 
the expression is correct for Khurbet el Hamreth and Tell es Sarn. 

The objection, and rather a strong one, is that this rendering of 
Josh. iii. 16, presupposes two cities of the name of Adam. Reading (/) 
shows that there must have been a town Adami about the Christian 
era, perhaps some centuries before ; and Adami is almost certainly the 
intermediate stage between Adam and Damieh. But the objection 


cannot be pressed too far. There are plenty of cases in all countries 
of several towns with the same name. And perhaps this was the 
reason here why Adam was described as near Zarethan, viz., to 
distinjornish it from the Adam on the site of the modern Damieh. 

II. By a slight emendation of the text, and falling back on the 
Scptnagint and its various readingSj it will not be difficult to get a 
translation not far removed from that suggested by Colonel Watson. But 
before examining the text, it is as well to notice two small, yet obvious, 
deficiencies, apart from all comparison with the Hebrew. If ecos is to be 
taken together with ft? so as to form one preposition, and ews els to 
reXos stands for " utterly " (and it is so rendered in Eedpath's '* Septuagint 
Concordnnce "), Kare^i] and e^eXnre are decidedly awkward without some 
conjunction. And, anyhow, Kari^rj is not wanted, and looks as if derived 
from an interpolated Tl^^, itself derived from the previous C^T^^n- 
Again, elaTTjKei is obviously wrong. The people did not stand opposite 
Jericho as soon :i,s the river bed was dry, but began the passage at once. 
It was the priests who stood and the peojjle began to move. Even 
the Vulgate has '' iucedebat." Here is an obvious error of II^J^ for 

The deviations of the Greek may be traced as follows : — 

(1) <T(f)68pa (TCpodpas must have been "1^^ li^?2 t"' "Ib^^ li^^^- 
The latter is to be preferred, as, whether a corruption or not, it would 
account for the 2, ^^ the Kethib. 

(3) ecos must stand for '^y, the ^ of *^1^n ^eing dropped out (or 
inserted), and the "^ being changed to "^ (or vice versa). Schleussner 
ggests this in the only reference which he makes to the passage. 

(3) The uipifi of KapLoOiapifi was added by a translator or scribe who 
had, or thought he had, before him ^^"^n simjjly. This being unintel- 
ligible, the next word, □'^TT^n,- suggested the well-known town 
Kirjath-jearim, and Q'^'^J?'^ was added. The ^ and j-\ of his jni"^p 
are certainly the ^ and j-| of 'JJl'^!^' the Koph and Tsailhe of the old 
character being less unlike and more liable to become corrupted 
into each other than the modern square letters. Kirjath-jearim being 
quite impossible, and as (e), the only reading which substitutes '2ap6av 
leaves out Adam, no existing text will sujjport Colonel Watson's theory. 
A combination of (c) and {g) or of (c) and (/) is necessary, and the Greek 
of the former would run as follows for the disputed sentence : — 

d(f)((TTr]K(is pciKpav a(\)6hpa I'lno "Adofj. (or 'Adapti t^s TroXtoJS tj (crriv) ea>s 
ficpovs 'S.dpOav. 

representing in Hebrew — 

"A good distance away from Adam (or " Adameh"), even as far as the 

neighbourhood of Zarethan." 


The Vav of emphasis would come in very well before "7^, as we have 
four letters in '^"'J.^n ^^ account for. t^? TroXetos rj eariv is certainly an 
interpolation of some scribe who had the original with ""itl?^ '^'^y^ 
before him, and thought it a good addition, eco? must come from -f^, 
and therefore we cannot have noXeas representing "^^^n ^s well. 

As far as the text is concerned the objections are but slight. If the 
Hebrew suggested were the original, the received text might easily have 
come from it : most likely corruptions would have taken place, and 
"Tll/i^ would have been inserted between ")^Vn '"^"d 1^^, also a very 
likely thing to take place. "What is really almost fatal, till we know 
something more about Damieh, is the apparent want of reason for 
bringing it in. The Israelites were opposite Jericho, and the historian, 
describing an event about 40 miles away, says it took place a 
long distance from Damieh, 11 to 12 miles away. He is vague where he 
ought to be definite, and definite where definiteness is of no use. If 
he had said anything about Damieh, as, for instance, the natural place 
of crossing, we should understand ; but without that, what is the purport 
of its introduction here ? 

III. If we are willing to leave the received version, and fall back on 
the Greek, (e) is not open to much objection. The Greek, then, would 
be as in {h), with 2ap6av instead of KapiaBiapifx, and the Hebrew as 
follows : — 

\r\'xi i!JD 'w^ '^Vi^ i^'oi pn^n 

" An exceeding long way ofi", even near by Zarethan." 

This simply gives up Adam. In the history of manuscript writing 
are there enough instances of the name of a town merging into an 
ordinary adverb, to regard it with anything but suspicion 1 

IV. Colonel Watson's quotation from Nowairi, in which Damieh and 
Karawah occur as two neighbouring towns, induces me to suggest a 
slightly amended Hebrew text. Why should not the ^ in Zarethan 
have come from an original 'n instead of vice versa, as in the original 

of versions (6) and (/), and the town been j^^'^p or fTT^p, Kariat or 
Karawat % On this supposition, the town mentioned by Nowairi would 
be in existence at the time of the Exodus, its name being derived from 
, J or ^.j, or the equivalent in a Shemitic dialect. We should then 
read — 

nrsp n!in nurt^ i^i?n ai^^n i«?3 pn^in 

" A long way off, at Adam, the city close to Karawat." 

It might be objected that a narrator would not speak of a place 

11 or 12 miles away as "Ji^tD prT^H) "'^'ery far away," but we must 
remember that he was tlcscribing a wonderful occurrence, and that 

12 miles would seem to him an incomprehensible distance fiom which 


to work the miracle. It will be for Colonel Watson, and those acquainted 
with the Jordan, to say if a landslip is at all likely near Damieh. We 
are indeed, in face of a Providential interference of some sort, and it 
was no harder to stop the Jordan near Damieh than to let the Israelites 
know it would be stopped anywhere, c.f. Matth. ix, 5. Still, the belief 
that miracles are not a subversion of natural laws, but that the Creator 
always works by laws, whether known or unknown to us, would be 
strikingly supported by Colonel Watson's new evidence, and the received 
interpretation of Josh, iii, IC ; and against the latter, as I have said 
above, no decisive arguments are forthcoming. It is for this reason, as 
well as for the critical interest, that the passage deserves careful 


By Eev. W. F. Birch, M.A. 

In Quarterly Statement, 1881, p. 323, I pointed out that this rock or crag 
was probably in Wady Urtas, near the traditional and true Cave of 
AduUam ; but I could not then positively assert that Samson and David 
occupied precisely one and the same hiding place. 

To some an identification appears incomplete unless the old name 
survives, or the modern is an admissible corruption of the old name. To 
me intricate points of topograjjhical agreement seem to have more weight 
in establishing an identification than any name can have. The term Zion 
has l)een ap])lied for fifteen centuries to the south-western hill at Jeru- 
salem ; still, the identification of that hill with the Zion or Mount Zion 
of the Bible is the greatest of errors, and the right position of Zion has 
been ascertained a})art from tlie name. 

The Cave of Adullam has been identified for 750 years with the famous 
cavern called Magharet Khureituu. M. Gannoau observed in Quarterly 
Statement, 1875, p. 173, that "It has long been j)ioved tliat the name of 
Khureitun, a])plied to the cave, to the adjacent ruins, to a spring, and to 
the valley below, is nothing else than that of the ascetic Chariton." This 
ipse dixit at that time for me closured the point. Afterwards examina- 
tion {Quarterly Statement, 1884, p. Gl) satisfied me that the said cave was 
lieyond all question the real Cave of Adullam ; but, for the satisfaction of 
others, I tried last year to find a name to meet what I still consider an 
exorbitant demand. The large map offered nothing like Adullam near 
Mughaiet Khureitun, yet I observed, with some degree of surprise at 
my former inattention, that of the word Khureitun the last two syllables, 
viz., liitan, make a very presentable Ktaiii, and next that Khar corre- 
sponds equally well to the Hebrew Chor, a hole or cave (whence Beth- 
horon and the Horites or dwellers in caves). Then at last, through its 


I perceived tliat the modern Khureitun meuus nothing 
more or less than the hole or cave of Etam. 

Let me now boldly say that Chariton was an impostor. No ascetic 
who could droj) his Mar could be a genuine saint like Mar-Saba, &c. 
Ecclesiastics do not shed but cling to their titles. Instead of the ascetic 
giving his name to the cave, it seems to me much more probable that it 
was vice versa; only the British Museum is not at hand for me to prove 
the transfer. 

Anyhow, here is the veritable name, " Cave of Etam," occui-ring/owr 
times in connection with the very place to which fourteen years ago I 
was satisfied it belonged in Samson's story. Here is a crag (se?a Hebr.) 
with a cave actually labelled to this day " the Cave of Etam." What 
more can be asked ? The identification is complete to the very name. 

Major Conder has placed the rock of Etam at Beit 'Atab, and takes 
(Primer 86) "a curious secret passage and chamber communicating 
with the spring " to be the " cleft " where Samson hid himself. As there 
is only a hioU and not a sela or crag at Beit 'At&b, it cannot be the sela 
Etam. The passage, however, apart from Samson, is of considerable 
interest. In "Memoirs," iii, p. 83, it is stated: "The people say that 
there is a subterranean passage from the castle to the spring at the 
bottom of the hill." Major Conder adds (p. 23) : " The oavern is in all 
some 250 feet long .... Its average height is about 5 to 8 feet, and 
its width about 18 feet .... The west end of the tunnel is supposed to 
be about the centre of the modern village .... The east end leads to a 
vertical shaft .... about 60 yards from the spring." To me this is 
extremely interesting, as I see in the passage the " gutter " (2 Sam. v, 8) 
injured or unfinished whereby the besieged schemed to get water from 
a spring outside their city walls. As Chitral is the last, so Zion (as far 
as I know) was the earliest instance of a covered or secret way from a 
fortress to a spring without. Between the two historically may be placed, 
as regards Palestine, Gibeon and Rabbath-Ammon as known instances, 
and Bethel and Samaria as apparent ones. I could name ten or twenty 
more elsewhere. 

The Hebrew word for top (A.V.) of the rock Etam (Judges xv, 8), 
is translated cleft (R.V.) and also Jissure. This term tallies exactly 
with Bonar's (" Land of Promise," p. 250) vivid description of Wady 
Khureitun. i^fter admitting that the Cave of Adullam was probably 
the cave of Khureitun, and connecting this last name with Hareth, he 
adds : " We gazed upon the vast precipices that fronted us, and down 
into the horrible rent beneath us, that seemed a split in the very founda- 
tions of the earth, as if some of its " bars " (Jonah ii, 6) had snapped 
and opened a seam in its lowest base." The italics are mine, the words 
Bonar's, though he had no suspicion that this was the cle/'t or fissure of 
the crag of Etam. 

The natural course for water from Ain Atan (Etam) near Solomon's 
pools, would be down Wady Khureitun, just below and in front of the 
cave. The Bible says that Samson dwelt in the cleft of the crag of Etam ; 


but as herniits have an inveterate i>artiality for caves, Samson would 
doubtless make the said cave his headquarters. It is high up the side of 
the gorge, and is approached " by a terrace formed in the rock, which 
either by art or nature is very narrow" (Pococke). "A huge fallen block, 
about 7 feet high, has to be surmounted ; between this and the upper 
rock is a space of 2h feet. Continuing along the ledge we come to 
another fallen block, and mounting this we are confronted by the door 
of the cave" {Quarterh/ Statement, 1874, p. 26). "In front of the 
entrance are two large blocks of rock some 7 feet high " (" Memoirs," 
iii, p. 375 ; also see Photograph 177). 

The hand of man must have placed all these blocks, weighing over 
one ton apiece, in their present position. Did the gate-bearer from Gaza 
beguile his solitude by single-handed collecting these stones to have them 
ready to hurl at those dogs the Philistines, or did the Horites or the 
men of Judah make this stronghold (Judges vi, 2) as a dernier ressort 
from their enemies ? If Dr. Bliss can spare a day to dig in the large 
chamber he will no doubt find an answer from the pottery. 

Curiously in the LXX the " Alex. Codex " gives a free rendering of 
Judges XV, 8, compared with 11, as if the translator had in his mind the 
spot to which Samson withdrew. Instead of, he dwelt " in the cleft of 
the rock of Etam," we read {ivapa tw ;(ei/Liapp« iv rw o-TTJ/Xaio) 'Hrd/x) "by 
the brook in the cave of Etam." Josephus, too, as if he had seen the 
narrow ledtje in the face of the precipice, speaks of the strong rock, and 
says that Samson came donni from the rock to the 3,000 men of Judah 
who came to bind him. 

The artist on our Executive Committee having accepted the said cave, 
will perhaps give us the scene — above, the shaggy Nazarite standing alone 
on the ledge near the cave's mouth, terrible in mien, and as wild as the 
beetling cliffs around ; beneath, the craven crowd of Judah, pledged to 
buy peace by a base surrender of the champion of Dan. History repeated 
itself on the same spot. A century later a nimbler foe to the Philistines 
is tracked to the same lair. Equally fearless, he comes out to meet his 
now true-hearted countrymen (1 Chron. xii, 18), and to hear the loyal 
greeting, " Thine are we, David, and on thy side." 

A few years later the outlaw is king. Zion has just been gained by 
treachery ; Jebus is under the heel of Joab ; the Philistines are swarming 
in the valley of Eephaim and occupy Bethlehem. The three mighty 
men have had enough of Joab at Jerusalem, and have come down into 
(1 Chron. xi, 15) the Cave of Adullam, eager for an oi^portunity of 
showing that if they are not so lucky or crafty as Joab, they are quite 
as brave and as devoted to the king. 

Oh, to have done with the Philistines ! Oh, to be rid of the son of 
Zeruiah I to be once more but a shepherd, with only a lion and a bear 
to vex one ! 

This seems to be the covert meaning of the hasty exclamation, " Oh, 
that one would give me to drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem ! " 
The three chose to take the words literally, and soon were seen hastening 


to Bethlehem, to prove as fearless as a Dorso in the presence of the 
hostile garrison. 

Poor Josephus has been badly treated over " the Cave of Adullara." 
Obviously he knew nothing about its position, and pardonably, like 
others, foisting in the word "city," he reproduces the expression as 
" a cave near the city of AduUam." This city was in the Sbephelah. 
There was a famous hold near the real cave. From the cave (1 Sam. 
xxii, 1-5) David takes his parents to Moab, and (obviously returning to 
the cave) is told not to abide in the hold. To this said hold refer the 
words (1 Chron. xii, 8, 16) " into the hold to the wilder7iess." The LXX 
here omit the words "into the hold," and Josephus, using the LXX, 
and conscious that cave, hold, and wilderness were all connected, describes 
David's next move, not as from the cave or hold, but as from the 
ivilderness {" Ani." VI, xii, 4), in which the city of Adullam certainly 
was not, but where the true cave is still. Again, Josephus says rightly, 
that the exploit of the three took })lace when King David was at Jerusalem 
(" Ant." VII, xii, 4), yet wrongly makes the hold which was near the cave, 
to be the citadel of Jerusalem. If Josephus is to be quoted on this point, 
let all the passages, and not only one, be considered. 

Further, the city of Adullam is a most undesirable position for the 
cave. It is evident (2 Sam. v, 7) that David succeeded in capturing 
Zion just in the nick of time, before "all the Philistines (2 Sam. v, 17) 
were upon him." He was far too wary to shut himself u]j in an ill- 
provisioned fortress. Therefore, leaving Joab to hold the newly-won 
Jebus, David took to the field, and went down to the famous hold (near) 
the Cave of Adullam (Khureitun). Like other great generals he pre- 
ferred to fight in the open. Cooped up in Zion he could do next to 
nothing, while in the desert of Judah, having traversed it in every 
direction, he could elude and walk round the Philistines, as he did with 
Saitl, and treat them as Sertorius did Metellus in Spain. When DaAad 
and his men entered walled Keilah, Saul at once saw that they had stepped 
into a trap. Surely then, David, a master in stratagems, would not be so 
silly as to march down to Adullam in the rear of the Philistines and close 
to their country, when he was threatened by them. There is no support 
whatever for the popular notion that the Cave of Adullam was near the 
city of that name in the Shephelah. 

The same want of discernment is shown in placing the rock of 
Rimmon of the Benjamites at Eumnion, in the tribe of Ephraim 
{Quartedi/ Statement, 1882, p. 50), but error is hard to kill, whoever 
plants it. 



By the Rev. D. Lee Pitcairn, M.A. 

Urox Ml'. Bergheim's interesting paper in the April Quarterly Statement 
may I be permitted to remark that he apjjears to regard six propositions 
as axiomatic, which a\-e all in fact highly debateable, viz. : — 

1. That Zion was the highest of all the hills of Jerusalem. 

2. That Zion was called the upper city. 

3. That Zion occupied two hills, the higher, called the upper city, the 

other called the lower city. 

4. That Zion occupied the north and also the north-west portion of the 


5. That the lower knoll of Zion was levelled during the Hasmonean 


6. That Millo formed the lower portion of Zion, and was afterwards 

called the lower city. 

Of these propositions the first contradicts three of the historical 
writers of the Bible, who all use the phrase " go up," or " bring u])," of 
one going from the City of David to Solomon's temple. The second and 
third are inconsistent with one another, and do not agree with Josephus, 
The latter speaks of an " upper market place," but he does not call it 
Zion, and he says that not Zion but the City of Jerusalem was built 
upon two hills, the one containing the upper city, and the other containing 
the lower city. Of the other three I will only say that they appear to 
require proof. 

For the sake of brevity let the principal lulls of Jerusalem be repre- 
sented by lettei's. 

Let S represent the small hill outside the present walls, through which 
the Siloam tunnel is cut, having the Virgin's Fountain on one side and 
Siloam on the other side. 

Let T stand for the hill on which Solomon's temple was built, repre- 
sented now by the Kubhet es Sakhrah. 

Let H stand for the hill on which Herod built his palace and protect- 
ing castle, re])resented at the present day by the citadel with its live 
towers on the west of the city. 

Let D stand f(n- the southern part of the same hill, where now stands 
Neby Daftd, and which slopes down into the so-called Valley of Hinjiom. 

On the eastward slopes of 1), outside the present walls, thei'e are 
several remains of ancient habitations, rock-hewn dwellings and cisterns, 
pavements, &c. A man standing on a lower knoll of this hill, a little 
south and west of Siloam, will see Josejilms' plan of the city plainly before 
him, the two hills and the valley between them, the ui)per city on his left 


hand (D and H), the lower city on his right hand (the hill S with its 
slopes). Beyond the latter rises the elevation of the Haram (the hill T), 
which a])parently was outside the walls until Solomon built the temple 
upon it. Josephus intimates (" Wars," V, iv, 2) that the first wall reached 
straight across from H to T, bounding the city after Solomon on the 
north. From this point of view (south of Siloam) the suitability of 
Psalm cxxv, 2,' is apparent. The city, before the invention of artillery, 
was not commanded, but protected, by the encircling hills. To the 
modern Jei'usalem, which lies so much higher, the text is not so easily 
fitted. With this position of the city only was Jerusalem, i.e., the city 
proper, defended by three walls (Josephus, "Wars," V, iv, 1), i.e., it lay to 
the south of all three. The order to burn the city was resjionded to by 
setting tire inter alia to Akra and Ophel (Josephus, " Wars," V, vi, 3). 

For the identification of Zion with the lower city and with S I have 
only to refer to Mr. Birch's able arguments in many numbers of the 
Quarterli/ Statement. They convinced me long ago, and acquaintance 
with Jerusalem itself has only deepened the conviction. Mr. Birch will 
pardon me, I hope, if in venturing to support him I should repeat him. 

1. The smalhiess of the site on S is no objection. It is given '^ as 
200 feet X 600 feet. With this may be compared the ancient Greek 
citadel of Tiryns. Colonel Leake (" Morea," vol. ii, p. 250) says : "The 
length of the summit of the rocky hill of Tiryns is about 250 yards, the 
breadth from 40 to 80 ; the height above the plain from 20 to 50 feet." 
Tiryns then is approximately of the same size as Mr. Birch's Zion. 
But it is certain that Tiryns comprised both a strong fortress and a 
palace. There is no reason why Zion sliould not have comprised both 
within an equal space. For Solomon's growing luxury an ampler site 
was requiretl. 

2. It is quite possible that Akra is a translation of Millo, and that 
both names refer to the same spot. First Maccabees is not the earliest 
place where the Akra appears in the LXX. In 1 Kings xi, 27, we 
read of Solomon that he aKodofirjae tt^v aKpav, built the Akra or castle, i.e., 
the LXX translated " the Millo " (it always has the article) by the word 
which in their age, or soon after, was so familiar as the name of the 
infamous *' tower " which was opposed to the sanctuary. It is not 
improbable that they intended by using this word that Solomon built a 
tower or castle on the same site which was known in the Maccabean time 
as the Akra. Since among Solomon's buildings " the Millo " is ti-anslated 
" the Akra," the Akra of First Maccabees may be a translation of " the 
Millo" in the Hebrew original. "The Akra" is not a proper name, bu: 
a very fitting and descriptive word for a hill-top citadel. It could stand, 
as in Attic Greek, either for the hill-top itself or for the castle on 
it. Xenophon uses ciKpu " as equivalent to oKponoXts, the castle or citadel 

' '"As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord is round 
about His people from henceforth even for ever." 
- Quarterly/ Statement, 188G, p. 152. 


on a steep rock overhanging the town" ("Liddell and Scott"). Similarly 

Millo /^^'i>'?!2 from ^v'?^^ means "a mound or rampart, built up and 

filled in with stones or earth " (" Gesenius "). There was a Beth-Millo 
at Sliechem, a Beth-Millo on the descent to Sillah, probably some place 
in the country ("Gesenius"). There may have been a Millo, or arx, ir> 
every hill city, and in the ancient City of David. But since Solomon, the 
castle which lie had built or rebuilt was the Millo par excellence, as 
since Rufus " The Tower " has engrossed that name in London. 

3. The Macedonian Akra may very well have stood on S. Josephus 
says that it adjoined and overlooked the tem])le, standing on higher 
ground. But 1 Maccabees does not confirm this. That book saj^s that 
the Akra was in " the city of David " (i, 33) ; that " it was a place to lie 
in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil adversary to Israel" (i, 36) ; 
that it was on lower ground than the temple (vii, 32, 33), and that "the 
heathen issued out from it, and polluted all about the sanctuary, and 
did much hurt in the holy place." The hostile tower could be a con- 
stant menace to the temple without actually overlooking it. It was 
not so near as to shoot into the tem)>le, the garrison had to make sorties 
(" issued out " ; xiv, 36). 

4. The Akra continued to stand on S after it was taken. According 
to Josephus, Simon Maccabfeus demolished the fortress, and cut down the 
hill on which it stood to a level with the rest of the city. According to 
the writer of 1 Maccabees Simon did no such thing, but " he entered 
into the tower," " cleansed it from pollution, " " took all uncleanness out 
of it," " placed Jews therein, and fortified it for the safety of the country 
and the city." Clearly it was not demolished, but preserved. The 
marks of the cutting down of the rock now to be seen in the north part 
of the Haram do not confirm Josephus. They are evidence of the 
levelling of that area at some time, but not of there having ever existed 
a hill and a fortress on the spot. 

5. It is remarkable that while in the historical books of the Bible 
the names "Zion" and "City of David" are interchangeable, in 1 Macca- 
bees they are distinct. " The City of David " is twice named and 
is identified with the Akra, " Zion " is six times named, and is always 
identified with the sanctuary. The Psalms had prepared the way for 
this use of the name "Zion." But "the City of David" was more a 
name of locality, and was less likely to change its signification in the 
270 years since Nehemiah, who fixes its position as near the Pool of 
Siloam, and above it (Nehemiah iii, 15). 

6. The Akra Avas a citadel under Herod the Great (Josephus, "Antiq.," 
XV, vii, 8). The historian says that " there were (at Mariamne's death) 
two fortified places about the city, one belonging to the city itself, the 
other behjiiging to the temple"; and that "without the command of 
them it was not possible to offer the sacrifices." Clearly these two 
citadels were the temple itself and the Akra, which had so long interfered 
witli the temple and the sacrifices. Antonia ami the castle on H api)ear 


not to have been built uutil later (" Autiq.," XX, viii, f) ; " Wai's," V, 
iv, 3) ; and in any case the latter was too far off to affect the sacrifices. 

7. When the Akra was burnt by Titus ("Wars," V, vi, 3), it was 
probably a fortress still, being named among other jniblic buildings. 
But the i^alace of Queen Helena " in the midst of Akra," was not 
necessarily within the fortress. The whole hill appears to have borne 
the name. 


By Rev. A. Moody Stuart, D.D. 

After reading with much interest and with the greatest satisfaction a recent 
record of Palestine Exploration, may I draw attention to a miscouceijtion 
of the "lapping" by Gideon's three hundretl at the "Well of Trembling," 
which is usually taken by Biblical critics (with the single excejjtion 
i)f Kitto in the "Pictorial Bible") to mean drinking the water out of 
the palm of the hand? The "laj^ping" is never seen amongst us and 
probably not in Eurojje, but I had an unexpected opportunity of observing 
it fifty yeais ago in the Island of Madeira. One afternoon, in riding- 
leisurely out of Funchal, there came toward the town a man in the light 
garb of a courier from the mountains running at the top of his speed ; as- 
he appi'oached me he stop2:)ed to qiieuch his thirst at a fountain in a way 
that at once suggested the lapping of Gideon's men, and I drew up my 
pony to observe his action more exactly, but he was already away as on 
the wings of the wind, leaving me to wonder and admire. With one 
knee bent before him, and the other limb stretched behind in the same 
attitude as he I'an, and with his face u])\v;ird toward heaven, he threw 
the water apparently with his fingers in a continuous stream through his 
open lips without bringing his hand nearer to his mouth than ])erhaps a 
foot and a half, and so satisfied his thirst in a few moments. 

Gideon with his chosen three hundred, " faint yet pursuing," and 
hastily drinking of the brook by the way, sets befo)-e us a singularly fine 
picture of energy and zeal in the work of the Lord, and one well fitted to 
move us whilst thankfully sharing in many mercies, yet to use them as 
only " lapping the water with our hand" in our course heavenward. 




By Rev. W. Ewing. 

Edited hy A. G. Wright, Esq., of Aberdeen, and A. Souter, Esq., M.A., 

of Cuius College, Cambridge. 

{Conchcded from p. 280.) 
No. 163. In wall of house. 'Orman. 

A£K I 


4>i/\ m 




,T0C9C K0 /- 


6/1:70 I'D? 


adavcno^ {eTOVs) (tkO 

The date is 334 a.d. See No. 159. 

No. 164. In Medafeh. (= Wadd., 2016.) 'Orman. 


AnAcoverioHcA n 

"/uini am 00 Boijij 

"Wetzstein read as above. Waddington reads Satrtao-ov, but T *nd C 
are hardly to be distinguished. 

The date is 152 a.d., but reading is uncertain. See No. 159. 

No. 165. Beside No. 1G3. (= Wadd., 2050.) 'Orman. 


klTEM V 


Kire Mo- 
-<T 0-60(9) 


(10 ami' 

-TO 9 . eT^tDi') 

No. 166. In ground in court. 'Orman. 



. . Toil erwv \ .... 
. Ka\{avcwv) Ai^^IOvcttwv a. -rica .... 

. . [ejrij)// K ■)jju.ep{u}i')ij . . . . 
The date tku' is 321, i.e., 426 a.d. 

No. 167. Over court door. 'Orman, 

trPicicoccHAo<:<:€oM Poc 

llpiffico's 2/yco9 2eo?y/J09. 

2 a2 



No. 168. On top of open stair. 'Orman. 



BeotibPirtoN£.TCTii^ Lh 

['A^/J^oii hiai 'Eofjeov 'Aovi . . 

. . (t/JOV KCH Mcil'OU R(C/(0(' 
CTC( tp 

The date is 117 a.d. See No. 159. 

No. 169. Exposed in court. 'Orman. 

MoKei A^o c 
(J)VAkoN hN 

a)^^6<tpo NT 


ZfUfo[9] K//(Xo[v] Mo'vC(/<OS' 

<I>('X[i/^] Koi'tji'ivi' (i<piioi'r(i)(Ta}' 

No. 170. In wall. {= Kaibel, Lpujr. (Jr., No. 456, and C. I. O'r., 
No. 4536.) Wadd., 2021a. 'Orman. 

<si'6('icc kItc Ooi'ioi' 
Ao/HT-ud'os Qefi{o)o 

or /lAtO'.' Ol'TTOT OA6TG 




ia;»s X.A 

TtTTCtpa rCKfU 

\i—wi' ■x'l'f.i'^'i' 

" Here lies the body of Domittianos, the son of Thenios, a prudent 
man and noble, whose fame will never die. He left four children." 
E])igiam in hexameters. 

No. 171. At side of street. 'Orman. 


C ^ oVir* 
po c c o 

60N f^ 


No. 172. Ill cellar. 'Orman. 

whkAn J 

kClt 'l{iu\c\oi'v 

I /V 


No. 173. Over door east of Great Mosque. Busrah. 

toy I' 09 


I ; -J 

No. 173a. This was copied from an old stone, much weatherworn, 
near the Cathedral in Busrah, April, 1890. In August, 1892, the stone 
had disappeared, said to have been broken up and used in building a 
peasant's hut some distance from where it lay. 


No. 174. In Medafeh of Mudlr. Busrah. 

'Ap'x^eXaio 'lov\io9 

Inscribed on a pedestal. Above the 
words is an ox-head. 

Published also in Mev. Arch., June, 1884- 

No. 175. On stone near the altar outside the walls of BusRAH. 

AnuiT/ yXboctpcn ^ 


\vpaAN^ tuNAa4To)(pAn^YAiKe 


eVf rot) a'^/iivraTov '\opcavov ap'y^icinaKoirov Bo(T7p)ji'{wi') e7e\iw6[i]j 
. . . rov 'lw/3 .... 70V chu'ov A/a: ... Cf. Wadd., 1916a. 

No. 176. On pillar in Great Mosque. Busrah. 




No. 177. On Eastern pillar in Great Mosque."^ Busrah. 

Parts of same stone, 177 being the beginning and 176 the end. 
(=Wadd., 1913.) 

eV uvo/iiftTt TOO Gu)T)jp09 'KpiffTOv iiTi $X. 'ApKudioi) 'A.\e^di>Spov 
Toti XajLiTTpoTaTov (T'x^o{\a(niKov) Kai, ij<ye/Lioi'o9, eKiiaOi] e'/c OefieXi'wv to 
7piKov)(^oi' <77ypa Kai cTrXijpwOij ev ere* TTr^y '^p6i'{oi'}) 'Ii'Cik(^71wvo^v 


In the name of Christ the Saviour, in the time of Flavins Arcadius 
Alexander, the distinguished lawyer and governor, the portico of semi- 
circular shape, with three niches, was built from the foundations, and 
completed in the 383rd year, i.e., a.d. 488, in the lltli indiction. 

Nos. 178 and 179. In wall of Great Mosque. Busrah. (=Wadd. 





(rt) . . . t^ oia<s C)]7roTe aiTi'a^ \afi^dveii> wa-re CKOfT'roi' riZw cnvk-itcu'}' 

Kxi (TKpiviapiwv .... 
(o) . . . Tj(y[i' Tn^yv 7ij<s ^idrpiKO^ wffTC Tfi Trp/iKTia twv Covkikwv 

/itjKeTi TriTrpiKTKeffOai dWd /card fiitO/.iov dvveaOai 0V7\u}'f\ . . . 

Parts of some large inscription, apparently a decree of some sort. 


No. 180. On church at Busrah. ( = Wa(ld., 1950.) 


Ael(io) Aurel(io) Theoni leg. Augg. pr. pr. cos. desig. optioues 
(ceiiturioiium) leg III Kur(enaicae) Valerianae Gallianae raris(s)imo et 
per omn(i)a iiistissimo co(n)s(ulari) h(oiioris) c( 

For optionee, see No. 98. 

No. 181. In castle wall. Busrah. (=Wadd., 1955.) 

D(is) ]V1(anil)iis) M. lulii M. f. Salj(atina) Maxinii Man(t)ua (cen- 
tiiriouis) leg(ionis) III Cyr(enaicae) coh(ortis) V i)r(incipi.s) }H..s(terioris) 
lulia Lais coniugi ob [me]r[ita]. 

Julius Maximus belonged to the tribus Sabatina, and was a native 
of Mantua. 

No. 182. Over court doorwav. Dera'ah. 


No. 183. In roof, face ii])\vard.s, over eastern door of El Maxarah, or 
ET TtJRBEH in Hebran, called by the Arabs Hebras. 

VffC^f OtTft PI AC Ml KVC/WKAlC/^fC'C ''I f0VAiAi6V>'AI"ANafANTa;»i6iNJV 



v—e/) (rwTijjx'ds teal (I'/zc/^?) Ki'pioo Kni'fT(iiJo< Ti'rov Al\/ov Af/)i(H'oi> 
^XvTWveivov '^eSuffJou ^vne^oii'} o I'ao^ etc rwi' lejxniKCcv tKTKrOtj 
(^e)rovi 0K7W Kcil ceicc'nou Wi'Twuennw Y^fUfTujiov Trpovoi^naaei'tw A/)io- 
Telcov ^iat'pov Ai6e\ov 'Efi/nepvov cepoTa/niwi' 

The date is 156 a.d. 

No. 184. On cliarch in ruined village in El Leja. The cluuch is 
built of dressed basaltic stone. It is in two stories. Many of the great 
stone slabs which formed the roof of the first story are in situ. 

'\ov\lO<i Md^lftOS' <>TpttTIW7(^/jl) [[Xt:-/ HI Kt'/< ?j Kn\^t Mci^ilios^ 'Pot'0ov 
OO6A0O9 ((VQKTiCFdl' All ~(l-plCIO OcU' IVCrc/Sr/df X"/'"' 


No. 185. On lintel over door north of the Theatre. Shukba. v. No. 149. 

|*OKPAT01»u;N-MAYPH/\l0yANTu)M£lN3Y • f J^ 

xAi-A/AYPHAi^aY^^ae^r^viaY/flyTorcigt A^'^^ 


I Et6CTU)TOCTrETOrCfDrEYilHAlO>/AeCi 5tA<^ j ^TPA 

I'TTe/) auni]piii<i kciI i^i'kijs Ttvv Kupi'wif XvroKpcnopiov M. AvptjXton 

WvTtovei'vov K(ii A. Avpi]\tov iitot> ainou 'E,ep\_a(TT\u.n' ctti MapTiov 

Ovijpou TrpetrSi^evrot') '^.e^^narou) (ii'rifnp{a7}]^/ou) eCpcffTwro'} Uejovat'ov 
Eud)']juov {(iKciTouTapx^ov) \ey(^iuii>09) <?' 't>X{afiia^) ^I'p^^nj'i) 
eTTi Kajiiov Aa/3avov arpmijf^jov. 

At the right hand side Stot A. 


The date lies between 175 a.d. and 178 a.d., while Martins Verus 
was governor, during the joint reign of Marcus Aurelius and his son 
Commodus. The surname of the latter has been erased. 

No. 186. On stone turned up near Seffurieh. 


re I o y AeT±orTo 

cji 0Y"ncP\CP9O NTAi.cYB6P 
I AN A Cj) P£ AP Xl€ TNAT 

(jjC o Torpor \ AM n y 

re\a(Xiov(?y KU}(fitfT()v^ \a/ii7r{poT('noii) 

veiov Ce TOO 



[The inscrii»tion numbered 100a should have been placed at the end. 
It is from 'Ary o.i, not from 'Ahry in the Leja.] 


By Eev. W. Ewing. 

{Concluded from page 294.) 

Despatching Mohammed to attend to the horses, I rambled quietly 
through the village again, making friends with the people, who now were 
curious to have everything examined which they themselves did not under- 
stand. I was invited into a good many houses, without finding much more 
than bits of broken sculpture. This led to an experience, not uncommon, I 
suppose, but which I had never had before. I had just told the mistress 
of a house, a good-looking young woman, with dark shining eyes, and the 
whitest of glistening teeth, that there was nothing specially interesting 
about the columns with ornamented capitals she had brought me in to 
see, and was turning to go when she entreated me to stay for a moment. 
She approached in a ripple of smiles, but with an earnest look in her 
eye, and asked in a whisper if I could write. Of course, I said I could ; 
did she want me to write a letter for her 1 O, no, if I would only write two 
words on a slip of paper for her it would be all right. She knew I was a 

j^jS^s-^ literally " wise one," usually employed for " doctor." But of what 

use would a couple of words on a slip of paper be to her ? There was 
no question about its utility. She was labouring under certain domestic 
disadvantages and consequent anxieties, barring her from the full confi- 
dence and favour of her lord. Would I not write the few words for her, 
so she might wear them about her person, when she was certain her 
troubles would soon vanish. Nor would she ask me to do it for nothing, 
as she had a bishlik — a piece of money worth about six]>ence — which she 
had carefully prepared against such an occasion as this, and that should 
be mine the moment the words were written ! It was difficult to resist 
such a temptation as this, but having no skill in the construction of the 
hejdb, I thought it better to leave the matter alone. Her disappointment 
was very apparent, so I recommended her to apply to Mohammed, the 
haktm of our company, who, I doubted not, would be able to give her 
excellent advice. Unhappily, however, she was unable to come to our 
quarters that evening, and we were off very early next morning. [ 
mentioned the matter to Mohammed, and had (juite a lecture from him 
on the subject of hejdbs. From this superstition lie was perfectly 
emancipated, and made no little game of its unfortunate victims. He 
was, however, always ready to oblige a client when anything was to be 
gained. He told me of two women whom he had made happy for life 
with a few strokes of his pen, he being profiter to the extent of three 
mejedies, about equal to ten shillings ! It is pathetic to think of the 
trust reposed in these things by all classes in the country, especially 
among the poorer and more iguorant. Often a verse from the Kordn is 


written ; in other cases simply a few alleged mystic signs. It is usual 
to have the hejdh sewn up in strong cloth or leather, then it is slung with 
a strino- round the neck, strapped on in the belt, or otherwise attached 
to the person. The number of things which are worn as amulets is 
bewilderino- : hair, teeth, leathei% stones, bits of coloured glass, wood,' 
metals, coins, bones of animals, &c., &c. Very high in favour are the 
bones from the vertebra; of the wolf, and you can seldom travel far 
without meeting with the ubiquitous blue bead. It is twisted into the 
hair of the pretty child, or hung round the neck of the weakly : a horse 
of which a man is proud will have the inevitable blue bead in mane or 
tail. It is held to be a sure protection against the malign power of the 
evil eye. 

An old Cufic inscri]3tion on a stone beside the heidar detained me 
long, but little could be made of it, the weather had so worn the surface. 
Then I found a company of peasants from a place to westward which 
they called Jihheh, with donkey loads of grapes, of which they disposed at 
very reasonable rates, so I was able to atford a treat for our host and his 
friends, which they thoroughly enjojed, at but little cost. Money is 
not much used among the people there, and many of them have no 
approximate idea of its value. Barter is the rule among them, and these 
peasants hoped only to take back wheat in return for the produce of their 
vineyards. A few hearty muleteers from Hasheiyeh joined the company 
in the Merjdfeh towards evening, and their hilarious, not to say boisterous, 
merriment enlivened the last hours of day. These stout children of the 
highways have many dangers, and sufTer more hardships, in the practice 
of their arduous calling, but, taking them as a whole, nothing seems to 
daunt them or to reduce their exuberance of spirit. There were also 
.several workmen in the village, described as coming from cl Beka\ 
"Cn?le Syria," a pretty comprehensive term. The harvesting operations 
over in the north, they had come hither seeking employment. They 
could build houses, but in this respect might not be compared with the 
sturdy and skilful masons of Schweir. They would also take a turn at 
threshing or winnowing, or whatever was going on. They and their 
families would be well contented if they might take back with them a 
load or two of grain as the reward of their toil during a few weeks in 
Jedur or Hauran. 

The conversation after sujiper turned on such diverse subjects as the 
management of wheat, the nature, manner, and efficacy of prayer, and 
the condition of roads in the country. One bit of information I set down 
liere for any who may be able to take advantage of it. A youth who 
knew the [)lace well assured me that Latib is absolutely full of 

El Mdl, "the fortune," name of sweet significance to Ar.ib ears, lies 
not far to tlie north-west from 'Akral)aii, at the eastern base ot the hill 
bearing the .same name. The house of the Sheikh being whitewashed, 
stood out in bold prominence among its dark neighbours in the clear light 
of the morning as we passed in tlie di.stance. A'e//' Ndsij stands on a 


rocky height, considerably above the level of 'Akrabah. There are only 
ten houses now occupied ; two years ago it was perfectly empty. The 
people had come from some of the villages in el Ghauta, the fertile plain 
of Damascus. In personal appearance they were the cleanest and tidiest 
we had yet met among the Fellahin in these parts. They complained 
very bitterly of the sterile character of the soil around them, saying it 
was hardly possible, even with the immunities they enjoyed, to make a 
livelihood. Enquiring as to the immunities, they told me that to 
encourage men to settle in such districts, the Government declared tliat 
no taxes of any kind wouhl be levied upon settlers for, I think, tive 
years. This time should enable them to bring the land into subjection, 
and then the usual 'ashih\ or tithe, would be taken. They had now the 
experience of two years behind them and, like my Sufsaf friend at Umm 
el 'Osij, were seriously thinking of returning home, the riches of the 
(Ihauta, even with all its burdens, being preferable to the freedom and 
poverty of Kefr Nasij. There is a considerable extent of ruins, but only 
one building of any size, towanls the centre of the village. It seemed a 
likely enough place for inscriptions, but the peo])le said nothing of the 
kind was to be found in the village. A pretty careful search disposed 
me to believe them, so taking farewell of the kindly settlers we mounted 
and rode for Kefr Shems. 

Our way lay across the bottom of a wide valley which runs nearly 
north and south. The soil appeared much richer than the account.s 
received at Kefr Nasij would have led us to expect. Great breadths of 
waving (1 hurra, the Ijright green of the blades contrasting with the white 
graceful feather)^ heads, lent a pleasing touch of colour to the sombre 
landscape. From the summit of the opijosiug hills, with a clear 
atmosphere, a splendid view should be obtained of all the country lying 
between this and Jebel ed Druze in the east, but, unliap]jily, a thick haze, 
which I have never seen absent, obscured the whole of el Leja' and the 
plains to the south — the serried jjeaks of the niountain rising into the sky 
beyond. Just under us, a little to southward, lay Kefr Shems — " the 
village of the Sun," and further off to the south-east rose the black 
towers of Ef Sanuraein — "the two idols." Descending the eastern slope, 
we struck an ancient aqueduct which, coming from the north-west, 
pitrsues its course in an irregular line past Kefr Shems on to Es 
Sanamein. The house of the Sheikh in Kefr Shems stands in the south- 
west quarter of the village. It is guarded by a wall, high and strong, 
and a huge stone door, swinging open from the street, admits to a court- 
yard paved throughout with dressed blocks of basalt. The under part of 
the house is built of the same material. A very rickety stair leads to the 
upper quarters, where the medafeh is situated. This is adorned with 
marble columns, which look strangely out of place supjiorting the rude 
roof. The Sheikh proved most kind and liospitable, providing melons and 
grapes liberally for our refreshment. He then constituted himself my 
guide, and to his interest I owe the inscriptions I was able to copy here. 
A great part of the old town is now fairly underground. It may, perhaps, 


savour of exaggeration to say of the lines of pillars, and the massive 
buildings now almost entirely concealed and built over, that if they were 
only on the surface they would present a display almost as grand as that 
of Jerash, but that was the impression made upon my mind as I followed 
my host among ranks of half-buried but yet stately columns, and through 
the gloomy passages beyond. How aptly this illustrates the transitory 
nature of earthly grandeur. These buildings are now used as stables, 
cattle sheds, and pens for the village sheep. 

Here I had the first and only attack of fever during tliis journey, and 
this the good Sheikh sagely assured me was due to the melon he had so 
hospitably provided ! But fever is always brooding over these villages, 
and we never failed to meet with earnest applicants for ktna, as they call 
" quinine." This appeared to be the one medicine of the Franjies in 
which there was something like universal confidence. A very common 
way of taking it is to wrap up the dose in a bit of cigarette paper and 
swallow it with a mouthful of water. The cigarette paper is everywhere 
to be found ; even i:i the most remote parts, where no other evidences of 
approaching civilisation were to be seen, the little packets of paper in 
their indiarubber bands and pictured boards were never absent. Fever 
notwithstanding, we started about midday and rode down to Es Sanamein, 
following pretty closely the line of the aqueduct, alongside of which we 
found traces of an aiicient road. In some parts lines of stones on either 
side would seem to show that at one time it was guarded by walls. 
Taking a ])ath which strikes otf lo the right, we reached the edge of the 
valley which runs to west of the village, and which here deepens almost 
into a gorge, the black bare rocks rising many feet on both sides. The 
horses with some diificulty scrambled down and struggled up on the 
further bank, then between perfunctorily built dykes that guard the ill- 
managed gardens we quickly approached the ruins. Just after entering 
the village there is on the right hand in the valley a deep pool which, 
earlier in the year, is tolerably fresh, but by this time it is rather strong 
for European taste. Eude stone steps lead up from the water's edge to a 
large rectangular enclosure, paved with badly fitting blocks of basalt, and 
surrounded by a low wall of the same stone. All the materials here used 
are taken from the ruins around. In the southern end of the enclosure 
there is a niche with shell ornamentation, which indicates the direction 
of the Kiblah. Hither come many of the pious Moslemin to perform their 
devotions, the water being specially convenient for ablutions. 

This ))rayer place by the water reminds one of the Jewish p7'oseuchae, 
which they were wont to have by the seashore, and on the banks of rivers 
(Acts xvi, 13). Kiblah — d^Ss is used in Syria for " south." It means, of 
course, the sanctuary in Mecca, towards which the Moslem turns in 
prayer. It seems to be an irregular infinitive of J.jl' — "to stand 
opposite to" — as the place over againot wnich the worshipper stands. 
The dark towers which are so imposing when seen from afar, on closer 
acquaintance are a sad disappointment. The use of white and black 


stones in their construction gives them a curious speckled appearance. 
Consisting of two or three storeys each, it is not easy to determine their 
original purpose : they may have been a sort of rude mausoleums. The 
building of the lower part is usually substantial, but it grows shaky 
towards the top. These towers look over a wide extent of ruin, which 
has perhaps yielded more inscriptions than any similar space in the 
Hauran ; but it is impossible to say what riches may still lie buried 
under the enormous rubbish heaps that cumber the ground on every 
hand. The guide books give an account of the temples and reservoir in 
the eastern portion of the town. This reservoir, under the southern wall 
of the larger temple, affords the chief water supply of the villagers in 
summer. The temples are not built of limestone, as " Murray's Guide " 
asserts. Limestone never could have weathered the blasts of centuries 
as this carefully-dressed basalt has done. Whence its dark brownish 
colour on the surface I know not, but basalt it is beyond all doubt. 
Again, it is hardly correct to say that any of the houses here are " in 
the best style of Hauran architecture." Very much finer examples are 
to be found, e.ff., in Zora', and in Damet el 'Alyah. But a very good 
general idea of the ancient method of building, and the use of blocks 
and slabs of stone for all purposes — walls, roof, window shutters, 
doors, &c. — may be gathered from the structures now standing, many of 
them of old materials, and very roughly put together, but chiefly from 
the ruins. The mosque is an unpretentious building, with a very large 
paved courtyard. Like other eastern sanctuaries, it is open to afford welcome 
shelter to friendless and homeless wanderers, several of whom we found 
had taken refuge under its shadow from the fierce heat of the day. 
So it is also with the synagogues of the Jews in the Orient. He who 
reaches a Jewish town, if he has no friend, may claim a place to rest in 
the sanctuary of his brethren. If he be in penury, the authorities tell 
off a certain number of householders, who shall each give him a meal 
•every day, or every second day, vmtil such time as he may be otherwise 
provided for, or move further. 

A little to eastward of the village I saw a number of tents, and beyond 
the tents a scene of bustle and activity, most ?(iioriental in its character. 
The tents belonged to the engineers who had charge of the construction 
of the tramway from Damascus into the Hauran. In the course of their 
work they had reached Es Sanamein, and the low embankment which 
here was necessary, a troop of native workers, under European super- 
vision, were throwing up in great style. I found the chief in command, 
the mudlr, as the Arabs called him, a young Belgian, — a fine, frank, 
hospitable fellow, as much delighted to meet a new face from the west as 
I was to see a representative of civilisation in these wilds. I had hoped 
to reach Khabab that evening, but he would not hear of our going 
further, and with the kindly violence of the Orient he consti-ained ua to 
make our abode with him that night. The clean comfortable tents were 
a, great contrast to what we had been used with f^- some time, so I 
-daresay we were not hard to persuade. The rest of the afternoon passed 


])leasaiitly, inspecting the works, and more especially a bridge which was 
to span thewady south of the town, just below the ancient Eoman bridge 
which has outlived so many centuries, and bids fair, though sadly 
dilapidated, to survive many more modern structures. The metals 
were laid as far as Ghubaghib, and a locomotive and a number of 
waggons having been at work for some time the people were beginning 
to realise some of the blessings of railways. Indeed, they had already 
a few accidents to boast of ; and no sham affairs either, for several lives 
had been lost. 

The line has now been completed as far as Mezeirib, and opened 
only, however, for goods traffic. Still, if it is properly gone about, 
travellers may arrange for a trip into the Hauran from Damascus, and 
thus see in brief time, and at little expense, what not long ago would 
liave cost a considerable amoiuit of both. The line from Haifa will also 
open up a country of very gi-eat interest, but as yet very little progress 
has been made with it. 

About sunset the company assembled in the dining tent of the 
engineers for supjier, and a thoroughly enjoyable evening was spent, all 
the more so, perhaps, because the ])roceedings j^artook somewhat of the 
nature of comedy. The mudlr could make nothing of English, German, 
or Arabic, while I was equally at sea in French and Italian. His Arabic 
interpreter was therefore requisitioned, and the curious spectacle was seen 
of two Europeans who could make themselves mutually intelligible only 
through the medium of what, to western ears, nuist have seemed the 
barbarous jargon of the Arab. But men in such circumstances are not 
easily daunted, and the flow of converse was not stayed until far into 
the night, when a great stillness had fallen over the cam]), the village, 
and the wide desolate stretches around us. 

If the night fell in silence the morning broke in tumult. A Kurdish 
soldier, who had been told off to guard the camp, awoke to find that his 
"akal had disajipeared — the fillet of twisted hair which holds the kufqieh 
or head covering in place. Some had heard a troop of camels passing in 
the darkness, and opined that the camel drivers had visited the tents, and 
finding the 'akal the most convenient thing, had quietly annexed it, while 
the valiant guard, like Saul of old, lay deep in slumber. Pursuit was 
hopeless ; but the Kurdish tongue did ample duty, and if strength of 
epithet is of any avail, the thief's ears may well have rung. Thus it often 
is with the ships of the desert " that pass in the night." As the Arabs say, 
the camel drivers lift a thing and yadullv, m&sky — " continue walking " 
— and in the morning " wliere are they ? " The long swinging step of 
the camel, unresting for many hours, carries them well away from the 
scene of their depredations ere the dawn. 

Looking out we found the face of the earth covered by a dense white 
mist ; it seemed as if the atmosphere were packed full of soft cotton 
wool. Everything was drenched with dew. It was some hours ere the 
sun's bright shafts were able to penetrate the cloud. A remarkable 
inscription had been seen recently by the interpreter, .so he said, just 


newly uncovered. He volunteered to accompany me and point it out ; but 
in some mysterious way it had disappeared ! The people were very 
kindly disposed, and allowed me to wander around and through their houses 
at pleasure. I regret now that I did not copy several inscriptions which 
they said had been taken before, and which I thought, from the prominent 
positions they occupied, could hardly have been missed. But many of 
these stones are often moved about, and where no book of reference is at 
hand it is well always to secure them. 

Only two temples have been traced among the ruins at Es Sanamein. 
It has been suggested that the name may have been derived from the two 

figures cut on a block which lies by the gateway ; but is ,,jus mnam^ 

" an idol," ever used for a figure cut on a block ? Does it not seem more 
natural to suppose that the two ruined fanes once covered the " two idols " 
to which the village in these latter days owes its name ? 

The kedish treated us to a display of agility of which we had never 
suspected him capable. 'Abdullah, rubbing his eyes open, was trying to 
arrange our goods and chattels on the back of the hitherto submissive 
animal. But he seemed to have grown utterly weary of those ever- 
lasting boxes, bags, &c., and suddenly the iron shoes on his hind feet 
flashed into the air high above 'Abdullah's unprotected skull, and the 
whole pile came rumbling over his head in magnificent confusion. For a 
moment he stood, amid the guftaws of the delighted camp followers, with 
eai's and tail erect, staring at the result of his abnormal activity. 
'Abdullah addressed him in a few sentences, remarkable for their brevity 
and concentrated strength, and the fit left him as quickly as it had come. 
He stood, apparently in deep contrition, nntil the burden was fairly 
placed and secured, and for the rest of the journey he seemed to have 
gained complete mastery of the evil spirit of insubordination. 

The road to Khabab from Es Sanamein pursues an easterly direction 
as far as Buslr. This village stands amid dark reaches of deep fertile 
soil, which run np to the rocky wall of el Lej^'. It is fairly cultivated 
after the fashion of the rude husbandry known to the villagers, and 
yields enough to keep them in comparative comfort, in spite of the 
burdens imposed with and without the authority of the Government. 
The medafeh of the Sheikh opening to northward commanded an exten- 
sive view of the j^lain, which three months before had been clothed with 
the waving gold of the wheat harvest, and over which a few cattle, set 
free from the toils of the threshing floor, now wandered, gathering here 
and there in listless groups to gaze over the dark acres. The Sheikh 
Mousa Eifendi el Fellouli, was a fine specimen of the well-to-do Fellahy. 
" Eflendi " appearing in his title was doubtless due to contact with the 
life of Damascus, and evidently the good Sheikh felt himself under 
obligation " to live xip to it." His diwdn boasted a table of rough wood 
and a few chairs, besides the ordinary mats. He produced, with no little 
pride, a few coarse jjlates, on which he served us with melons and o-rajies. 
When bread and leben were brought, he had actually a coujjle of iron 

2 B 



spoons with which _ to eat the latter. A very poor-looking Betlawy 
occupied a corner of the diicdn. He had made friends with the Sheikh 
of Busir, and occasionally ventured beyond the rocky barriers that bound 
the territory of his brethren, to partake of the Sheikh's hosjaitality, 
where the fare was better than would be found in el Leja' at this season. 
Taking advantage of his momentary absence, Mohammed told me that 
the Arabs of el Leja' were a very bad lot. Anjas ma yakun., he said, 
which may be freely rendered : '' Greater rascals do not exist." From 
this text he preached continuously, seeking to inspire me with caution, 
until we were safely beyond their boi'ders. It is only right to say that 
all along our route his opinions met with ample corroboration. This 
seemed a simple enough man, and I think, to the best of his abilityj he 
gave us the information we asked about routes, &c., in el Leja'. I had 
hoped it might be possible to see something of the central districts of 
el Leja', esi^ecially to the noi"th and north-west of Damet el 'Alyah. He 
assured me that to attempt this at present would be utter madness. No 
living thing was to be found thei-e now ; not even a bird would fly over 

it ! It was, he said, bass shot — Jj-i />iJ— " only a liot, rocky, waterless 

waste." It is interesting to compare this word ^4-^ (pi. ij\^\ — ashivdl) 

with the Hebrew 7*"l^tlJ> sli'ol, wliich is translated by the Greek, Hades. 
In the spring of the year the thing might be done, but he thought it 
would be labour wasted. Nothing would be seen but dreary stretches of 
rock, an occasional shepherd, whose flock cropped the scanty and stunted 
herbage, and in the lonelier parts a fox or a jackal. There were no 
villages, and no luins ; these are to be found only in the ■ , . o ^ — ?w7«/, 

that is, along the bordeis of the district. While we sat at meat the 
Beduwy suddenly started, sprang to his feet, and peered anxiously into 
the distance across the plain to northward. Looking up, I could see only, 
as it were, two moving specks in the direction he indicated. First he 
muttered " horsemen," and, after a little, ed Dowla — " the Government." 
He shouldered his club, drew his 'abba closely around him, slipped out 
on his bare feet, and away through the stubble to southward. Ere the 
horsemen reached the village he must have been well on his way to the 
borders of the great natural fortress of his kinsmen, el Leja'. The Arabs 
of el Leja' will by no means face a soldier when beyond their own 
borders. The Arab, who is practically an outlaw, would almost certainly 
regi'et it, were he to trust the tender mercies of the Turkish soldier. 
Tlie latter, it should be said, is equally chary of venturing within the 
rocky frontier of the Arab's territory. They regard each other as sworn 
foes, and miss no opportunity of showing how sincere their feelings are. 
A soldier who, on a former occasion, accompanied our i)arty as far as 
Zor'a, could not be tempted, even by money, to go with us towards 
Damet el 'Alyah. A Christian guide whom we secured on that occasion 
led us l)y quiet paths to within sight of Dama, then seized with a violent 
trembling, he jiointed out the i)lace with his club, pocketed his haclsheesh, 
turned aside into the rocky wilderness, and speedily disappeared. For his 


own comfort it was well, as a troop of Druze horsemen who came out to 
welcome us, would certainly have given him some trouble. 

When the horsemen from the north arrived, they turned out not to be 
representatives of the Dowla after all. It was the old story of the 
money-lender and creditors over again. The money-lender in this case 
was a strapping young Damascene, attired in gorgeous apparel of rustling 
silk. The second horseman was his attendant and guard. Probably the 
" Effendi " in his title secured for the good Mousa somewhat more respect 
from his creditor than is usual in such circumstances. But all the same, 
the arrival of the money-lender to collect capital or interest, was an 
event which quite obviously afforded no pleasure to any man in the 
villa»e. While the reckonings of some of the smaller creditors were 
being pulled into shape, good Sheikh Mousa took me in charge, and we 
proceeded to explore the village. The one thing of interest we discovered 
was the stone No. 48, with inscription worn and mutilated beyond 
recognition. A few houses are built of dressed stone and lime, but most 
are of the usual type, rough stones and mud, while the passages between 
the walls are covered to a depth of many feet with all manner of rubbish. 
The round of inspection over, Ave left the villagers and the Shdmi/ making 
the best of a very disagreeable business, and, following the directions of 
the hospitable Mousa, struck out for Khabab. 

The old city of Khabab is somewhat difficult of approach. It stands 
just within the border of el Leja'. Eeaching the edge of the plain, we 
pushed on by the winding tracks leading through the splendid basaltic 
ramparts that guard the entrance to the fastnesses of the Arab. As w^e 
came nearer the city, by the wayside we saw signs of the industry for 
which the place has long been famous. Great circular millstones, skil- 
fully cut from the hard rock, stood in pairs, steadied by means of a 
wooden shaft passed through the apertures in the centres, like huge solid 
cart wheels. One of these stones is as much as the strongest camel is 
e'/er expected to carry, and you may often see strings of the big ships of 
the desert, each with a dark mass of stone poised carefully on its back, 
swinging away to northward and westward. This is one of the 
industries with which the Arabs find it difficult to interfere, and as it 
means something for the villagers engaged in it, their masters can with a 
better conscience make free with their goods in other directions. The 
quality of the rock in this neighbourhood fits it peculiarly for this 
jnirpose, and the tradesmen of Khabab are called on to supply the needs 
of a very wide district. 

Approaching the town, the most conspicuous object is the house of 
the bishop, Ddr el Ilatrdn. It stands on a slight eminence towards the 
western quarter, and being whitewashed, is in sharp contrast with the 
sombre-hued hovels around. The sunlight gleaming on its white walls 
renders it a prominent landmark far over the dark, bleak tracts of 
el Leja'. I saw it again distinctly both from Harrau and from Tell 
'Ammar. Khabab is nominally the headquarters of the Bishop of the 
Hauran ; but his lordshijj finds Damascus much more to his liking during 

2 b2 



the greater part of the year, and the house, althougli distinguished by 
whitewash, is not kept in very excellent repair. The modern village is 
a good deal scattered, stretching along the bottom of a shallow valley 
and some distance up the opposing slopes. It is built almost entirely of 
ancient materials, and stones with carving and inscriptions that once 
adorned very difl'erent structures, are now found plastered with mud over 
the doors or in the walls of these wretched huts. Not content with the 
remains of antiquity around their own doors, several of the ruins in the 
intei'ior, now deserted, notably Zubeir, had been laid under contribution, 
and many of the inscribed and sculptured stones which I examined had 
been carried hither by camels. Zubeir, Zubireh, Keratah, had each 
yielded tribute, and No. 51 had been brought from Melihat Hasktn, 
whose bare walls Ave could see on rather lower gi'ound, not far to the 

Here we were among Christians. They belong to the Greek Catholic 
communion. Their isolation has delivered them from the bitterness of 
spirit too often generated in contact with other sects. But it is with 
peculiar pleasvire I record the fact that among all Christian communities 
in Palestine, by whatever name they may be called, I never experienced 
anything but the greatest kindness. Some of my own best friends in 
Palestine were in holy orders in the three principal oi)posing communions, 
Greek, Greek Catholic, and Latin. The jjeasants soon discovered that I 
was a maslhy — ^o>«,Jsawc — " Christian." This, of course, is the literal 
translation of the Greek ;;(pto-rtai'os. A word in more common use in 
Syria is ^'l-^i — Xaxrany, literally "A Nazarene" (pL o,L2J — 

Nasara'). But it is to be observed that among the Arabs while Nasrany 
may be and often is a term of reproach, combined with other opprobrious 
epithets, maslhy is always spoken with respect — " a gracious word on the 
lips of the Ai'ab." There was no lack of willing guides to conduct us to 
the house of the Sheikh, where we were received with a warmth of 
liospitable welcome enough to delight the heart of travellers much more 
fastidious than we. Sheikh Diab el Ghannem was abroad attending to 
village affairs, but he was ably represented by his wife and daughters. 
The house is a great rambling structure built round three sides of a 
square, apparently designed to afford the maximum of accommodation 
with the minimum of comfort. But houses, save for security of stores, do 
not mean very much for these children of the open air. The meijdfeh is a 
small room at the end of the south-western wing. It is plastered with 
mud — floor, ceiling, and walls — and is really the most comfortable part of 
the house. It opens on a stjuare platform raised about 18 inches above 
the street and suriounded by a lough stone wall. Here it is that the 
villagers meet for their evening gossip. Being a man of common faitii, 
as a mark of respect and confidence I was ushered into the room chiefly 
occupied by the family, in that i)art of the square protected by the two 
wings. The ro(jm was filled with the results of the skill and industry of 
the women. Those who came to entertain us brought their work with 


theiu. Some were spinning yarn of goats' hair, and others were Lusy 
knitting it into cloth. The hurj—„.i " saddlebags," so largely used 

by the Arab horseman, they make in great numbers. They also turn out 
the capacious bags in which the grain of the Hauran is transported on 
camel-back to Damascus, and across the country to tlie sea ; the rough- 
hair cloak or \iha'—>\xs. ; small hair carpets ; the \ikal — JUz — or fillet 

of hair witli which the Arab fastens his kufiyeh on his head ; as well as 
hair cloth for tents. When the losses of the peasants in the fields have 
been heavier than usual, the earnings of the women during the winter 
months must often make all the difference between starvation and 
comparative comfort. 

Several men from the Damascus district had come with camels, 
bringing loads of beautiful grapes. These it was their purpose to part 
with in exchange for wheat, and when I came across them they were 
doing a very fair business. They were easily persuaded to part with a 

few for money. A wooden half-midd measure — \,^ — midd^ is the 

measure of capacity which, in dealing with grain, takes the place of our 
bushel — was nearly filled with the luscious berries ; a stalwart youth set 
it on his head and bore it triumphantly before me to the Sheikh's house, 
where they met with an uncommonly warm reception. 

The ignorance of the people has not been much afi"ected by their 
Christian traininij such as it is. With the best intentions in the world 
they could guide me to only a few inscriptions. Some of those I found 
and copied, many had not recognised as inscriptions at all. No doubt 
there is much in the place to reward the patient searcher who has time to 

spend in the work. A very large iSiS::^ tUuJ^-o — hatusvh jad'ldeli, 

" new church " — had been in process of erection for some time in the 
eastern quarter of the town. It was being built of basaltic stones 
without mortar of any kind. The walls, which were over 3 feet thick, 
must have been nearly 20 feet in height all round the square which they 
enclosed. The men of Shweir, in Mount Lebanon, are, of course, the 
builders to whom such work is entrusted. No. 49 was built in over the 
lofty doorway, resting on a broad lintel which projected a few inches, so 
that it could not be read from below. No ladder could be found, but a 
rojie was brought and no small excitement was caused when, having 
fastened the rope round me, passing it over the top of the wall the trusty 
Mohammed held the other end, and swinging over the front I reached 
the lintel and made as good a coj^y of the inscription as circumstances 

As the sun dipped low in the west the men began to gather in from 
their various vocations, and news of the str.angers' presence soon secured 
for us a goodly company in the Sheikh's quarters. The Sheikh himself, 
was a man of something under average stature, with bushy iron-grey hair, 
beard and moustache, and keen grey eyes. He was a man of very quiet' 


deportment, but evidently had secured the esteem of all the rough men 
around him. While supper was being prepared some of the younger men 
went with me to a lofty roof whence we commanded a considerable view 
of el Jjeja'. One of these men I had met in Tiberias, whither he had gone 
to visit his brother, the Greek Catholic priest, who is a native of this 

place. They use many peculiar forms of speech, e.g., cJJ ^^^J^S=>-\ ^^^ , 

siiin ildasJu lal; which they explained to mean ^:x.j^l _vr=- ^^.^ 

(^1 , Isma^ hatta iliM lah — " Listen that I may speak to yovi." Again, 

A •; ■■ W •__ , Jkz, tvalA talitasht which they freely rendered. li:_,<Lj\ 

,jjj^_^ «_*--;l 'A.' ..' ^< ) Iskat ma bertd isma' minak — " Hold your peace, 
I don't want to hear you." They pointed out many of the ruins and 
villao-es within sight, mentioning particularly those where the water 
supply is good and plentiful. I led them on to give me the names of all 
the ruins and villages known to them in el Leja'. We had not made 
much proo-ress when the summons to supper was heard, but that frugal 
meal over we sat down again under the stars, with the light of a 
dilapidated paraffin lamp, and now we had the assistance of the 
assembled company. I fancy we had got pretty well through the list 
when the Sheikh, who had been growing uneasy for some time, suggested 
that it was a very useless bit of work. It is alw-iys well to take a hint of 
this kind from your host, so we at once desisted. Mohammed learned 
that he was afraid of getting into trouble with the powers that be for 
allowing a stranger to collect so much information about the district, and 
of course he could not know what political design might underlie the 
apparently innocent desire for the acquisition of knowledge. 

The conversation turned upon indifferent subjects, and drowsiness 
creeping over us we did not think it worth while in the warm night air 
to change our positions, but even where we were we slept comfortably 
till the morning. 

I give the names as the peasants gave them to me. The>/ are 
responsible for the orthogra])hy. It may also be an advantage to 
transliterate them. 

Place Names in El Leja'. 

ElKlmlidiyeh = Lj.lUl^ ^'^"^ ~ J^ 

Hamir = ^<l>- C>V 

K6m Roman fGood _ i •• Bosor el Hariry = ^ • ,.^^1 ,.^J 

' Water) " " ^^'V C^^ ' "-^-"^^ ^ ' 

„ , . Et'ftrah = b ,\xj\ 

Zubeir = jX> \ -^ 

Zublreh = i^-j Ed Dawireh = '^J.^^^ 



Eimet el Luhf 

Umm ez Zeitun 

Tell Mukdad 

Kasr Jeniu (Good 



Kasr Zobaii' 

Kasr Hablbeh = <LkJ.x 

KasAr el Hormali 

(L^ «sv) 1 , 5*^^ 

KasAr Barghashah = 

Bi'r Jafir (Good 

Darnet el 'Alyah : 

El Jisreh 


Mrasras : 

Deir Nileli 




Surat el Keblrah = 


Kom M^sik 

El Musmiyeh 





- '< M 

" ^ 

= ^ 

— mJ"' 


El Melihal) 




El Mejeidel 


El Wabeir 

En Najih 



El Khirseh 

'Ahreb ('Aliry) 






Jarain = 



Umiu Satisali 

Dajaj : 

Deir Damet el 

Deir Damet el 

= cUAj 



Khirbet er Rasif = lJ^^J'-\ ^y^ P^kir (Dhakir ?) 

ElMttoeh = :^y^\ Khulklmlah 

Lahneh = ^^^^ Umm Hartain 

Er Easimeh 

= <.!. -k-v^ .< 1 Es Saghirah 



^W h 



B}' James Glaisher, F.E.S. 

The numbers in column 1 of this table show the highest reading of the 
barometer in each month ; of these the highest appear in the winter, and 
the lowest in the summer months ; the maximum for the year was 27-673 
inches, in December. In column 2 the lowest reading in each month is 
shown ; the minimum for the year was 271)47 inches, in March. The 
range of readings for the year was 0-62G inch. The numbers in the 
3rd column show the range of I'eadings in each month, the smallest, 
0-166^ inch, was in August ; and the largest, 0-515 inch, in March. The 
numbers in the 4th column show the mean monthly pressure of the atmos- 
l)here, the highest, 27-489 inches, was in November ; and the lowest, 
27-236 inches, in July. The mean pressure for the year was 27-381 
inches. At Sarona the mean pressure for the year was 29-834 inches. 

The highest temperature of the air in each month is shown in column 5. 
The highest in the year was 100°-5 on August 1st; the maximum 
temperature on this day at Sarona was 90°. The first day in the year 
the temperature reached 90° was on April 20th ; in May the temperature 
reached or exceeded 90° on 4 days ; in June on 5 days ; in July on 
17 days; in August on 17 days; in September on 4 days; and in 
October on 6 days. Therefore the temperature reached or exceeded 90° 
on 54 days during the year. At Sarona the first day in the year the 
temperature reached 90° was on March 4th. The highest in the year 
was 102°, on April 20th. The maximum temperature on this day at 
Jerusalem was 94°-8 ; and the temperature reached or exceeded 90° at 
Sarona on 31 days diu'ing the year. 

The numbers in column 6 show the lowest temperature of the air in 
each month ; the lowest in the year was 28° on December 30th. The 
temperature was below 40° in January on 6 nights; in February on 
6 nights ; in March on 1 night ; in November on 10 nights ; and in 
December on 17 nights. Therefore the temperature was below 40° on 40 
nights during the year. The yearly range of temperature was 72°-5. At 


Sarona the temperature was below 40° on only three nights in the year ; 
the lowest in the year was 38° on December 30th. The yearly range of 
temperature at Sarona was 64°. 

The range of temperature of each month is shown in column 7, and 
these numbers vary from 23°'5 in January to 52°'8 in April. At Sarona 
the range of temperatiu-e varied from 23° in August to 58° in April. 

The mean of all the highest by day, of the lowest by night, and of the 
average daily ranges of temperature, are shown in columns 8, 9, and 10 
respectively. Of the high day temperature the lowest, 5 1 ° '5, was in January, 
and the highest, 90°, in August. At Sarona, of the high day tempei-ature 
the lowest, 64° "2, was in January, and the highest, 88" "4, in July. 

Of the low night temperature, the coldest, 39°'2, is in December, and 
the warmest, 66°-7, in July. At Sarona, of the low night temperature, the 
coldest, 47°'8, was in Februai-y, and the warmest, 70°'3, in August. 

The average daily range of temperature is shown in column 10 ; the 
smallest, 10° '5, is in January, and the greatest, 25°, in August. At 
Sarona, of the average daily range the smallest, 15° '2, was in January, 
and the greatest, 23°'8, in October. 

In column 11 the mean temperature of the air is shown, as found from 
observations of the maximum and minimum thermometers only. The 
month of the lowest temperature was Jaiuiary, 46°'2, and that of the 
highest, July, 78°'2. The mean temperature for the year was 63°'2. At 
Sarona, of the mean temjierature, the month of the lowest was January, 
56° "5, and that of the highest, August, 79° "3. The mean temperature 
of the air for the year at Sarona M'as 68° '4. 

The numbers in columns 12 and 13 are the monthly means of a dry 
and wet-bulb thermometer taken daily at 9 a.m. In column 14 the 
monthly temperature of the dew point is shown, or that temperature 
at which dew would have been deposited. The elastic force of vapour 
is shown in column 15. In column 16 the water present in a cubic 
foot of air is shown ; in January, February, and December it was as 
small as 3*1 gi-ains, and as large as 6"8 grains in August. In column 17 
the additional weight required for saturation is shown. The numbers in 
column 18 show the degree of humidity, saturation being considered 100 ; 
the month with the smallest number, indicating the driest month, is May, 
53, and the largest, 82, indicating the wettest month, is January. The 
weight of a cubic foot of air under its mean pressui'e, temperature, and 
humidity at 9 a.m. is shown in column 19. 

The most prevalent winds in January were N.W. and S.W., and the 
least prevalent was N. In February the most jirevalent were S.W. 
and N.W., and the least were N., N.E., and S. In March the most 
prevalent were N.W. and S.W., and the least was N. In April the most 
prevalent wei-e N.W. and W., and the least was E. In May the most 
jjrevalent winds were W. and N.W., and the least was S. In June the 
most prevalent was N.W., and the least were E. and S. In July the 
most prevalent were N.W. and W., and the least prevalent were N.E., 
E., S.E., and S. In August the most prevalent were N.W., S.W., and 


W., and the least were E. and S. In September the most prevalent 
was N.W,, and the least were E., S.E., and S. In October the most 
prevalent winds were N.W. and N.E., and the least were S.E., S., and 
W. In November the most prevalent were N.W. and N.E., and the 
least were N., S.E., and S. ; and in December the most prevalent winds 
were N.W. and S.W., and the least was N. The most prevalent wind for 
the year was N.W., which occurred on 129 times during the year, of 
these 17 were in September, 15 in June, and 13 in July ; and the least 
prevalent wind for the year was S., which occurred on only 7 times during 
the year. At Sarona the most prevalent wind for the year was S.W., 
which occurred on 90 days in the year ; and the least prevalent wind 
was N.E., which occurred on only 10 days in the year. 

The numbers in column 28 show the mean amount of cloud at 9 a.m. 
The month with the smallest amount is July, 0-2, and the month with 
the largest is January, 5-9. Of the cumulus, or fine weather cloud, there 
were 7 instances ; of the nimbus, or rain cloud, there were 26 instances, 
of which 9 were in January, 6 in December, and 5 in March, and only 
1 from April to September ; of the cirrus, there were 15 instances ; of 
the cirro cumulus, 81 instances ; of the cirro stratus, 11 instances ; of 
the cumulus stratus, 65 instances ; of the stratus, 2 instances ; and there 
were 158 instances of cloudless skies, of which 27 were in August, 26 in 
July, and 18 in both June and September. At Sarona there were 
92 instances of cloudless skies, of which 15 were in October, 14 in 
November, and 13 in July. 

The largest fall of rain for the month in the year was 6-13 inches in 
January, of which 1*31 inch fell on the 26th. The next largest fall 
for the month was 3-21 inches in March, of which 1-75 inch fell on the 
19th. No rain fell from April 22nd to September 22nd, making a period 
of 152 consecutive days without rain. The fall of rain for the year was. 
13-56 inches, which fell on 41 days. At Sarona the largest fall of rain 
for the month in the year was 5-85 inches in January. No rain fell at 
Sarona from May 25th to September 21st, making a ])eriod of 118- 
consecutive days without rain. The fall of rain for the year at Sarona 
was 13'50 inches, which fell on 50 days. 


By F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. With Notes by A. S. Murray, LL.D. 

1. Insceiptions on a Stoxe built into a House at Keeak. 
XijTO Se y^ a)[s tr^iia ^]eo{i BepdnovTOS if^lcrTOV. 

Fragmentary inscription in Elegiac verse, in memory of one who had 
died at 50 years of age, having been a servant of God, the Most High. 
In vTo the V is here long, contrary to nsage,. but the reading is quite 
distinct ; so also in v-^'kttov the first syllable is naturally long, instead 
of short as the verse requires. The restoration which I oflfer in brackets 
and in the first line must be taken as conjectural. On the right hand 
side of the stone is another Greek inscription which I cannot read from 
the impression. 

2. Insceiption on Milestone noeth of Wady Waleh. 

Apparently part cf a milestone erected by Flavins Julianus, Imperial 
legatus pro praetore on behalf of an Emperor in his second Consulship. 



I have not been able to trace elsewhere the peculiar form of the 
letter t> (= I^) used here. As the other letters do not indicate a late 
pet-iod we may perhaps take this as a local form. The name Flavins 
Jnlianus occurs among high Koman olHcials in many periods, including 
that of the Apostate himself. 

3. Inscription from Dhiban. 
Tombstone of a child, 5 years of age. 

i. Inscription on Stone built into a House at Kerak. 


o to 


The Annual Meeting of tlie General Committee was held at the Office of 
the Fund, 24, Hanover Square, on Tuesday, July 16th, 1895. 

James Glaisher, Esq., F.E.S., occupied the chair. 

Amongst those present wore Major-General Sir Charles Wilson, 
K.C.B. ; Professor E. Hull, F.E.S. ; Rev. Canon Dalton, C.M.S. ; Dr. 
Ginshurg, J.P., and John Pollard, Esq. Letters or telegrams regretting 
their absence were received from Lord Amherst of Hackney, Viscount 
Sidmouth, Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, Sir Walter Besant, Lieut. - 
Colonel Watson, E.E., F. D. Mocatta, Esq., Rev. H. G. Tomkins, and 

The following Report of the Executive Committee was read : — 


In resigning the office to which they were appointed at the last 
Annual Meeting of the Fund, your Executive Committee have the honour 
* to render the following Reporc : — 

They have held twenty-one meetings for the transaction of business,, 
and there have been three meetings of Sub-Committees. 

The excavations at Jerusalem were last year continued without inter- 
ruption until the winter season, when they had to be suspended for a 
time. In April of the jivesent year they were resumed, and have since 
been caixied on by Dr. Bliss and his assistants with much skill and 

As the heavy labour and responsibility were a great strain upon 
Dr. Bliss's strength, the Executive Committee, after careful consideration, 
resolved to send out from England a gentleman fully qualified to make 
plans and drawings and to assist in the excavations. Mr. Archibald 
Campbell Dickie, A.R.I.B.A., was accordingly appointed. He arrived 
at Jerusalem towards the end of March, and has already done excellent 

The excavations have been mainly confined to the tracing of the line 
of an ancient wall south of the present city wall ; but Dr. Bliss has also, 
at the request of his Excellency Hamdy Bey, Director of the Archjeo- 
logical Museum at Constantinople, made some interesting excavations of 
a ruined and buried church on the Mount of Olives. 

In the course of the year 1894 the remains of an ancient tower close 
to the south-eastern side of the Protestant bm-ial ground were exposed, 
and a number of other towei's discovered in the line of the wall, whilst 
the wall itself was traced as far as the north-western boundaiy of the 
Jewish cemetery. A gateway also was discovered in this wall, about 
150 feet south-east of the first-named tower, with a paved road leadinf> 


lip from it in a north-easterly direction. On one of the shxbs covering a 
drain under this road a large Jerusalem cross was carved, showing, 
Dr. Bliss remarks, that the drain had been used and repaired in the times 
of the Crusaders. 

On re-commencing work in the spring of the present year, Dr. Bliss 
soufdit for and found the wall again on the south-eastern side of the 
Jewish cemetery, and following it down towards the valley discovered, 
just at its turn towards the north, another most interesting gateway, a 
full account of which is jjublished in the Quarterly Statement for July. 
With reference to this gateway Major-General Sir Charles Wilson has 
favoured us with the following valuable note : — 

" It is too early to write with any degree of certainty on the age of 
the interesting wall and gateway which have been discovered by Dr. Bliss. 
That wall certainly enclosed Siloam, and the following statements seem 
to throw light on the subject. Josephus distinctly says ("Wars," V, 9, 
v^ 4) that Siloam was outside the walls. Antoninus (570 a.d.) writes : 
' The fountain of Siloam is at the present day within the walls of the 
city, because the Empress Eudocia herself added these walls to the city.' 
We have thus two definite statements — one, by a contemporary writer, 
that Siloam was outside the walls at the time of the great siege ; the 
other, by a Western pilgrim, that the fountain was brought within the 
walls by Eudocia, who was at Jerusalem between 438-454. Eudocia's 
object was probably to protect the church of Siloam which, if not built 
b)"^ the Enijiress, could only have been recently erected. Theodosius 
(530 A.D.) mentions that the pool of Siloam was within the walls in his 
day ; and the restoration of the walls by Eudocia is alluded to by 
Ev.agrius in his ' Ecclesiastical History ' (i, 22). 

"The wall and gateway disco vei-ed by Dr. Bliss are exactly in the 
position in which we should expect to find the wall and gateway 
of Eudocia, and the character of the masonry seems to indicate that 
both have been largely built with stones from older buildings. Other 
<letails equally point to a date not eai'lier than the fifth century. The 
spade has, however, so often proved historical notices to be wrong that 
we must wait for the result of the further excavations which Dr. Bliss 
has been instructed to make before theorising. Those excavations will, 
it is believed, settle the (juestion whether the wall described by Josephus 
followed the line of that discovered by Dr. Bliss, or, as I think, kept to 
ii higher level and crossed the Tyropoeon Valley above the Pool of 
Siloam. In any case, the discoveries are of deep interest, and we must 
all hoi)e that Dr. Bliss will soon be restored to health, and be able to 
continue the great work upon which he is engaged." 

In the month of March, Dr. Bliss made, by permission of the Com- 
mittee, a journey to the land of Moab. He was furnished with a 
recommendatory letter from H.E. llamdy Bey, and met with a A^ery 
friendly recejjtion from the Governor of Kei'ak, who alibrded him every 
•opjjortunity of exijloring the neighbourhood, measuring and making 
plana of buildings, taking photographs, and copying inscriptions. The 


result of this important visit has been the confirmation of many obser- 
vations made by Canon Tristram and other explorers, and the discovery 
of the ruins of a Eoman fort and a Eoman town not previously known ; 
of no less than four Christian churches at Madeba, and of other remains 
of much interest. A large packet of squeezes of the Greek and Latin 
inscriptions from Madeba have been received, some of which have been 
published in the Quarterly Statement, and others have not yet been 

Unfortunately, soon after his return to Jerusalem Dr. Bliss was taken 
ill, and had to seek change and rest at his home in Beirut. The latest 
account, dated July 2nd, says that he hopes to be sufficiently recovered 
to return in a couple of weeks to his work at Jerusalem ; meanwhile the 
excavations are being superintended by Mr. Dickie. 

A beautiful mosaic jDavement with an Armenian inscription has been 
discovered north of the city of Jerusalem ; accounts of it by Herr von 
Schick and Dr. Bliss were published in the Quarterly Statement, October, 
1894, together with photographs. Dr. A. S. Murra}-, of the British 
Museum, has supplied a valuable note upon it, with a translation of the 
inscription by the Eev. S. Baronian, of Manchester {Quarterly Statement, 
January, 1895). 

Baurath von Schick has continued, with his well-known perseverance, 
to note discoveries in and around the Holy City, and has forwarded 
many valuable reports respecting them. The discovery of a stair and 
postern in the old northern wall of Jerusalem, between Damascus Gate 
and the north-west corner of the city, is especially interesting. 

He is still following closely the work going on at the Muristan, 
carefully noting tlie rock levels as opjiortunity occurs, with the view of 
throwing light upon the difficult enquiry as to the authenticity of the 
site of the Holy Sepulchre. 

The wind having blown down the iron-bound door of Neby Dafid, 
which for some years had remained open against the wall, there w^as 
disclosed in the wall behind it an inscription which seems not to have 
been before noticed. It is in Latin, and, according to Dr. Bliss's report, 
is a votive tablet to Jupiter on behalf of the welfare and greatness of 
the Emperor Trajan and the Roman people, erected by the Third IjCgion, 
which takes us back to the interval between the destruction by Titus 
and the founding of CElia Capitolina. It was partly covered with plaster, 
and may have been entirely covered when the door was last opened and 
shut, which may account for its being unnoticed. It is built into the 
modern wall about 15 feet above the ground. Roman inscriptions are 
very rare in Jerusalem, and this discovery is therefore of exceptional 

Thus the period which has elapsed since our last Annual Meeting has 
been remarkably fruitful in discoveries and observations of importance, 
affording proof, if any were needed, of the continued usefulness of the 
Fund, and of the desirability of prosecuting its further labours with 
energy and zeal. 


A course of lectures on the objects and work of the Fund was again 
delivered in Jerusalem during the tourist season, and the Committee 
desire to record their most grateful thanks to the several gentlemen 
who assisted in these lectures. 

The puljlications of the year have been : — 

" Thirty Years' Work in the Holy Land." 
New edition of " Tent Work in Palestine." 

,, „ " The Bible and Modern Discoveries." 

„ „ " Names and Places." 

As in former years, the Fund has been indebted to many explorers 
and scholars for valuable contributions to the Quarterly Statements. 

Conspicuous among these are a narrative of a journey in the Hauran, 
by the Eev. W. Ewing, and copies of a large number of inscriptions 
collected by him there, which have been edited by A. G. Wright, Esq., 
and A. Souter, Esq. 

Amongst the other papers are : — 

By Herr Baurath von Schick — 
" The beautiful Mosaic Pavement north of Jerusalem " ; " The Stair and 
Postern in the Old Wall of Jerusalem " ; " Recent Discoveries on the 
Mount of Olives"; "Bethzur"; "The Muristan" ; "Excavations 
inside the New (North) Gate of Jerusalem " ; " Reckoning of Time 
among the Armenians ; " " The Church at Deir ez Zeituny," &c. 

By the Rev. Canon Dalton an oi^portune and useful paper on the 
" First Wall of Ancient Jerusalem." 

By P. J. Baldensperger, Esq. — 
" The Birth of Abu Zaid " ; " Beit Dejan." 

By Lieut-Colonel C. M. Watson, C.M.G., R.E.— 
"The Stoppage of the River Jordan in a.d. 1267," from data supplied 
by M. Clermout-Ganneau. 

By A. G. Wright, Esq.— 
" Syria and Arabia." 

By Ebenezer Davis, Esq. — 
"The Siloam and later Palestinian Inscriptions"; "On the Haematite 
Weight from Samaria." 

By Marcus N. Adler, Esq. — 
" Jewish Pilgrims in Palestine." 

By William Simpson, Esq. — 
" On the Swastica." 

By Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph. D.— 
"Note on the Swastica" ; "The Jidian Inscription in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York." 


By Samuel Berglieiui, Esq. — 
" The Identification of the City of David--Zion and Millo." 

By Rev. W. F. Birch— 
" Ancient Jerusalem " ; " The Sepulchres of David on Ophel " ; " The 
City of David." 

By Rev. George Adam Smith, D.D. — 
" On Aphek in Sharon." 

By JVlajor Conder, D.C.L., R.E.— 

Various Notes. 

By Professor Sayce, the late Professor Robertson W. Smith, Dr. 
( Jhaplin, and others — 
Notes and Correspondence respecting the Haematite Weight from 

To the Chairman of the Fund also, James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., the 
Statement has been indebted for a continuation of his reports on the 
Meteorological Observations taken in Palestine under the auspices of the 

The Committee desii-e to express their most sincere thanks to the 
Honorary Local Secretaries for their personal exertions, and to all 
frieu<ls and subscribers for their continued support in carrying out the 
progi'amme of the Fund. 

Since the last annual meeting 263 new annual subscribers have been 
added. The Jiumber who have been removed by death and other causes is 
115, leaving an increase of 148. 

Your Committee have to record with regret the deaths of the follow- 
ing members of the General Committee : — 

Professor J. G. Greenwood. 

Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart., M.P. 

Very Eev. Robert Payne Smith, D.D,, Dean of Canterbury. 

Sir Cyril (iraham, Bart., C.M.G. 

Professor Reginald Poole, LL.D. 

Your Committee have the honour of proposing that the following 
gentlemen be elected members of the General Committee : — 

Rev. Charles Wright Barclay, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

John Murray, Esq., publisher. 

H. S. Noblett, Esq., Cork. 

P. Mackinnon, Esq., Rosemount, Campbelltown. 

Colonel Fai'quharson, C.B., R.E., Director (leneral, Ordnance Survey. 

The following is the Balance Sheet showing the total receipts and 
ex])enditure during the year 1894, and the Treasurer's Statement, which 
were published in the April Quarterly/ Staiement : — 

























,>; o 








1— 1 




I— 1 


f— I 

I— 1 



























I— ( 






^r . 

^ . 
















CO j> 










O . 
































































i • 









cfj u 











1— 1 












p— • 







1-1 f" 













CO t^ 


















O O lO CD 

l^ CD OO SO 

i-i t> iM O 
■* l^ rH '^ 



















• 1— 1 





g 00 






O k 



r^ Cj -. 

^ t<^ cc 



« -^ 



















. cu 
. O 




»i3 cfj 

« £^ 

O C3 

I a^ 

p O 

— u 

fin fa 



The Subscriptions and Donations to the work of the Fund during the year 
1894 amounted to £1,778 16v. Od., an increase of £204 2.y. Od. over the amount 
received in 1893. 

From Lectures there is an increase of £110. The sale of books, maps, and 
the various publications brought in £731 Ss. 9d., as against £832 16s. 3d. 
expended on their production, to which should be added the postage. The 
amount spent on Exploration is £1,050. 

The Quarterli/ Stafenient, wnich is issued free to annual svibscribers of 
10s. Gd. and upwards, cost for printing and illustrations over £450. 

Assets. I Liabilities. 

£ s. d. ' £ s. d. 

Balance m Bank. . . . 377 6 3 Printing, Lithographing, 

Stock of Publications on and Current Expenses 567 13 6 

hand, Surveying In- Exploration. 

struments, Show Cases, 

In addition there is the 

valuable library and 

the unique collection of 

antiques, models, &c. 

The Chairman said : — I cannot but express the satisfaction I feel at 
the results of our working last year. Much tact and judgment been 
exeicised by Dr. Bliss and others engaged in tlie work in Palestine. We 
are glad to know that they- are working well witli the owners of the 
property in which excavations are being made, and that there is no 
difficulty in this respect at the present time. You have heard the 
remarks in the Rejjort by Sir Charles Wilson in reference to the gateway 
last discovered. They were most carefully considered, and I agree with 
him that we must wait until further researches are made. There have 
been times in the year in which we have had anxiety about money 
matters. It is impossible to carry on the work in .Jerusalem for less than 
£1,200 a year, but your Executive will not allow tlie work to «top, though 
they may at times be short of money. I think that if the admiraljle 
work which this P"'und is doing in .Jerusalem were more generally known, 
we should not be troubled as we sometimes are by financial perplexities. 
The closing remark of the Report is, that we have more subscribers than 
last year. Well, that is a step in the right direction. I feel that if the 
p\il)lic had but the slightest conception of the work we are doing, we 
should have no anxiety at all. I will now ask if any gentleman has any 
remark to make upon the Report, and if there is no remark, I will move 
that it be received, adopted, and entered upon our "Minutes. 

Mr. John Pollard. — I have pleasure in seconding it. 

The resolution was carried. 


The C'HAiRaiAN. — There is a gentleman here — Dr. Mastermau — who 
has seen our works going on at Jerusalem, and perhaps he will favour us 
with a few remarks and tell ns something of what he has seen, if it be 
agreeable to him so to do. 

Dr. Masterman. — I had no idea you were going to call upon me to 
say anything, and I have not had the opi^ortunity yet of reading the 
Eejiort upon the work in the July number of the Quarterly Statement, 
so that I am not in a very good position to say much about it, exce])t 
that I have watched with very great interest ail that Dr. Bliss has done. 
I think I have seen all that he has seen of the Avail and of the gateways. 
There is one thing of special intei'est connected with the gates, namely, 
that they show evidence of belonging to two oi- three periods — certainly 
to two periods — so that they must have been used for a very considerable 
length of time. The sills at the entrance to the lower recently-discovered 
gateway, and the sockets for the gates exist in three layers, and the 
up])er layer is wider and evidently more finished than the lower 
one. These gateways were apparently only for foot-passengers, and 
were not verj' wide. Dr. Bliss discovered a cross on the stone ])avement 
going from the upper gateway in a north-easterly direction. It is rather 
unfortunate that that stone with the cross on it was left and has l>een 
covered \\\), so that onl}' those who were actually engaged with Dr. Bliss 
at the time had an opportunity of seeing it. I have seen the other 
things mentioned in the Annual Report. That mosaic j^avement was 
certainly one of great beauty. I think there was a jthotograph of it in 
the Quarterly Stuiement, and the colouring, which coukl not be shown in 
the photograph, was very beautiful indeed. I may say, in conclusion, 
that we who live in Jerusalem feel a continual debt of gratitude to the 
Palestine Ex])loratiou Fund, because, whatever it may mean to the peu|ile 
in England, it means a great deal tons to have the benefit of the accumu- 
lated knowledge of explorers who have gone before, and to have the 
opportunity of watching from time to time the new discoveries which are 
made ; and I am sure that, when going about the country here, I feel 
astonished how difticult it is to raise the enthusiasm of some people for a 
Fund which to all students of the Bible should be of the greatest 
importance. (Apjjlause.) 

Mr. Crace. — What is the difference in the levels of the two sills of 
the gate 'i 

Dr. Masterman, — I am only speaking from memory, but I think it 
is al)Out a foot. Dr. Bliss thought he had three levels, but I did not 
mention the lowest one, because I had no opjjortunity of seeing the actual 
sockets. The other two .sockets were quite evident. I think 1 may say 
that in the upper gateway one might be sure of three, but in the lower 
gateway, at the time I left, there were only two which were (piite clear. 

Canon IJalton. — There was no metal work foiuul in the socket. 

Dr. Masterman. — No, only the rounded mark left by something 
having moved about. 

Mr. Grace. — It is ascertained that with the ordinarx life of most 


cities, the soil level of a tlioront-lifaie is raised about a foot in a ceiitiny, 
and therefore the existence of two gateways with the soil of one a foot 
above the level of the soil of another, would rather imply that the .i^^ates 
had been used for something like a century. 

Professor Hull.— I should like to ask the Chairman whether there is 
still a demand for the raised map, and whether many copies have been 
sold diu'ing the past year 1 I daresay Mr. Armstrong will be able to 

tell us. 

Ml-. Armstrong. — There is still a steady demand for it. Three copies 

were ordered last week. 

Piofessor Hull.— That is very satisfactory. Have any been sent to 
foreign countries ? 

Mr. Armstrong.— Yes, they have been sent to Eussia, the Nether- 
lands, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, various parts of America, 
England, Ireland, Scotland, &c. 

Professor Hull. — It seems to have quite a world-wide reputation. 

The Chairman. — "Well, I think we cannot but tender our thanks to 
those who have been faithful to us, and in the first place we have our 
Honorary Secretary, Sir Walter Besant. I do not know whether it is 
fortunate or not, that he has undertaken the herculean task of the 
History of Loudon, but I only hope that he will Iiave health and strength 
to go tluxiugh with it. 1 have just had a telegram from him explaining 
his absence. He generally writes to me if he cannot come. To-day he 
has some American friends to meet, and so he telegraphed that he 
would be probably late, but would be here if possible. I can assure 
you that I am always glad to see him near me at every meeting, for 
his experience is so great. As for Mr. Armstrong — the Assistant- 
Secretary — well, every trust placed in him is carried out to the best of 
his ability, and I cannot help saying that pometimes I have wished our 
funds were more, so that I could propose some increase in his remunera- 
tion. But at the present moment we can scarcely do that, though I 
look forward to the time coming when it can be done. (Applause.) Of 
the Editor of our Statement I need not say one word, the Statement 
speaks for itself. The admirable manner in which it is conducted is 
shown by the interest taken in it. To him we are very greatly indebted. 
(Hear, hear.) Then there is our Treasurer. Once he was away, and I 
had to go throuo-h his work, and I know what he does. It was the work 
of a trained accountant. Once upon a time I could ilo it very well 
myself, but I am getting so old now that I would rather that others do it. 
To all these gentlemen I would ask you to give a warm vote of thanks 
for their services, and I would ask those who agree with me to hold up 
their hands. (This was carried.) Then we come to Dr. Bliss and 
Mr. Schick. Mr. Schick is not a young man in years, but he is young 
in thought, and no one vvoidd su]ipose that he, who sends us such interest- 
ing papers, is more than seventy years of age. They aie full of a spirit 
which would make one think he was youthful, and we thank liim very 


much. I am sure you will also agree with me in thanking Dr. Bliss for 
the excellent work he has done. (Hear, hear.) And to Mr. Dickie, 
also, we must be grateful. He has not been long there, but he has 
already sent us some admirable drawings. One thing in the i'ei)orts 
pleases me much. It is the statement that if they happen on an interest- 
ing stone, they do not move it, or if compelled to remove it, they take 
drawings of the stone before they do so. Mr. Dickie's pencil speaks so 
admirably that we can see such things ourselves, and I am sure we must 
all feel giateful to bim for his sketches. (Hear, hear.) Then another 
to whom we are indebted is Hamdy Bey, the Superintendent of the 
Museum at Constantinople, who aids and assists us considerably. As 
was mentioned in the Rejjort, he gave letters to Dr. Bliss, which smoothed 
his way as he went to Moab. We are also indebted, I should like to say, 
to his Excellency Ibrahim Pasha, the Governor of Jerusalem. It is a 
fortunate thing that these gentlemen enter kindly into our desires, and 
sympathise with us in our jjursuits, and do not check us in them. I 
am sure you will all feel grateful to them for the good feeling they 
ha^'e evinced towards us, as well as for the active assistance they have 
given. (Hear, hear.) Now, gentlemen, I may say the Committee have 
pleasure in proposing that the following gentlemen be members of the 
General Committee. (The names read.) This was seconded and cariied. 

The Chairman. — Then there now remains the election of the Executive 
Committee, and that I cannot propose. 

Mr. Pollard. — I have pleasure in proposing the re-election of the 
Executive Committee. I am only a member of the General Committee, 
and therefore I am able to move this. The Report has been most 
interesting, and I think the work done during the year has been most 

This was seconded and carried. 

The Chairman. — Well, gentlemen, that concludes our business, and I 
can only urge everyone to assist us as far as possible, for we are enteri;ig 
upon a |)hase of deep interest. I believe that interesting as the work has 
been already, if it should be continued, and it should be my good fortune 
to sit in this chair next year, I shall have to announce something which 
will delight everyone of us. (Hea.r, hear.) 

Dr. (tINSHurg. — I think before we separate, gentlemen, we ought to 
give our most hearty thanks to our Chairman, Avho so constantly attends, 
and who indeed, though he is probably the senior of all of us, never fails 
to inspire us with earnestness and zeal for the work. 

Mr. Pollard. — £ have the greatest pleasure in seconding that. 

Professor Hull. — I am sure we are all delighted to see Mr. (xlaisher 
in such admirahle health, .so vigorous in all his connection with this 
Society, meetings he has attended for .so many years. We are all 
deliglited to see him in his place as our Chairman. (Applause.) 

The resolution was heartily carried. 


The Chairman. — Gentlenieu, I thnnk you sincerely. Your kind 
words encourage me very much. I am only too glad to do anything I 
can for the Fund. I think during the whole of last year I w;is present at 
every meeting. (Applause.) For I liold this as a principle, that the 
Chairman who does his duty can scarcely miss a meeting. I thank you 
very much indeed for the kind vote you have given to me. 

The proceedings weie then concluded. 


P. 220, line fix from lop — For " Coeaar" read "CiJesars." 


Patron— THE QUEEN. 

Oiiartcrly Statement 

FOR 1896. 





BT. martin's LAK£. 




Bain, R. N., Esq.— PAGE 

Arnieuian Description of tlie Holy Places in the Seventh 

Century. Translaied from the Ri'snan .. .. .. 346 

Bellows, John, Esq. — 

Chi8el-Dra*^tecl Stones at Jerusalem .. .. .. •• 219 

Birch, Bev. W. F., M.A.— 

The Rock of Etam and the Cave of Adullam 161 

Notes on the Quarterly Statement for April, 1896 .. •• 261 

Bliss, E. J., Ph.D.— 

Seventli Report on the Excavations at Jcrus',ilem . . . • 9 

Eighth „ „ „ 109 

Ninth „ „ „ 208 

Tenth „ „ „ 298 

Chaplin, Dr. — 

Ebal and Gerizim, Remarks on .. .. .. .. •• 8j 

Conder, Lieut.-Colonel C. R., D.C.L., LL.D., M.R.A.S., R.E.— 

The Syrian Language .. .. •• •• •• •♦ "^ 

Art, 70 ; Religion, 71 ; Language, 72 ; History, 74 ; Coni- 
parative Plate of Alpli abets, 78. 

Notes on the Quarter/^/ Statement for October, 1895 . . . . 82 

,, ,, January, 1896 .. .. 168 

l „ „ April, 1896 .. .. 258 

,luiv, 1896 .. .. 340 

Seal from Hebron . . . . . . • • • • • ■ • 224 

The Oiiomasticon . . . . . . • . • • • • • • 229 

Tlie Date of the Exodus 255 

Dalton, Rev. Canon J. N., C.M.G.— 

On the Latin Inscription found by Dr. Bliss behind the Gate 

of Neby Daud .. .. .. •• •• •• •• 133 

Davis, Ebenezer, Esq. — 

On the Latin Inscription in Wall of Neby Duud .. . . 147 

Serapis .. .. .. •• •• •• •• •• 337 

Davis, Edward, F.C.S., F.T.C., &c.— 

Cerliiicate of Analysis of Spring of Callirrhoe (Zerka Main) . . 47 


Dickie, Archibald Campbell, Esq., A.R.T.B.A.— PAGE 

Report ou Tombs Discovered near Sur Bahir . . . . . . 22 

Report on Tomb Discovered near " Tombs of the Kings " . . 305 

Bowling, Rev. Theodore E. — 

A Short Desc-ription of some Bible Coins fonnd in Palestine . . 152 

I. The Shekel, 152 ; II. The Half-Shekel, 153 ; III. The Penny 156 

IV. The Farthing, 157 ; V. The Mite 160 

Kerakinl896 327 

Two Roman Milestones in Wadj Mojib .. .. .. .. 332 

Ellis, Frank T., Esq., witli Notes by Dr. A. S. Muri'ay— 

Inscription Found at Cffisarea .. .. .• .. •• 87 

Gannean, Professor Clermont^ 

Notes on the Quarterly Statement for 0(;tober, 1895 .. .. 79 

„ April, 1896 .. .. 2.-39 

Glaisher, James, Esq., F.R.S.— 

Results of Meteorological Observations taken at Jerusalem in 

the year 1890, 88 ; in 1891, 190 ; in 1892, 264 ; in 1893 . . 3.50 

Results of Meteorological Observations taken at Tiberias (under 

the direction of Dr. Torrance) in the yea 
1891, 191 ; in 1892, 268 j in 1893 .. 

Ilanauer, Rev. J. E. — ■ 

The Rock of Etam and the Cave of Adullam 
A Visit to Arsuf 

Harper, Henry A., Esq. — 
Ebai and Gerizim 
Bibliotheca Curiosa .. 

1890, 92; in 




Ilaynes. Captain A. E,, R.E. — 

The Route of the Exodus 175 

Introductory, 175; Geographical, 175; The Sand-hill 
Area, 176 ; the Mountainous District of the Peninsula, 
177; tlie Plateau of Et-Tih, Kadesh, 177 ; Sinai on the 
Till, 178 ; Evidence of Tradition in Favour of the 
Peninsula Site, 179; Numbers xxxiii, 10-180; Condi- 
tions of the Exodus, 181 ; Conclusion .. .. .. 185 

The Season of Caleb's Reconnaissance .. .. .. .. 186 

Tho Date of the Exodus .. .. .. .. .. .. 245 

Hill, Gray, Esq.— 

A Journey East of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, 1895 .. 2i 

Hull, Edward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.— 

A New Treatise on the Geology of the Holy Land and the 

Dead Sea 271 

Where are the Sacred Vessels of the Temple.'' .. .. .. 341 

Masterman, Ernest W. Gurncy, F.R.C.S. — 

A Greek Inscription fi-om tin; Grand Mosque, Damascus .. 221 

WytJ. Note by Dr. Murray , 22.J, 310 

Murray, A. S., Esq., LL.D. — page 

Inscription Found at Ctesarea, Notes on . . . . . . . . 87 

Note on Inscription from Damascus . . . . . . . . 225 

Petrie, Professor W. M. Flinders, D.C.L.— 

The Date of tlie Exodus 335 

Povcelli, Lient.-Colonel Alfred, R.E.— 

Bible Coins . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 341 

Porter, Rev. H.— 

A Visit to the Excavations at Jerusalem . . . . . . . . 345 

Proby, Rev. W. H. B.. M.A., Crosse and Tyrwhitt Scholar, Cantab. — 

Construction of the Tabernacle . . . . . . . . . . 223 

Ridges, W. Brryman, Esq. — 

On the Structure of the Tabernacle . . . . . . . . 189 

Schick, Herr Baurath von — 

Reports from 122,2)4 

I. Deir el 'Adas, 122. II. The Quarter Bab Hytta, 
Jerusalem, 128. III. A Remarkable Marble Slab, 131, 
IV. On Springs, &c., 132. V. A Large Stone Basin, 132. 
1. Veronica's House, 214. 2. Herod's House, 215. 

3. Mosque in the Street " Suweikat Allun," 217. 

4. Church of Mar Jirias of the Greeks, 217. 5. The 
Coptic Mar Jirias Church, 217. 6. Some Old Remains, 
218; Lintel, 218; An Interesting Stone Basin, 219; An 
Old Pillar, 219. 

The Church of the Ascension on the Mount of Olives . . . . 310 

St. Clair, Rev. Geo., F.G.S.— 

Notes on the Quirterly Statement for April, 1896 .. .. 262 

Stevenson, W. E., Esq. — 

" Adam that is Beside Keriat" .. .. .. .. .. 82 

Tepper, J. G. O., F.L.S.— 

Remarks on the Deserts of the Holy Land . . . . . . 187 

Various Authors — 

The Coronation Stone . . , . . . . , . . . . 84 

Watson, Lieut.-Colonel C. M., C.M.G., R.E.— 

The Site of the Temple 47,226 

West, Professor R. H., M.A.— 

Barometrical Determination of Heights in Lebanon . . . . 165 

II. Determinations with Aneroid Barometer .. .. .. 167 

Wright, Professor T. P., Ph.D.— 

I. Nehemiah's Night Ride .. .. .. .. ,. 172 

II. Tlie Kolonieh Inscription .. .. .. .. .. 174 

The Valley Gate and the Dung Gate 342 




General Plan to illustrate the Excavations at Jerusalem 0, 109, 208, 298 

Key Plan, EleTations, and Sections (Plate I) 10 

Specimens of Masonry (Plate II) .. .. .. •• •• •• 13 

Plan of Tower, with Sections (Plate III) 16 

„ Mosaic (Plate IV) •• •• 18 

Plan and Sections of Tombs near Sur Bahir . . . . . . . . 22 

Umm Moghr, Gateway • . . . . . • ■ • ■ • • • 29 

Highest Point 30 

Castle of Khauranee . . . . ■ • • ■ • • • ■ • • 33 

„ ,, Gateway .. .. .. .. •• .. 34.. 

Outer Wall 35 

The Temple of Jerusalem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 

jj „ with Contours. . . .. .. .. S-A 

„ „ Sections of . . . . . . . . . . 58 

Inscriptions from a Statue . . .. .. .. .. .. ■• 61 

Comparative Plate of Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 

Inscription found at Cijesarea . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 

Jar found in the Excavations at Jerusalem . . . . . . . . 115 

Fragments of Jars . . . . . - . . . . . • • ■ • 116 

Inscribed Tiles 117,118 

Lamps with Inscriptions .. .. .. .. .. •• • 118,119 

Plan of Ground Floor of Deir el 'Adas . . . . . . . . . . 123 

„ Underground Floor of Deir el 'Adas . . . . . . . . 124 

„ Upper Cliurch of Deir el 'Adas . . . . . . . . . . 125 

Section of Old „ „ 125 

Plan of New Discoveries in Bab Hytta Quarter. . . . . . . . 130 

„ Marble Slab 131 

Bible Coins found in Palestine .. .. .. .. .. ..153-160 

Structure of the Tabernacle . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 

Section of Lintel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 

Part of Roman Wall found at Gloucester . . . . . . . . 221 

Masonry showing " Notching " . . . . . . . . . . . , 222 

Roman Aqueduct at Tarragona . . . . . . . . . . 222 

,, Masonry at Tarragona . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 

Palace of Augustus and City Wall . . . . . . . . . . 223 

Seal from Hebron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 

Greek inscription from the Old Mosque at Damascus .. .. .. 225 


ed iieav the Tombs of 

Plan and Section of Remarkable Tomb Discover 
tlie Kings 

Fresco on West End of Tomb 

Detail of Frieze on Tomb . . 

Plan of the Ascension Cluirch, above Ground 

,, „ Underground Buildings 

„ „ as Built by Modestus 640 a.d. 

,, ,, of the Crusaders. . 

Inscriptions on Roman Milestones in Wady Mojib 

Inscription (Greek) on a Column at Damascus . . 





"Abiri," The, 251, 252, 256, 258. 

" Adam that is beside Keriat," 82. 

Adullam, Cave of, 161-164. 

" Amen," Worship of, 257. 

Annual Meeting of the General Com- 
mittee, 276, 282. 

Armenian description of the Holy 
Places in the Seventh Century, 346. 

Arsiif, Lumps of Glass at, 165. 
,, Statue at, 259. 
,, A Visit to, 165. 

Attack on Dr. Bliss and Mr. Dickie, 

Babylonian Ivings, Canon of, more 

reliable, 256. 
Balance-sheet for 1895, 105. 
Barometriciil Determination of Height- 

in Lebanon, 165-168. 
Barometer, Mercurial, Determinations 

with, 166. 
Barometer, Aneroid, Determinations 

with, 167. 
Betliiehem, Christian Tombs at, 102. 
Bible Coins, 341. 
Bibliotheca Curiosa, 86. 
Birket es Sultan, Boys Drowned in. 

Books, Donations of, 4, 102, 202, 270. 
Bostra, Attack by the Crusaders, 171- 

Ca'sarea, Inscription found at, 87. 

Caleb's Reconnaissance, The Season 
of, 186. 

Cases for Binding, 6, 106, 2U5, 280. 

Casts, 6, 106, 205, 280. 

Coins, Bible, found in Palc^^tine, 152- 
160 ; Shekel, The, 152 ; Half- 
Shekel, The, 153, 155 ; Penny, The, 
156; Farthing, The, 157; Mite, 
The, 160. 

Collotype Print from Eaised Map of 
Palestine, 5, 102, 203, 279. 

Constantinople, Imperial Museum, 
Kelations with, 22. 

Coronation Stone, The, 84. 

Cubit, On the Length of, 226, 227. 

Damieh and Kerawa, 82, 83. 

Dead Sea and Jordan, Journey East 

of, 24. {See Jordan and the Dead 

Sea for details.) 
Deserts of the Holy Land, Remarks 

on the, 187. 
Drngon's Well, 173. 
Druses — History of where Found, 171. 
Dung Gate, Position of, 173, 342. 
Dynasties, Duration of, 246. 
Dynastic Periods, 246. 

Ebal and Gerizim, 85; Remarks on, 

Egyptian Data Imperfect, 256. 

Errata in January Quarterly State- 
ment, 122. 

Etam, Rock of, 161-164. 

Excavations, A Visit to the, 345. 

Exodus, Date of the, 2t5, 255, 335. 

Exodus, Route of the, l7o. 

Fig Fountain, 173. 

Firman for Excavations Extended, 

Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai, 


Golgotha, Rock under, 277. 

Hebron, Seal from, 224. 

Heiglits in Lebanon, Barometrical 

Determination of, 165. 
Holy Land, The Remarks on the 

Deserts of, 187. 
Holy Land, Thirty Years' Work in 

the, 5, 104. 
Holy Land and Dead Sea, The, New 

Treatise on the Geology of the, 271. 
Horn or Tantiir, 171. 


Inscriptions — 

From Cffisarea, Noto on, 87. 
Discovered in Kgvpt, and Tran?la- 

lion, 255, 258. 
Greek, from Grrand INIosque at 

Damascus, 224; Note on, 225. 
Greek, on a Column at Damascus, 

Greek, on Wall of Holj Sepulchre, 

Kolonieli, Th^ 174. 
Latin, at Neby Daiid, 133, 147. 
On Two Roman Mdestones in VV^ady 

Mojib, Translation and Note on, 

On a Statue to Hadad, 61. 
On Pillar, 63 ; Transliterations. 



Antiques, Loan Collection of, 4. 

Chisel - Drafted Stones at, 219; 
Width of DraftinfT, 220. 

Fig Fountiin, 173 ; Fountain Gate, 

Inscription, Greek, on Wall of Holy 
Sepulchre, 102. 

Inscription, Latin, at Ncby Daii 1, 
133, 147. 

Lectures in. 2, 202. 

Picture, Miraculous, of Our Lady, 

Platform Stones, 222. 

Small Gate, 173. 

Stones Chisel-drafted at, 219. 

Temple, Site of the, 47. 

Reports on the Excavations, 9. 109, 
208,298. ^e.t-enth Eeport,Q; Wall, 
9 ; Masonry, 9, 10 ; Drafted Stones, 
9; Smooth Wall, 9, 11 ; Towers. 
9,10; Drain, 10; Gate.lO; Rubble 
Foundations, 10 ; Older Wall, 11 ; 
Chambers, 11 ; Corner Stone, 11 ; 
Projecting Chambers, 12 ; Divi- 
sion Walls, 12 ; " Slieepfold 
Wall," 12, 13 ; Jointing, 13 ; 
Scirp, 13; -Jointing like Jewish 
^\'ailing-Place, 13 ; Bonding, 13 ; 
Drain, 13; Stenped-up Rock, 14; 
Masonry of Lower Wall, 14 ; 
Jointing, 14; Lower and Upper 
A\alls, 14; Shafts and Galleries, 
14; Tunnel. 15; Rock along 
A B, 15 ; Rubble of Later Wall, 
Note to, 15; Aqueduct of Sir C. 
\\ arren, 16 ; Airholes, 16 ; Con- 
strue! ion, 16 ; Tower, 16, 17 ; 
Chanihcis, 16 ; Corner Stones, 

16 ; Rock-hewn Chamber, 16 ; 
Rock cut Jamb, 17 ; Door Socket, 

17 ; Tomb Chambers of Valley of 
Hinnon, 17 ; Scarp, 17 ; Mosaic, 
18, 19; Cistern, 19, 20; Drafted 
Stones. 20 ; Towers, 21. 

Eighth Report, 109 ; Large Tower 
not upon a City Wall, 109 ; 
Smaller Tower, 109 ; Open Birket, 
l'»9; Drain Bottom, 110; Op?n 
Trench, 110; Channels, 110; 
Measurement of Rock-hewn Cis- 
tern, 110; Stone Pavement, 110; 
Three Systems of Buildinjis, 110; 
Wall near Bab Neby Daud, 111; 
Margined and Plain-faced Stones, 
111; Inner Angle of Wall, 112; 
Tower not Square, 113 ; Corner 
Found, 113 ; Drain with Rock- 
hewn Sides, 114 ; Rock-hewn 
Birkets, 114, 115; Room, 115; 
Fresco, 115; Pottery, 115-117; 
Inscribed Tiles, 118; Lamps, 118, 
119; Spindle Whorls, 120; 
Thumb from Statue, 120; Spear- 
heads, 120 ; Nail and other 
Objects, 120 ; Coins, 120. 

A7«/A Tieport, 208 ; Deatlis of 
Ibrahim Effendi, Commissioner, 
and Yusef Abu Selim Khazin, 
Foreman. 208 ; Wall surrouming 
Summit of Western Hill, 210; 
Length and Description of Wall 
Traced, 211 ; Roman .Atrium, 
211; Scarp, 212; Pavement 
Partly Carried on Arches, 212; 
Paved Street, Floorings of White 
Tesserae, 212; Drain Walls near 
the Pool of Siloam, 213. 

Tenth Heport, Following the Wall 
and Scarp from the Gate at the 
South-east Corner, 298 ; '1 hickness 
of Wall and Htight of Scarp, 
Gate Destroyed, 299 ; Courses of 
Masonry, SOO ; Width and Length 
of Stairway, Number of Steps 275, 
301 ; Paved Flooring, 302 ; Begin- 
ning of the Section across the 
Tyropoeon Valley, Rock below 
Surface, Ruined Archway, Street 
with Kerb and Paved Stones, 
Concrete Hed, 302; Drain, Man- 
hole, 303 ; Paved Street on the 
Western Hill, ]irobable continua- 
tion of the Street leading from 
Damascus Gate, its width and 
kerb, 304 ; the Wall of the Upper 
City, 304; Average Number of 
Men Employed, 305. 

Reports from Herr Bauratli von 
Scliick, 122, 214, 310. Deir ei 
'Adas, 122 ; " Medinet ei Hamra " 
(Tlie Red Minaret), 122, 126, 217 ; 
Cliurches, 125, 126; Footprint, 
126, 127 ; Great Ctianges in 
Quarter Bab Hytta, 128; Churcli 
of St. Anne, 128 ; " Mamiimiyeh," 
128 ; New Discoveries in Harat 
Bab Hytta, 128 ; New School, 
128 ; Byzantine Arcli, 129 ; Cis- 
tern, 129 ; Drains or Sewers, 129 ; 
Remarkable Marble Slab, 131 : 
Font, 132 ; On Springs, &c., 132; 
Large Stone Basin, 132; Mount 
Olivet. 132 ; " Khiii-bet el Kashe," 
132; Veronica's Honse, 214; Old 
Masonry and very large Stones, 
215; Herod's Ilouse, 215 ; Mosque 
in the Street, " Suweikat AUnn," 
217 ; Church of Mar Jirias of the 
Greeks, 217 ; The Coptic Mar 
Jirins Chuvch, 217 ; Some Old 
Remains, 218 ; Abraham's Con- 
vent, 218 ; Rock-cut Tombs, 218 ; 
Lintel, 218; A.n Interesting Stone 
Basin, 2 L9; An Old I'illar, 219; 
Ihe Church of the Ascension on 
Mount Olivet, 310; Examination 
of the Village and the Parts 
Underground, 314 ; The Site of 
the Ascension of Our Lord, 317 ; 
The Byzantine Church of the 
Ascension, 318: The Crusaders' 
Cluirch. 321 ; The Convent Con- 
nected with the Ascension Church, 
324 ; St. Pelagia Chapel, 32.5 ; 
The Fcotprints of Christ, The 
Two Pillars in the Ascension 
Church, 326 ; The Cisterns, 327. 
Jordan and the Dead Sea, Journey 
Fast of (by Gray Hill, Esq.), 24. 

Beni Sakhr,24; Derb el llaj, 24, 
25; Military Posts established, 24; 
Travellers prohibited fiom going to 
Wady Musa without S])eci!il Leave, 
25 ; The -Adwan, 25 ; Negotiations, 
25 ; Greek Pilgrims' Bnthing Place, 
25 ; Wooden Bridge over Jorda>i, 
25 ; Tell Ninirin, 25 ; 'Ain Jeriaii, 
2G ; Esweile, 26 ; El Bukeia, 26 ; 
Kaimakam of es Salt, 26 ; Difficulty 
of getting Protection, 26; Waily 
Sir, 26 ; Circassiun Settlers, 26 ; 
Oaks, 26 ; Stream, 26 ; Bedouin 
Mare with Papers, 27 ; Remarkable 
Syrian Oak, 27 ; Caves in Wady 
Sir, 27 ; 'Arak el Amir, 27 ; 
Oleanders, Syrian Caks, Castor Oil 

Tree, 27 ; Wild Flowers, 27 ; 
Dancing, 26 ; Castle of Khauranee, 
27; Wady Na'aur, 27; WaterfaU, 
27 ; Cattle and Camels of the Beni 
Sakhr, 27 ; Old Cistern, 27 ; 
Yadnideh, 28 ; Native of Western 
Palestine, 28 ; Cisterns of Umm 
Moghr Dry, 28 ; Masses of Ruins 
on Hilltops, 28 ; Arched Rock-cut 
Recesses, 28 ; Tower Tomb, 28 ; 
Rock Cisterns, 28 ; Reservoir, 28 ; 
Caves, 28 ; Sarcophagi, 28 ; Small 
Circular Basins, 28 ; Sheikh of 
Pe'ra, 28; Warned in 1890 not to 
proceed towards Petra, 29 ; A Thief, 
29 ; Scarcity of Water, 29 ; Rufeisah, 
29 ; Umm Moghr, 29 ; Hawar and 
El Khum;ln both called by Beni 
Sakhr, '' Looban," 29 ; Haj Road, 
30; Khan es Zeit, 30; Kusr el 
Ahla or Kusr el Alil, near Umm 
Rasas, 30 ; Kalet Zerka, 30 ; Young 
Locusts, 30; Umm Shetta, 30; es 
Samik, 39 ; Jebel Shehan, 30; Lnun 
el Amad, 30 ; Umm Moghr, 30 : 
Ruins, 30; Tower, Cisterns, Vaults, 
Capitals, Ornamented Stones, 30; 
Squared Flints, 31 ; Reservoirs, 31, 
32 ; Ruined Gateway or Covered 
Passage, 31 ; Rock cut Cisterns, 
31 ; Sheikh Hazah and Relatives, 
31; W^olf, Jackals, and Gazelles, 
32 ; Enemies at Hand, 32; Cajtle 
of Khauranee, Description of, 33- 
35 ; Hazah's £ncam]iment, 3'i ; 
Lawlessness, 37 : Merchant, 37 ; 
Caves, 38; " W^aters of Dimon," 
38; Old Friends, 38; Fish, 39; 
Sheikh of the Hameideh, 39; Tents 
of the Mujelli, 39; Ruin of the 
Kasr, 40 ; Narrow Escape, 40 ; 
Rabba of Moab, 40; Dearth, 41; 
el Mezraa, 41 ; AVady el Deraah, 
41; Ghawarineh, 42; The Lisan, 
42 ; Wady Fikreh, 42 ; Stream of 
the Kid, 44; 'Ain Jidy, 44; E:xtra- 
ordi nary Passage through the Chalk, 
43; Short Cut taken by the Hagii 
to the Jordan Valley, 43 ; Mr. 
E^order, 43; No Water, 43; The 
Dead Sea, 43; Sulphur Spring, 44 ; 
Moon rise over the Dead Sea, 44 ; 
Baby Gazelle, 44 ; Ilazali Stabbed, 
41; Arar, tiie Sheikh of Petra, said 
to be Dead, 41 ; Nanu-s and Descrip- 
tions of Places neyr tlic Haj Road, 

Wexf of the Ilnj Boad, 45 ; Ru jm 
Abbasia, 45 ; El Rejeeb, 45 ; 


Ramadan, 45 ; Square Tower or 
Fort, 4') ; Zobeir Adwan, 45 ; Sahab 
es Siibrood, Caves and Cisteras, 45; 
Parazay, 45 ; Unim el Amad, 45 ; 
Kustul, 45 ; Remarkable Cistern at, 
45; Cistet-ns, 46; Large Quarry, 
46 ; Very Large Stones, 46 ; Toneib 
or "Hodbat el Toneib," 46; 
Luban, 46. 

]la>it of the Haj BoarJ, Zoumlet 
el 'Alia, 46 ; Cistern in Plain West 
of El Moghr, 46 ; Umm Moghr 
and Khauranee, 46 ; Batlis of 
Callin'lioe, 46 ; Analysis of Water 
from Callirrlioe, 47; Bethleliem, 
41; Jerusalem, 44. 

I\azniel and Kasimiyeh, 255. 
Kerak in 1896, 327. 
King's G-ardeus, 173. 
King's Pool, 173. 

Koloiiieh, Tomb at, with Inscription, 

Language, Syrian, The, 60. 

Art, 70 ; Religion, 71 ; Language, 
72; History, 74; Com]iarative 
Plate of Alphabets, 78 ; Inscrip- 
tions from Statues, 61 ; S)iliinx, 71 ; 
Fadad, 71 ; Ben - hadad, 71 ; 
Plicenician Resheph, 71; Cherub 
Explained by Sculptures, 71 ; Gods 
of Yadi, 72 ; Lann;uage of Texts 
akin to Moabite and Plicenician, 72; 
Relation borne to Syrian and 
Hebrew Dialects, 72 ; Saraala, His- 
tory of, in connection with that of 
Assyria, throws liglit on that of 
Book of King.?, 74-77. 

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 278. 

Lebanon, Barometrical Determination 
of Heights, 165-168. 

Lecturers, Authorised, 107, 206. 

Medal and Piploma Awarded, Chicago 
Exhibition, 297. 

Meteorological Observations at Jeru- 
salem (1890), 88; (1891), 190; 
(1892), 264; (1893), 350. At 
Tiberias (1890), 92; (1891), 194; 
(1892), 268; (1893), 35 ±. 

Museum of the Fund, 5. 

Nehemiah's Night Ride, 172. 
New Gate, 173. 

Notes and News, 1, 101, 201, 275. 
N.jtes by Professor F. F. Wrisihf, 172. 
Notes on the Quarlerhi Si'itrmeiifs, 
79, 82, 168, 172 to 174, 25h to 

For October, 1895. 

By Professor Clermont-Ganneau — 
Latin Graffito on Base of a 
Pilaster, 79; MouHs in Plaster, 
79; Corea of Josephus, Karawa, 
79 ; The Stoppage of the Jordan, 
79 ; Identity of Khureitun and 
Cave of Adullani, 80 ; Nabeatan 
Inscriptions, 80 ; No. 174, Better 
Reading Suggested, 80; No. 183, 
Transcription to be Modified, 80; 
No. 18fi, Squeeze of the Inscription 
of Sella rich, 81 ; Nos. 6 and 30, 
Era of Damascus that <>f the 
Selueids, 81 ; No. 9, Published 
by the Writer, 81 ; No. 13, Abda- 
dusares "Servant of Du,= arrs," 
81 ; Other Notes by M. Cleruiont- 
Ganneau. 81. 

Bv Lieut -Colonel Conder, D.C.L., 
R.E.— The Rock on the Tradi- 
tional Calvary, 82 ; Wall on the 
South Side of Jerusalem, 82; 
Khurbet el Hamreh for Adau', 
82 ; Tell es Sarn a Printer's Error 
for Tell Sarem, 82 ; " Khur 
Eitun " inadmissible, 82. 
For Jauuai-y, 1896. 

By Lieut.-Colonel Conder, D.C.L., 
R.E.— Opliir, 168 ; The Je-u- 
salem Excavations, 169 ; Thj Sur 
Bahir Tombs, 170; The Temple, 
170 ; Samaritan Texts, 170 ; 
Ci>rea, 170; Text from Caesarea, 
171; Palmyra, 171; Miraculous 
Picture at Saidnaiya (" Our 
Lady"), 171; Legends of Solomon 
at Palmyra, 171; Apparent iVIis- 
print as to date of Justinian, 171 ; 
Bostra, .Attack on by tlie Cru- 
saders, 171 ; Temple of Siah, 
171; Horn or Tantiir, 171. 
For April, 18U6. 

By Lieut.-Colonel Conder — Wall 
East of the Coenaculum, 2.'8 ; 
Sempis, 258 ; 'Arak Ism'aiu 
(Ishmael's Cavern), 259 ; Sinai, 

By Professor Clermont-Ganneau — 
Pretty Lamps, 259 ; 'Arak Ism'aiu 
and Alali el Benat, 259 ; Serapis 
Inscription (footnote), 259 ; Arsiif 
and the I ownof Reseph, 259-260; 
Hawk Statue, 260 j The Laud of 


Siihetc or Soetbe, 2G0 ; The Sup- 
]i()secl Sun-God Aumo, 260; The 
Kolonieh Inscriptions, 26U. 
Bv Kev. W. F. Birch, M.A.— Arak 
Isinain as Samson's Hiding-place, 

2(3 I. 

By the Rev. Geo. St. Clair- Posi- 
tions of Gates, 2G2-263. 
By Prof. T. F. Wright, Ph.D.— 

I. Nehemiah's Night Ride, 172; 

II. The Kolonieh Inscription, 

For Julj, 189n. 
By Lieut. - Colonel Conder — The 
Wall on Zion, 340 ; The Levels 
of tlie Temple, 340 ; Plans of the 
Temple, 341 ; Thothmes III in 
Palestine, 341 ; The Letter Kh, 
341 ; Tlie Philistines, 341 ; The 
I<lentifica*^ion of tlie Land (f 
Suet he, the Kxisteuce of the Sin 
God Aumo, 341 ; The New Trans- 
lation of Boha ed Din, 341. 

Ophir, Site of, 3. 
Onomasticon, The, 229. 

Palestine Pilgrims' Text So "ety, 1, 

Pitlestine, Rai.sed Map of, 102 
PliDtooraiiiis of Hcrr von Schick'i 

Models, 3, 102. 

Qv(t ferli/ Slatement, Index to, 5. 
^iM irteil fi iSlatemeiU for January- 
Frraia, 122. 

Raised Map, Lantern Slides, fi. 

Rock of Ftani and Cave of AduHani, 

Roman Milestones in Wady Mojih 

(liiver Arnon). Translation of 

Insc) iptions, 3;j2. 
Roman Wall of Glouce.-tcr, 220. 

Route oF the Exodus, 175. 

Introductory, 175; Geographical, 
175 ; 'I'lie Sand-hill Area, 170 ; I'lie 
Mountainous District of the Pen- 
insula, 177 ; The Plateau of Et 
Till, 177 ; Kadesh, 177 ; Evidence 
of Tradition in Favour of Peninsula 
Site. 179 ; Numbers xxxiii, 10, 180 ; 
Conditions of the Exodus, 181 ; 
Bacon's Triple Tradition of the 
Exodus, 183 ; Conclusion, 185. 

Sacred Vessels of the Temple, Where 

are they ? 344. 
Samala, Basalt Slabs with Inscriptions, 

Samson's Hiding-place, 80, 259, 261. 
Seal from Hebron, 224. 
Serapis, 258, 337. 
Siah, Temple of, 171. 
Solomon, Legends of , at Palmyi'a, 171. 
Solomon's Temple, Date of, 247. 
Statue at ArsiiP, 259. 
Structure of tlie Tabernacle. On the, 

Sui- Bahir, Re]ioit and Description of 

Tombs near, 22. 
Survev of Palestine, Set of Volumes, 

Syrian Stone Lore. Third Edition, 278. ' 

Taheniacle, On (lie Structure of the, 

189, 223. 
Tantur or Horn, 171. 
Temple. Site of the, 226, 
'Jomb at Kolorieh, 174. 
Tomb, Reniarkiible, wi'li Fresco Work 

in Colours, near " Tombs of the 

Kings,'' 3( 5. 
To v.h>, Christian, mI Bethleliem, 102. 
Treasurer's statement, 100. 

Valley Gate, Position of, 172, 173, 343. 

Year, FgyptJan and Greek, 256. 

Quarterly Statement, January. 1896.] 




Owing to an unusually favourable season, the excavations at Jerusalem were 
still being carried on up to December 8th, when the last reports were despatched 
bv Dr. Bliss. 

It will be remembered that the Committee had requested that a section 
should be cut on the side of the hill northward from near the point where 
" Inferred To»-er" is marked in the plan published in the Quarterly Statement 
for January last. This led to the discovery of another wall lying under that 
previously reported at this spot {see Quarterly Statement, October, 1895, 
p. 319), and subsequently of a series of strongly-built chambers, whilst further 
north a very remarkable tower was found and examined. 

Still further north a mosaic pavement was discovered, of which a beautiful 
plan and coloured drawing have been forwarded by Mr. Dickie. 

The strictest ecoxomy is employed in carrying out these most 


The following circular letter has been addressed to subscribers to the 
Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society : — 

Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 

24, Hanover Square, London, W., 

November lUh, 1895. 
Doar Sir, 

The work of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society has now very nearly 
reached its conclusion. With the exception of four small works the whole of 
the pilgrims' texts enumerated in the original prospectus have been accounted 
for and issued to members. The remaining works will be issued as soon as 
possible. The price of the whole library of twelve or thirteen volimics when 
complete will be fixed at ten guineas. 

We have therefore made arrangements with the Committee of the Palestine 



Exploration Fund for the winding up of the Society on the following terms and 
conditions : — 

(1) That any member who wants to complete the Library of Pilgrims may 
do so, provided he writes to Mr. George Armstrong, .Acting Secretary of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund before the end of the year, paying the difFerence 
between his subscription and ten guineas. 

(2) At the end of the year, the copies that remain will be taken over by 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

(3) During the next year the four works still remaining will be issued 
and given to the members of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society without any 
further charge. 

(4) The stereos will be destroyed, and no further copies will be printed. 
The Edition is therefore very small, and it is believed that the value of the 
books will rapidly go up. Tlie Palestine Exploration Fund undertake only to 
sell complete sets and not to let any copies go imder tlie full price of £10 10-*. 
each ; they also reserve the right of increasing the price, if there is a demand 
for the work. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. W. Wilson, 
Chairman of the Council. 

The Reverend Theodore E. Dowling, Hon. Sec. of the Jerusalem Associa- 
tion, reports that arrangements have been made for a Course of Six Saturday 
Evening Lectures in Jerusalem dui-ing tlie approaching tourist season, as 
follows : — 







22 ... 

Grand New Hotel 

Dr. M. Sandreczky 

The Crusading Kingdom of 


29 ... 

Howard's Hotel ... 

Rev. C.T. WilFon, M.A. ... 

The Fellahln. 


7 ... 

Grand New Hotel 

V. J. Bliss, Esq., Ph.D. ... 

Recent Excavations. 


14 ... 

Howard's Hotel ... 

Frank T. Ellis, Esq. 

The South AVall of Jerusalem. 


21 ... 

Grand New Hotel 

P. D'Erf Wheeler, Esq , 
M.D., K.K.C.S.E., K.ll.G.S. 

The Jews in Jerusalem. 


28 ... 

Howard's Hotel .. 

F. .T. Bliss, Esq , Ph.D. ... 

The Mounds of Palestine. 

The Dominican Fathers at Jerusalem have also arranged for a series of 
lectures during the winter on archjvological subjects connected with the Holy 

The first part of Vol. II of GD^JX'pXp "lyn (■' Der Colonist ")—publis]ied by 
Lunez of Jerusalem — is printed throughout in Hebrew characters, but is written 
partly in jargon, partly in Hebrew. It is a useful handbook for colonists in 
the Holy Land. It opens with a strong argument in favour of tlie view that 


agriculture in Palestine may be made self-supporting. Next we have an 
account of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the colony /XT^'' HIpD and reports 
from other colonies. Then a jargon article on the "Esrog-boim" (= the 
citron tree), others on how to keep and rear poultry, on the cultivation of the 
fig-tree, on the diseases of the vine and their cure, on the possibility of pro- 
ducing silk — a more hopeful picture than previously is drawn here. At the 
end comes " Latest Intelligence " (in Hebrew). From this it appears that Ihe 
harvests last year were exceptionally good in all the colonies. — " Jewish 

The " Jewish Chronicle " remarks that Mr. James Grlaisher's " Residts of 
Meteorological Observations Taken at Jerusalem in the Year 1889" should he 
carefully studied by all friends of Palestine colonisation. 

Photographs of Herr von Schick's models (1) of the Temple of Solomon, 
(2) of the Herodian Temple, (3) of the Haram Area during the Christian 
occupation of Jerusalem, and (4) of the same locality as it is at present, 
have been received at the office of the Fund. Sets of these photographs, with 
an explanation by Herr von Schick, can be purchased. 

The following note on the Site of Ophir is from the "Jewish Chronicle," 
September 27th, 1895 :— 

" A new light has been thrown upon oui" guesses after the site of the district 
of Ophir, mentioned in the Scriptures as rich in gold, precious stones, ivory, 
and birds of beautiful plumage. It has generally been supposed that it lay in 
India, and that it was from that part of the world the ships of King Solomon, as 
■well as those of the King of Tyre, brought these treasures which enriched their 
cities. No less an authority than Dr. Carl Peters has been persuaded by docu- 
ments which have recently come under his eyes thai not India, but Africa, 
must be credited with the bountiful supjily alluded to in the Bible. Dr. Peters 
has published the result of his research, which is based on an historical atlas 
recently discovered by him. It was printed at Amsterdam in the first decade 
of the eighteenth century, and once more lends force to the adage that there 
is nothing new luider the sun. The information conveyed to us by this atlas 
proves that its compiler was at that time in possession of mucli knowledge 
respecting Africa, which we flatter ourselves to have been discovered at the 
latter half of the nineteenth century, but which is nearly 200 jears old. We 
know that tlie Portuguese had flourishing colonies on the (]!ongo and Zambesi 
rivers in the seventeenth century, and it is now clear that they knew a great 
deal about the districts in which they had settled, else such maps as those now 
reprinted for us by Dr. Peters could never have been produced. How the know- 
ledge came to be locked up so long is one of the strange freaks of history which 
we have paid dearly with money and loss of life spent in our latest African explo- 
rations. With the decline of the Portuguese power in the ' dark continent,' 
their geographical knowledge seems to have been buried and has now come to 
light again only to be shown up as correct in the light of modern exploration?. 
The old Dutch Atlas divulges an early knowledge of the cast and south-west 

A 2 


coasts o£ Africa, of the courses of the Rivers Congo and Zambesi and other 
neighbouring streams, of the dwarf tribes Akka, and of the great forest in the 
north-western bend of the Congo. Moreover, this historical atlas speaks of 
the great treasures found in the Zambesi country — gold, jewels, and fine 
animals, and even goes so far as to indicate the sites of special gold mines. 
These are, doiibtless, the ancient dominions of Mono-Mueni of Simbaoe, of 
which the ruins Avere recently found. Dr. Peters is firmly of opinion that these 
ruins are of Phoenician and Sabaian origin, and that here also was situated the 
Ophir mentioned in the Old Testament. He goes so far as to suggest that the 
three Hebrew consonants 1DK probably contain the root of the word Afi\ 
to which the Latin ending ica was afterwards added. He argues further that 
this "was a far more likely place for the ships of petty Asiatic princes to be 
allowed to land and take any treasures at will than India, which was at that 
time a consolidated State. The Portuguese went at will and carried any gold 
and precious stones as they pleased, and it is not unlikely that so for a time did 
Solomon and Hiram." 

TouEiSTS are cordially invited to visit the Loan Collection of "Antiques" 
in the Jerusalem Association Room of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
opposite the Tower of David. Hours : 8 to 12, and 2 to 6. Maps of 
Palestine and Palestine Exploration Fund publications are kept for sale. 
Necessary information will be gladly given by the Rev. Theodore E. Dowling, 
Hon. Sec. 

The Committee have to acknowledge with thanks the following donations to 
tlie Library of the Fund : — 

"Biblical Proper Names, Personal and Local, lUustrated from Sources 

external to Holy Scripture." 
" Recent Egyptological Research in its Biblical Relation." 
" Biblical Criticism." 
" On the Names of the List of III which may be assigned to 

"Notes on the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings of Egypt." 
" Recent Advances in Biblical Criticism and in Historical Discovery in their 

Relation to the Christian Faith." 
" Studies in the Geography of "Western Asia." From the author, the 

Rev. Henry George Tomkins. 
" Bulletin de Correspondence Helleniques." Paris, 1895. From the 


The Committee will be glad to receive donations of Books to the Library 
of the Fund, which already contains many works of great value relating to 
Palestine and other Bible Lands. See list of Books, July Quarterly Statement, 

The following have kindly consented to act as Honorary Local Secre- 
1 aries : — 


Eev. (Commander) L. G. A. Eobei-ts, in addition to tlie Eev. Henry George 

Tomkins, Weston-super-Mare. 
Eev. E. C. W. Eaban, Bishop's Hall Vicarage, Taunton. 
W. S. Furby, Esq., Auckland. 

Sir Walter Besant's summary of the work of the Fund from its commence- 
ment has been brought up to date by the author and published undei- tlie title, 
"Thirty Years' Work in the Holy Land." Applications for copies may be 
sent in to Mr. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Armstrong's Eaised Map of Palestine is on view at the ollice 
of the Fund. A circular giving full particulars about it will be sent on appli- 
cation to the Secretary. 

The first edition of the new Collotype Print, from a specially prepared copy 
of the Eaised Map, is nearly exhausted, and a second and cheaper issue has been 
prepai-ed. Price to subscribers, 2s. 3d. ; non-subscribers, 3*. 3d., post free. 

The print is on thin paper, measuring 20 inches by 28| inches. 

Index to the Quarterly Statement. — A new edition of the Index to the 
Quarterly Statements has been compiled. It embraces the years 1869 (the 
first issue of the journal) to the end of 1892. Contents : — Names of the 
Authors and of tlie Papers contributed by them ; List of the Illustrations ; and 
General Index. This Index will be found extremely useful. Price to 
subscribers to the Fund, in paper cover. Is. 6d., in cloth, 2*. Qd., post free ; 
non-subscribers, 2s. and 3s. 

The museum of the Fund, at 24, Hanover Square, is now open to subscribers 
between tlie hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p.m., every week-day except Saturdays, 
when it closes at 2 p.m. 

It may be well to mention that plans and photographs alluded to in the 
reports from Jerusalem and elsewhere cannot all be published, but all are 
preserved in the offices of the Fund, where they may be seen by subscribers. 

The first portion of M. Clermont- Ganneau's work, " Archaeological 
Eesearches in Palestine," is translated and in the press, and will be published 

Branch Associations of the Bible Society, all Sunday School Unions within 
the Sunday School Institute, the Sunday School Union, and the Wesleyan 
Sunday School Institute, will please observe that by a special Eesolution of the 
Committee they will henceforth be treated as subscribers and be allowed to pur- 
chase the books and maps (by application only to the Secretary) at reduced price. 


The income of the Society, from September 23rd to December 23rd, 1895, 
was— from annual subscriptions and donations, including Local Societies 
£616 7*. 8d.; from all sources— £829 4*. 5(7. The expenditure during the 
same period was £784 175. 9d. On December 23rd the balance in the Bank 
was £266 18s. 2d. 

Subscribers are requested to note that the following cases for binding, 
casts, and slides can be had by application to the Assistant Secretary at the 
Office of the Fund:— 

Cases for binding Herr Schumacher's " Jaulan," Is. each. 

Cases for binding the Quarte7-ly Statement, in green or chocolate, 1*. each. 

Cases for binding " Abila," "Pella," and " 'Ajlun " in one volume. 
Is. each. 

Casts of the Tablet, with Cuneiform Inscription, found at Tell el Hesy, 
at a depth of 35 feet, in May, ] 892, by Dr. Bliss, Explorer to the Fund. 
It belongs to the general diplomatic correspondence carried on between 
Amenhotep III and IV and their agents in various Palestinian towns. Price 
2-v. 6rf. eacli. 

Casts of the Ancient Hebrew Weight brought by Dr. Chaplin from Samaria, 
price 2s. &d. each. 

Casts of an Inscribed "Weight or Bead from Palestine, forwarded by Professor 
Wright, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., price 1.9. each. 

Lantern slides of the Eaised Map, the Sidon Sarcophagi, ai\d of the Bible 
places mentioned in the catalogue of photos and special list of slides. 

In order to make up complete sets of the Quarterly Statement the 
Committee will be very glad to receive any of the back numbers. 

Wlnle desiring to give publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to tlje pages of the 
iluarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that by 
publishing them in the Quarterly Statement they neither sanction nor adopt 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward eacli number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 

The authorised lecturers for the Society are — 

The Rev. Thomas Harrison, F.R.G.S., The Vicarage, Ai)pledorc, Ashford, 
Kent. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Research and Discovery in the Holy Land. 

(2) Bible Scenes in the Light of Modern Science. 

(3) The Survey of Eastern Palestine. 


(4) In the Track of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan. 

(5) The Jordan Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Cities of the Plain. 

(6) The Recovery of Jerusalem — {Excavations in 1894). 

(7) The Recovery of Lachish and the Hebrew Conquest of Palestine. 

(8) Archceologieal Illustrations of the Bible. (Specially adapted for 

Sunday School Teachers). 
N.B. — All these Lectures are illustrated by specially prepared lantern slides. 

The Kev. J. R. Macpherson, B.D., Kinnaii'd Manse, Inchture, N.B, His 
subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Excavations in Jerusalem, 18G8-70, 1894-5. 

(2) Lachish, a Mound of Buried Cities ; with Comparative Illustra- 

tions from some Egyptian Tells. 

(3) Recent Discoveries in Palestine — Lachish and Jerusalem. 

(4) Exploration in Judea. 

(5) Galilee and Samaria. 

(6) Palestine in the Footsteps of our Lord. 

(7) Mount Sinai and the Desert of the Wanderings. 

(8) Palestine — its People, its Customs, and its Ruins. (Lecture for 


All illustrated with specially jDrepared lime-light lantern views. 

The Eev. James Smith, B.D., St. Greorge's-in-lhe-West Parish, Aberdeen. 
His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Palestine E.vploration Fund. 

{2) A Pilgrimage to Palestine. 

(3) Jerusalem — Ancient and Modern. 

(4) The Temple Area, as it now is. 

(5) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

(0) A Visit to Bethlehem and Hebron. 
(7) Jericho, Jordan, and the Dead Sea. 

The Rev. J. Llewelyn Thomas, M.A., Abei'pergwm, Glynneath, South 
Wales. His subjects are as follows : — • 

(1) Explorations in Judea. 

(2) Research and Discovery in Samaria and Galilee. 

(3) In Bible Lands ; a Narrative of Personal Experiences. 

(4) The Reconstruction of Jerusalem. 

(5) Problems of Palestine. 

The Eev. Charles Harris, M.A., F.R.G.S., St. Lawrence, Eamsgate. (All 
Lectures illustrated by lantern slides). His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) Modern Discoveries in Palestine. 

(2) Stories in Stone ; or. New Light on the Old Testament. 

(3) Underground Jerusalem ; or. With the Explorer in 1895. 

Bible Stories from the Moniiments, or Old Testament History 
in the Light of Modern Research : — 

(4) A. The Story of Joseph; or. Life in Ancient Egypt. 


(5) B. The Story of Moses ; or, Through the Desert to the Promised 


(6) c. The Story of Joshua ; or, The Buried City of Lachtsh. 

(7) D. The Story of Sennacherib ; ar Scenes of Assyrian Warfare. 

(8) E. The Story of the Sittites ; or, A Lost Nation Found. 

Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D., 42, Quincy Street, Cambridge, 
Mass., Honorary General Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
for the United States. His subjects are as follows : — 

(1) The Building of Jerusalem. 

(2) The Overthrow of Jerusalem. 

(3) The Progress of the Palestine Exploration. 

Application for Lectiires may be either addressed to the Seci-etary, 
24 Hanover Square, W., or sent to the address of the Lecturers. 

General Plan to I llustrate th e Excavations at Jerusalem 

ifaxe vcufe d rALESTiNE exploration fund 





By F. J. Bliss, Ph.D. 

At the close of my hist report I mentioned that we had already begun 
the north and south section of the western hill, which the Committee 
desired to l)e made from a point somewhat east of what is marked as 
"Inferred Tower ' on the January plan to B.M. 2479.7, on the road 
coming from Bab Neby Dafld. I shall call this Section AB. It will be 
remembered that our systematic following of the wall from the Protestant 
Cemetery to the east was interru])ted by a tield, 14 feet beyond Tower III, 
with whose proprietor we failed to come to terms, though in a single day 
of work the wall was seen at two points along the same line respectively 
54 and 112 feet distant from Tower III. We resumed the systematic 
tracing of the wall in the "cauliflower patch" at a point 320 feet distant 
from Tower III (along the inferred line), and thus 208 feet beyond the 
last point seen in the forbidden field. The masonry in the " cauliflower 
patch" consisted of strong foundation rubble of large and small stones, 
in some parts set in courses, resting on the rock. No dressed masonry 
was found till we got to the tower near the Jewish Cemetery. The 
drafted stones seen there were again observed when we picked up the 
wall where it emerges from the other end of the cemetery, and also at 
every place where it was seen between this point and the Pool of Siloam. 
This drafted work was in contrast to the smooth masonry seen all along 
the line from the fosse near tower at Protestant Cemetery, to the point 
in the "forbidden field," 112 feet from Tower III. There was one 
important exception, however, at Tower I (at the south-west angle of the 
old city), where the later work is built on a somewhat different line from 
that of its substructure of rough, drafted masonry. The rough founda- 
tions seen after the interruption evidently belonged to the line of what 
I may call the drafted wall traced to the east. As to the smooth wall, I 
thought that it followed the line of the earlier wall (which it was seen to 
touch at Tower I) as far as where it was last seen, 112 feet east of 
Tower III, and then it might have swung to the north-east to enclose 
the upper city, or it might have continued to follow the old line to the 
south-east, where the latter was only repaired. 

The " forbidden field " was thus recognised as a critical point, and I 
was ver}' glad when at last we came to satisfactory terms with the pro- 
prietor, and our tents were pitched under his olive trees. The object 
of the Section AB was to lay bare the rock, studying all walls and scarps 
that might cross the line. At the same time, I wished to determine the 
course of the " smooth wall." As mentioned in my last report, a tower 
was found just where it had been inferred, which becomes Tower IV ; 


70 feet to the east was found Tower "V, which j^rojects 16 feet from 
the wall, whereas Towers II, III, and IV project only 9h feet. As all 
the other towers are 120 feet apart, the short distance of 70 feet between 
Towers IV and V led ine to hope for a gate, esjjecially as the point 
midway between them is in a continuation of the line of the road from 
the Damascus Gate. Unfortunately, exactly at this point the good 
masonry coming from the west, and seen along the inside line, is broken 
otf, only the foundation rubble remaining. A drain coming from the 
north, 3 feet 9 inches high, 2 feet 3 inches broad at its cemented bottom 
and 1 foot 8 inches broad at the toj), is here ruined at the junction with 
the wall. Tliis was an encouraging clue, as we hoped the drain might 
lun under a paved road, but the search for this was vain. Hence the 
question of a gate here must remain a moot point : in favour of it are 
the nearness of the towers and the position of the drain, together with 
the smooth inside face seen here, a point also noted for a few feet north 
of the gate on this same line to the north-west, but not beyond. Against it 
is the fact of another gate only 180 yards distant from this point, measured 
along the line of wall. As the rubble foundations, which consist of large 
and small stones roughly laid in strong mortar, here rest on debris, it 
is 14 feet thick for strength, the main wall being only 9 feet. The 
rubble was traced to tlie west outer angle of Tower V, when the smooth 
masonry again ajjpeared, and was traced with more or less interruption, 
where the wall had been robbed of stones, arountl the rest of the tower 
and 16 feet beyond on the line of wall to the ])oint L,' 50 feet from the 
foundation wall in the cauliflower patch (M) ^ to which it was directly 
pointing. The identity of the two thus seemed clear, but to exhaust 
all possibilities I trenched the ground from the point M for some 70 feet 
to the north-west, finding no siiin that the smooth wall had altered its 
course. This may seem a roundabout way of arriving at a conclusion 
which could have been I'eached by connecting the two points, T)ut those 
50 intermediate feet of laud belong to an unpleasantly small proprietoi', 
whom it would not have been economical to tackle. 

I remarked at the end of my last report that in this field the smooth 
wall did not rest on. the rock but on rough rubble built on several feet of 
debris, which covered the luined top of a massive older wall resting on 
the rock, running in a somewhat different line. This latter was first 
struck in Shaft .3, sunk along the inner face of the smooth wall, as a 
commencement of the Section AB. It was then followed to the east and 
west with the following results. 

To the east it was pushed to X, where only rude foundation work 
occurred similar to that seen last year at M, to which it was generally 
pointing. As to the identity of the two there can be no doubt. To the 
west the masonry was followed to the corner, B, and then 12i feet 
towards A, where it butts up against the rock, which has been stepped uj) 
to carry on the now-destroyed nrasonry to A, where Tower III of the 

' Tliesc leLtors refer to the key plan, PI. I. 


upper line rests upon the rock. Here, i)lainly, the two lines coincide. 

They have also been seen to coincide at Tower I. Between Towers I and 

III the rock is not far from the surface. The inference thus is that 

between Towers I and III the older wall was ruined to the rock, or 

perhaps to the lowest course of stones noticed in my third report, and 

tliat the later line followed the earlier between these two points. At A 

the earlier line runs out to form the Tower ABCD, but the later builders 

carried their wall on straight, and finding the rock deeper as they went east 

disregarded the old line of wall, sometimes resting their rubble foundations 

upon it, as seen in Shaft 1 on the developed section from A to M, PI. T, 

and sometimes merely on the debris with which the old wall was buried, as 

seen at Shafts 2 and 4. At the point M the rock is nearer the surface, and 

here the later builders again ran on to the old line, as we have proved 

above. The absence at tower near Jewish Cemetery and on to Siloam of 

the smooth masonry, characteristic of this upper line, may be explained in 

two ways : either the old wall was in such good preservation that it 

needed only to be repaired, the smooth stones of the reparation having 

since disapi)eared, or else the later line again diverged from the older in a 

north-easterly direction, somewhere east of the point M. This point could 

only be settled by an examination of the old wall, beyond the point M, 

along its inside face, which would be impossible did the divergence 

take place in the Jewish Cemetery. The absence, beyond Tower V, of 

towers at short intervals, characteristic of the later line, is certainly 


We may now study the lower or older wall from A to M, the points 
between which the upper or smooth wall runs on another line. (.See key plan, 
sections, and elevations, PI. I.) After forming the Tower ABCD the line 
runs north-noi'th-east to F, then breaks out to G, and resumes the former 
direction to K. Projecting from the wall, GK, is a series of six chambers. 
Their length is 21 feet, with the exception of No. 2, which is 2 feet longer, 
owing to a recessing of the back w;dl. Chambers 2 to 6 vary in 
breadth from 12 feet 2 inches to 13 feet 6 inches, while No. 1 is 17 feet 
broad. The division walls are not bonded into the back wall, but run 
back into it. In place six courses of the back still remain, the masonry of 
which {see specimen at OK) is similar to that of the divisions, and con- 
sists of hammer-dressed stones, roughly squared and badly set, with a few 
bossed stones interspersed. A vain but thorough search was made along 
this back wall for doors to the chambers. As the rock bottom is rough and 
slopes rapidly to the south (see Section 01), the inference is that the 
chambers are ruined to their cellarage. Of the front wall, IJ, only one 
to three courses remain, varying from 24 inches to 29 inches in height. 
The stones, which are set in mortar, are roughly squared with quarry- 
picked faces, comb-picked at the edges, but this wall presents a decidedly 
.smoother face than the back wall, as may be seen by comparing specimens 
at I J and OK. The corner stone at I is drafted and better worked. The 
lowest corner is set on 18 inches of rubble bedded on lime and ashes. It 
is 8 feet 6 inclies thick, the back wall being somewhat more. It does not 


stand on a scarp, and a tunnel driven on the sloping rock for 30 feet south 
showed no sign of scarp or rock-hewn ditch. 

This system of projecting chambers, clear now as it appeal's on the plan, 
puzzled us for a long time. We first struck the back wall behind 
Chamber 6 and then found its east wall. It looked as if we had found 
a tower, but whether we were inside or outside of it was not clear, as the 
inside face of tlie front wall of the chamber-system was here ruined. lu 
the meantime, in Shaft 2 we had again struck the back wall and the west 
wall of Chamber 3, and worked our way to the west wall of Chamber 2. 
We then pushed westwards along the back wall from Chamber 6. I have 
explained how the division walls were let into the back wall ; that between 
Chambers 5 and 6 was so ruined that we took the straight joints in the 
back wall to represent a filled-iu gateway, and pushed on till we came tc 
the division between Chambers 3 and 4. The idea of the series of pro- 
jecting chambers occurred first to Abu Selim, who proposed to establish 
this hypothesis for that of the towers. Accordingly we re-examined the 
supposed gateway, which turned out to be the letting in of a division wall, 
broken off at the junction but running south in one foiindation course. 
In the same way we traced the much-ruined division between Chambers 
4 and 6. The wall IJ was then looked for, and found in front of the 
Chambers 1, 2, 3, and 6. At J the ruin was complete, though the wall 
KJ was traced for some distance south. But that the point J is the true 
outer angle of the chamber-system is proved — (1) by the alteied direction 
of the main wall from K on ; (2) by the fact that in tracing it 50 feet 
to N no more division walls were found ; and (3) by the fact that the 
wall KJ is more massive than the division walls, being 7 feet thick, 
similar to 01. 

There was some difficulty in finding the corresponding west wall, 01. 
We were led astray by a later wall which seemed to belong to Chamber 1, as 
it ran south from the back wall, appearing to give 13 feet as the breadth 
of that chamber. But from the very first it looked suspicious, as it was 
only 4 feet 6 inches thick (the other divisions averaging 6 feet), and 
instead of showing the massive rough masonry of the divisions, it con- 
sisted of small rubble, bedded in mortar, standing to a great height and 
having a distinct batter. The men nicknamed it the " slieep-fold wall." 
Moreover, the wall against which it butted up could not be the expected 
wall IJ, as it was only 4 feet wide, and its outer face occurred 3 feet 
inside the point which I.J should cut. Again, these walls were 3 degrees 
off' the axis of the building. This " sheep-fold wall " started on the rock, 
but the caving in of the very loose debris banked against its battered face 
prevented our following it on the rock along its length. Sinking to the 
rock at the end of our tunnel, we found the true wall IJ, in the expected 
]josition and direction. Pushing a few feet further we^t we found a straight 
joint between the wall IJ and the south wall of the '• sheep-fold " system, 
which, no longer having the wall IJ for its foundation, had sunk to the 
rock and continued west. Breaking through this wall at the corner I of 
older wall OIJ, we followed the latter north for 15 feet, wliere it butts up 


against the rock and runs out (as shown in Section OI). This accounts for 
our not having seen it when tracing the main wall west from G, l)nt the 
points of former junction are clearly marked. What' I have called the 
"sheep-fold" system of later Avails is omitted from the plan to avoid 
confusion, as it has no organic connection with the city wall. 

The part of the M\all OGrF presents a decided patchwork ; a large stone 
similar to the great stones at the Jewish Wailing Place has been cut down 
and inserted, together with Roman column bases. As DF runs to the back 
of FG, the true line, from the outer corner I, may once have run back to 
H, which thus would have been the original inner angle, OGF being an 
alteration of the line. The masonry along the length EF is similar to the 
work at IJ, which helps the theory. But at E a straight joint occurs with 
rough rubble on to D, which is not bonded into the wall CD. The posi- 
tion of DF naturally suggests the ingoing of a gateway, and careful search 
for this was made. The rock along the base of DF is sloping and irregular ; 
breaking in at E we followed the wall to east and west, finding it in places 
in its natural rough condition, in others cut as for quan-ying stones, with 
a scarp 6 feet high, no sign of gate or roadway being visible. The inference 
was that there never was a gate-opening here at the level of the rock at 
the base of DF, and, if an opening had ever occurred at a higher level, all 
traces had been destroyed by the nj'P^^' wall, which here ran over the 

The three sides of the Tower ABC!D are drawn in elevation. Three 
periods are distinctly recognisable on the east side. From D for 10 feet 
we have the most beautifully set work we have observed in our excava- 
tions (see Specimen at D). The iine rubbed jointing can be compared 
only to the work at the Jewish Wailing Place. No mortar is used. The 
stones are perfectly squared, the broad margins are worked tine and 
smooth, while the centres are chisel-picked. The courses are 23J inches 

Where this fine work is ruined there is bonded into it rougher 
set masonry of an entirely different character ; three styles of dressing 
are observed — (1) rough quarry-2)icked stones as at IJ, PI. II ; (2) stones 
with rustic bosses like the work figured on p. 245 of the July 
Quarterhi ; and (3) fine-picked stones with comb-margins, evidently 
ve-used from the oricfinal wall which still remains at D. After continuintr 
21 feet this masonry ends in a straight joint beyond which there is a 
later extension of the face. The drain, which is cut in two by this new- 
face, belongs to the earlier period. The masonry of this fresh face does 
not differ in character from the work just described and continues to the 
corner B, where it is set forward 65 inches from one course of stones, 
whose dressing and fine setting are exactly similar to the work at D, As 
at the other end we saw the corners of the second and third periods, so 
here we see the corners of the first and third periods. Whatever the 
line of the earliest face may have been, this projection of the latest work 
is evidently due to the desire to make the face square with the sides of 
the towei'. 


On the west side the masonry continues a distance of 12.2 f^^*') beyond 
which it is ruined, but the carefully stepped-up rock shows how the wall 
had been carried up to the point where the upper line diverged from it. 
This lower wall, which we have been describing in detail from A to N, 
while evidently a continuous line, has shown us several styles of masonry, 
and we may now recapitulate these with a view to asking : Which style 
should be taken as characteristic ? 

The work at KN is only rough foundation, similar to that at M, 
without indication of the style of superstructure. The back wall, OK, is 
also rough foundation. FGO is patchwork. DE is filling in. Hence 
for the original work we must look to the outer wall, OIJK, of the 
chambei'-system which presents one style, similar to EF and to the Tower 
ABCL). The stones of the wall, OIJK, present a comparatively smooth 
face, being well set, but are quarry dressed and roughly squared. Though 
certainly in sitn, as the wall here must have been extremely lofty, the 
three courses left may not represent the character of the upper part of 
the wall. The original masonry of the Tower ABCD is indicated by bits 
at D and B. In the two periods of reparation there have been used (I) 
stones from the original masonry of the tower, (2) quarry-picked stones 
such as appear at IJ, and (3) bossed stones which characterise this same 
wall from the Jewish Cemetery south-east to the gate near Siloam and on 
as far as tr'aced. Hence, if any conclusion can be drawn from these data 
it would seem that the earliest work we have seen on the continuous line 
of wall between the Protestant Cemetery and Siloam is at D and B, and 
at OIJK. How the fine jointing of the foimer corresponds to that of the 
Jewish work at the Haram area I have pointed out before. 

A word as to the relation of this lower line \o the upper line. The layer 
of accumulated debris between the ruined top of the lower wall and the 
rubble foundations of the upper wall, as seen in the Section AM, between 
Shafts 1 and 4, shows that between the periods of the two walls there 
intervened a time when no city wall existed at tliis point. This indicates 
such an extended interruption in the life of the city as history shows no 
example of, except after the desti'uction by Titus. Hence it seems a 
natural hypothesis to refer the lower wall to Jewish times and the upper 
wall to the Roman or Christian periods. The former certainly ran down 
to Siloam, while the course of the latter is not certain beyond the point M. 
These few pages may not have given, at first reading, an idea of 
the magnitude of the labour expended in attaining the above results. 
The reader must look between the lines. He nuist note that the brief 
sentence, " a vain but thorough search was made for doors along the back 
wall," indicates a tunnel 25 feet long. The length of shafts and galleries 
worked in this excavation amounts to about a quarter of a mile. Using 
only part of the stones which were exhumed, the proprietor was able to 
construct a wall to his premises 150 feet long, 4 feet high, and 4^ feet 
wide. Many of the stones had to be broken up in the tunnel so that they 
might be hauled up a shaft 40 feet to the surface. Hence the work 
progressed slowly along the line GK, where the debris consisted mainly 


of large stones, which were dislodged with great skill by Abdallah, our 
best quarryman, who managed to keep his tunnel perfectl}^ safe. A^ain 
the work was very difficult along the front wall IJ, for this had been 
quarried for stone and the loose shingle sometimes ran like water. The 
stones of the upper line west of Tower V seemed to have been recently 
stolen, as the old pit was filled with a light soft soil most dangerous for 
tunneling, but 'Isa, one of "Warren's excavators, boxed his tunnel 
beautifully, stej^ping it down, box by box, as the base of the wall fell, and 
cleverly tuining the corner at the inner angle of the tower. The work 
went rapidly around the Tower ABCD, as it is buried in firm brown soil, 
easy to excavate, where it pays to make your tunnel high and narrow, 
both for ventilation and ease in removing the stuff. Twelve feet north of 
B the rock rises rapidly and Ahmed neatly accomplisheil his task of 
driving a tunnel up-hill, stepping nimbly out of the way of the rollinf 

It was extremely interesting, as well as a tax on the mind, to trace 
these two walls running about in the same line, the one above the other. 
One inconvenience in excavating is that you can never see your whole 
work at one time. For example, after clearing out and measurino- one 
partition in the chamber-system we filled up the tunnel with earth from 
another galler}^ Indeed during a few days most of our workmen were 
underground. On rainy days this was convenient. But though 
many people penetrated our tunnels no one but ourselves saw the entire 
work. Still those who looked down Shaft 1 could form a clear idea of 
what we were following, for at one glance they could see the surface soil, 
the smooth upper wali, its rough rubble foundation ' resting on the corner 
G of the drafted old wall, and finally the rock below all. At Shaft 2 
they could see the same archaeological stratification with the addition of 
the debris separating the two wall-systems. This debris was mainlv 
brown mould containing potsherds. 

The reader may now begin to understand how this excavation took 
nine weeks, though other shafts were worked at the same time both at 
Siloam and along the Section AB. The filling up of shafts and tunnels 
occupied some days longer, and now the field has resumed its ordinary 
appearance. It will, however, bear a better barley crop next year owin*' 
to the turning up of the soil. 

We now come to the second division of the season's work, namely, the 
study of the rock along the Section AB. This extended from a jjoint 
behind the back wall of No. 6 of the chamber-system to B.M. 2479.7 on 
the road coming from Bab Neby Dadd. The direct distance is about 
400 feet, but the shafts employed in reaching the rock and the foUowin"- 
of clues to right and left bring up the length of shafts and galleries to 
nmch more than twice that amount. Ground was broken at a point 

1 In one of bis letters, Dr. Bliss remarks : " The rubble of the later wall is of 
rough stones, large and small, not built in courses, held together by mud witli 
a slight admixture of lime. Where this rubble rests iu (he earth it is 14 feet 
thick " {see above, p. 10). 


50 feet north of the back wall, the rock was reached at a depth of 31 feet 
G inches, and a gallery driven south. 

The rock slopes down naturally, and nothing was found but a few 
rude, thin house walls. The red virgin soil still covers the rock and the 
back wall of the chamber-system which we saw standing to a height of 
11 feet, is built down for 7 feet in a trench cut in this virgin soil. 
Returning to the shaft and driving a gallery north, we found nothing but 
insignificant scarps, probably due to quarrying, till we reached the 
a(iueduct discovered by Sir Charles Warren. In my report for January, 
1895, I described the aqueduct entering the ancient city at Tower II, and 
gave reasons for supposing it to be identical with Warren's. On striking 
his aqueduct in our section we followed it westwards as far as it is laid 
down on the map to the road where a blockage occurs. Returning to 
Tower II we followed the aqueduct north-east, further than last year, to 
a blockage 50 yards from the blockage in Warren's aqueduct to which it 
was still "pointing. These blockages are due to air-holes which have been 
tilled with fallen debris. That the line traced by Warren and the line 
tiaced by us are parts of the same aqueduct is clear. The construction is 
exactly "similar. In both parts we find the double coats of plaster ; a 
similar separation of the plastered bottom ; the same finely worked 
corners, in places double ; the same marked variations of height and 
l)readth. A further proof lies in the levels of the flooring, as there is a 
fall of 1 foot between Tower II and the point where the aqueduct was 
struck in Section AB. Moreover there is roughly smoked in lamp-blask 
in the roofing of both parts the bench mark of the Ordnance survey /j^. 

A probable explanation is now afforded for the curious bend taken by 
the aqueduct as observed by Sir Charles Warren. A glance at the plan 
shows that it turns aside to avoid the building which evidently stood in 
the way of its direct course. The minor turns may be attributed to a 
careful feeling after rock levels. 

This square tower, which projects south from a system of chambers, 
has walls of extraordinary thickness. The east and west walls are 
14 feet thick, the south wall 15 feet 11 inches, and the north wall 
7 feet 2 inches. They consist of rubble built in courses averaging 20 inches 
high, pointed with strong mortar made of lime antl ashes. Only the 
corner stones are dressed, one or two showing a boss. These massive 
walls enclose a chamber only 25 feet square. We sunk to the rock at the 
south-west and north-east interior angles of the chamber, finding it filled 
to a considerable height with a solid filling of large rubble set in mortar, 
which had to be quarried out, and which was quite distinct from the w^alls. 
Pushing towards the centre of the building from the north-east corner, 
we found a sudden drop in the rock, and quarrying down through the 
filling for li feet we discovered a rock-hewn chamber, whose roof, now 
l.roken, had originally a barrel-vaulted form. {See ground plan, section, 
and elevations, PI. III.) This rock-liewn chamber is iiot in the centre of 
the tower built ar()un<l it, nor is it in the same line. Though not quite 
rectangular, its dimensions are, roughly sj^eaking, 14 feet long by 10 feet 


€ inclies. Tlie four sides were followed liy (inarrying through the filling, 
but a solid \ner had to be left iu the middle for a support. Still a large 
part of the flooring was seen as we tunneled under this support, reaching 
the centre of the chamber. The approach was originally from the open 
air by a door cut in a scarp, as may be seen 1 >}■ a glance at the rock 
levels in the general plan. 

This scarp is broken away (Section AB), but one rock-cut jamb of the 
door and the door socket still remain. The interior walls are covered with 
fine plaster, very much broken. In the east, west, and north walls occur 
the large recesses and small niches seen in the elevations. One recess has 
<a small groove, as if for a shelf. Curiously enough, the rubble filling 
extends within the recesses. Not a single tomb loculus was found. The 
Augustinians have found in their property to the east of this place a rock- 
hewn dwelling, unconnected with tombs, with a similar niche and recess. 
I have examined the tomb chambers on tlie south side of the Valley of 
Hinnom by way of comparison. I find no chambers without loculi, except 
two that directly connect with tomb-chambers and none containing the 
■cupboard-like recesses. "We carefully sounded the floor of our chamber, 
which gave no sign of a cavity below. Tlius it has no connection from 
within with any other chamber. Outside we followed to the west a scarp 
•over which the west wall of the tower is built for 12 feet, when it turns 
south. This scarp, taken in connection with the level rock in front 
of the chamber, suggests that it opened on an open court, but that no 
chambers led from this court from the faces of the east and west scarps 
is proved by the rock, the top of which was traced along the east and 
Avest sides of the tower. At the points outside the sides of the supposed 
court it is only 4 feet higher than the flooring of the latter. There is 
still room, however, for a parallel chamber to the east, opening from the 
north side of the court, and we are still searching for this. 

This great tower is very curious, but certain points are clear : the rock- 
hewn chamber had a broken roof when the tower was built around, as 
,shown by the filling built down into the former ; the tower was not isolated, 
as proved by the lesser thickness of its north wall. The massive walls 
and the equally strong filling mean one of two things : either something 
was meant to be concealed, or a foundation was needed for a tower of 
great height. As far as our investigations have gone, we have found 
nothing but an ordinary ruined rock-hewn dwelling, not worth concealing ; 
lieuce we argue from the presoit data that it occurred by chance at the 
sjjot where a lofty tower was to be built. 

As seen on PI. Ill, and n)ore extensively on the general plan, 
it pi'ojects from a system of chambers. The wall DE apparently doe.s 
not belong to the system, as it is not bonded into CG, and the masonry 
is ditierent, consisting of small roughly-squared stones set in courses, 
open-joint, and the mortar does not contain the ashes always characteristic 
of that of the tower system. At G we have a true course, and the 
character of FGH is similar to that of the faces of the tower, but of 
smaller stones. The round arch, HI, would thus be an adilition at tlie 



time of the wall DE. In a tunnel to the east the wall GH was seen to 
turn to the north. We are also trenching to the west of the north-west 
corner of the tower, buc on neither side is there any indication of a wall 
having; the extraordinary thickness of those of the tower. On the west 
the rock cistern rules out the possibility of such a wall now existing at 
that point. We have still a few days' work befoi'e the investigation 
becomes entirely exhaustive, but the facts are decidedly against a city 
wall here. Moreover, the masonry of the tower itself has not the character 
of that of a city wall. 

About 12 feet north of the wall KL occurs a chamber, 25 feet by 

19 feet, with a mosaic flooring from 2 to 3 feet above the rock. The walls 
of the chamber are almost entirely ruined, and are of slight thickness. 

The mosaic is in almost j^erfect preservation. Though buried under 
15 feet of soil, by a careful directing of two tunnels we wei'e able to 
recover the complete pattern (PI. IV). The jjlans ' explain themselves. 
Mr. Dickie's task was no light one. To sit on the floor of a hot, damp 
tunnel, 55 feet from the air supply, by the light of four or five candles 
placed in bottles, the air growing thicker every hour, while he measured 
and coloured, and then to emerge into the midst of a cold, rainy 
outside world, was in my view a trying experience. 

In our trench to the east of the corner we found fallen fragments 
of mosaic of a still finer workmanship and more elaborate design and 
colouring, the tesserte being of white, black, grey, two shades of red, and 
two shades of orange. 

Coming from the north and running across the chamber there is a 
drain 2 feet 6 inches broad, and at least 5 feet high. It is cut off by a 
made-up bottom between the chamber and the wall KL of the towei' 
system. It is in line with the similar drain to the south, butting up 
against the upper city wall as described at the beginning of this report. 
A drain was also observed against the outside of tlie wall GH, abruptly 
cut off' by a wall of the tower system. This may be a branch of the 
mosaic drain. This latter appears to furnish a key to the chronology 
of the various discoveries at this point. The drain is of course later 
than the mosaic. It also seems to be earlier than the tower system, 
which interrupts its natural path, though it is directly cut off by the 
made-up bottom only 12 feet north of the wall KL. Even supposing 
that it turned west, and is identical with the drain at J, in this case it 
was cut off by the tower system. The aqueduct seems to have been 
diverted to avoid the already existing tower. We thus have the mosaic 
as the oldest and the aqueduct as the most recent of these vai'ious 
constructions. The mosaic is probably not older than early Roman 
times, hence the aqueduct may be that of Pontius Pilate, whose great 
work of bringing water to the city caused such a tumult among the Jews. 
Coijfirmativu of this hypothesis is the fact that the jjottery found between 
the aqueduct and the mosaic is Roman or later, while that found iu 

' The plan showing tlio mosaic pattern in colours can be seen at the oflice 
of the Fund. 

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connection with the lower south wall is mainly Jewish. Eoman tiles 
Avere found bedded in the filling of the great tower north of the aqueduct. 
Drawings of the pottery and other objects found in our excavations will, 
I hope, be ready for the April Statement. 

From the mosaic north to the fork of the road, in one gallery driven 
on the rock, nothing appeared but a few rude, thin house walls. These, 
though carefully examined, are omitted from the plan as they would 
merely appear as unedifying scratches. Under the fork of the road we 
struck a wall, standing to a considerable height, and showing a vertical 
joint. Breaking through, we found that this indicated the outside 
corner of one house with a wall of another system of houses extending 
from it to the east. The south wall of the house to the right was 
roughly built in courses from 15i inches to 27 inches high ; its east 
wall, though clearly traced by the debris banked against it, consists 
of much broken rubble, without a decided face. It evidently had been 
used as the west wall of the cellarage of the system of contemporary 
houses to the left. The south wall of these was traced for some 35 feet 
to the east, and its thickness found at three places to be only from 
4 to 5 feet. The masonry consists of roughly-squai-ed rubble, set in 
courses 12 inches to 14 inches high, resting on ruder foundations. 
Partitions were found running to the north and south. Some few feet 
from the end of the tunnel, a drain, coming from the north-east, breaks 
through the wall. This drain is 2 feet broad, about 4 feet high, and 
its bottom is not on the rock. In character it resembles the drain 
crossing the mosaic, with which it seems to be identical, as we did not 
see it in our gallery which ran to the west of a line connecting these two 
bits of drain. 

Ee turning to the corner of the house described above, we pushed 
north along its east wall under the road, when we came upon a small 
birket extending back of the house, thus indicating the northern limit 
of the latter. The birket has curiously curved sides, its bottom is rock 
and its walls are plastered. The south wall is only 18 inches thick. 
Breaking through the north wall, which is thicker, we found ourselves in 
a chamber 5 feet broad, with walls similarly plastered. It has not the 
shape of the birket, being rectangular, but it may also be a birket con- 
nected with the other. From this point for 9 feet north the work was 
extremely difficult. The top of our tunnel showed set foundation work, 
resting on debris through which the tunnel was driven. Its path crossed 
the mouth of a large rock-hewn cistern. The mouth is choked up, but 
not closed of set purpose, by a large fallen stone, and the interior is only 
l^artly filled with debris. 

Three or four feet beyond the cistern's mouth we struck the back of a 
stone. On our removing this, a quantity of loose shingle poured into 
our tunnel through the orifice. When the stream of shingle stopped, 
Abu-Selim was able to stick his head through the hole and announce 
that the removed stone, the back of which we had seen, belonged to a 
wall facing north. However, attempts made to enlarge the hole resulted 



in a fresh stream of shingle and larger stones. I could not now put my 
head through to see how dangerous a cavity had been made under the road. 
Accordingly we wei-e forced to open a shaft from the road, and sank 
down near the north face of this wall, which consists of quarry-picked 
stones, badly squared, pinned up with chips and set in coarse mortar, 
the courses varying from 11| inches to 13^ inches high. This face rests 
on the rock, and was seen standing to a height of 11 feet to a point only 
6 feet under the road. The question of its breadth is not clear, but in 
no case can it be city wall. If the foundation work seen at the top of 
the tunnel belongs to it, then it might have been 8 feet thick, but in this 
case it was built over the choked up cistern, and its south face rested on 
debris. This fact would militate against its being a city wall, as the outer 
face of a city wall at this point should face south, and it is unlikely that 
the outer face of a city wall should rest on debris while the inner face 
rested on rock. 

If the mouth of the cistern were outside of it, then the south face 
(now ruined) could only give a breadth of 4 feet, too small for a city wall. 

Continuing towards the north 7 feet beyoud this wall, we found steps 
descending at the angle of a cistern or reservoir. "Walls and steps are 
of rock, both covered with cement of lime and ashes. The construction 
is similar to that of "Cistern I," found during our first season, and 
discussed on p. 255 of the Statement for October, 1894. Driving on we 
found this cistern filled with loose debris containing large stones, the 
dislodging of which again threatened to undermine the road, and we 
were reluctantly obliged to open a fresh shaft a few feet beyond the 
point where our tunnel had become dangerous. As the cistern did not 
continue to the point of this shaft we may take its breadth at about 
19 feet. The east and west dimension was not ascertained. 

From the large stones which had arrested our progress we had guessed 
that we were near a wall, and this appeared in the newly made shaft. 
The facing stones have all disappeared, but the line of the inner packing 
runs east and west. Before following it we thought best first to find 
its breadth. As its ruined top lies only 4j feet under the road surface 
we ran an open trench to the north. To our astonishment we pushed 
along the to]) for 23 feet before we reached the northern face, which 
consists of well-set drafted stones, evidently an outside face. 

Sinking to the rock, we pushed east, soon finding a cornei', and then 
followed the wall south, the masonry becoming more and more ruined 
till the one course remaining came to an end at a distance of 24j feet, 
which brought us to within a short space of the ])oint where we had seen 
the face-robbed wall. The mystery was now explained. Our open 
trench had been driven along the top of the east wall of a building. We 
liad first struck its south side, just short of the south-east outer angle ; 
we had then found its north side, near B.M. 2479.7 ; then the north-east 
outer angle, and had worked our way back to the south-east corner. The 
character and size of the masonry (the u])per courses averaging 24 inches) 
suggest that this is a tower in a city wall. Our trench across the top 
shows that the walls (if walls there were) are at least 8 feet thick, hence 


the tower was probably solid, as no sufficient space remains for a chamber. 
We followed the north face to the west, bat the masonry suddenly breaks 
off, and we are still searching for clues. The discovery of this supposed 
tower throws light on the nature of the wall seen 8 yards to the south. 
They cannot be two independent city walls, as they are too close together, 
and stand at the same level and to the same height. They cannot be 
parts of the same wall. And if either of them be city wall, it is the 
northern tower that shows the characteristics. Thus the southern wall 
appears to be part of a dwelling. 

As half of this report is taken up with the Section AB, which was cut 
to ascertain whether any other walls ran across the line north of A, I am 
sorry that at the only two places where a city wall possibly runs the 
returns are incomplete. I have already delayed the report ever one post, 
but a buried city regards not the sailings of steamers, and is coy in 
revealing her secrets. 

The map on which this season's work is laid down contains also last 
year's work, which appeared on a map in the January Statement.^ The 
discrepancy in the positions of the wall as observed in a comparison of 
the two maps is thus explained : starting from a fixed point, I laid down 
the direction of the wall as given by the prismatic compass ; the survey 
was correct absolutely, but I had not then learned what was the local 
difference between true and magnetic north ; this has been since ascer- 
tained ; a fresh survey by Mr. Dickie has established the correctness of 
mine, and he has laid all the discoveries down in their proper relation to 
the Ordnance Survey, with check measurements from lixed points. The 
alteration in the direction of the wall immediately west of the tower at 
Jewish Cemetery was aaticipated by my remark at the bottom of p. 17 
of the January Quarterly Statement. 

Since the last report was sent the work has been driven at full speed, 
only one day having been lost. We have also picked up the line of wall 
crossing the mouth of the Tyropceon, its base having been reached with 
great difficulty in a shaft 37 feet deep, where the sewage oozing from 
the pool is most unpleasant. Thus far the rains have not interrujjted 
the work, as during one fearful storm we were fortunate enough to 
pursue two or three tunnels, and shift the earth to others which were 
tinished with. But this is not a chance that often occurs. The work 
of the party has been, on the whole, good. The alternation of heat and 
cold is what makes the Jerusalem climate so trying. Several of our 
workmen have been drafted into the reserve. The labourers pursue the 
work of mining with great courage, and when I asked Ahmed, who 
had got among wicked-looking debris, whether he was afraid, he 
replied : " I fear but one thing, and that is that you i>ut another man 
in my place." Abu Selim manages the diggers, land-owners, and crop- 
owners with his usual tact. The owner with whom we did not come to 
terms last year has proved himself not only an admirable man of 
business but a perfect gentleman, as the bargain once made this 

- Only a portion of tliis iKtip is reproduced in the pre?ont miuiber. 


summer he has never been near ns save for a friendly visit, which we 
would like repeated. 

Our relations with the Imperial Museum at Constantinople are 
cordial, through its Director, H. E. Hamdi Bey, and our genial Commis- 
sioner, Ibrahim Effendi, who both are deeply interested in the progress 

of the work. 

In clusing I would beg indulgence for the hurried style of this report, 
which has been written under great pressure. The pen was often 
dropped during the midst of a sentence, when I was summoned from 
the tent to make a descent underground. 

Jerusalem, December 8th, 1895. 


By Archibald C. Dickie, A.R.I.B.A. 

On my return to Jerusalem after a two weeks' holiday up the country, I 
was instructed by Dr. Bliss to report on some tombs which he had 
discovered on a hill about a mile due east from the village of SAr Bahir, 
from which it is separated by a ravine. The initial discovery was made 
by some natives, who were digging on the crest of the hill for broken 
pottery. They reported it at once to Dr. Bliss, who immediately 
visited the place and found it to be a cell enclosing a very interesting series 
of tombs. 

Accompanied by Ibrahim Effendi, I started on the morning of 
12th October, equipped with the necessary implements for the accurate 
plotting of the building, and the no less necessary lunch basket or lunch 
" hurj," as ii may more appropriately be called in this country. Three 
workmen preceded us, whom we overtook at the base of the hill after an 
hour's ride over the now barren and unfruitful hills lying to the south of 
the city. 

A general survey of the hill top gave me but little light on the 
position of the tombs, as the entrance had been filled up since Dr. Bliss's 
visit. Everywhere were signs of a disturbed surface, but in no place 
could I find any clue to lead me to the object of my visit. At last, after 
careful examination and a little hand excavating, in what seemed to me 
to be the most recently disturbed soil, a welcome voussoir peejjed out of the 
crumbling earth followed by another of the same. Here I set the men to 
work, and after an hour's digging I was able to squeeze myself into the 
building at the apex of the vault, just where the steps lead down to the 
cell. The debris had all fallen from this aperture, and consequently more 
than half of the interior was practically em})ty, hence the inside excava- 
tion only consisted of minor pickings here and there, to find real 
bottoms, true corners, thicknesses, &c. 

To face pa^e 22 



OCT -• i" 






°- :f=T=; I I I I I . i=r 



The building can best be described as a rectangular, semicircular, 
barrel-vaulted cell, measuring 6 feet 1 inch wide by 49 feet 3 inches long ; 
the height from the bottom of floor tombs to apex of vault being 
11 feet 11 inches. Six semicircular-arched recesses, 3 feet 3 inches deep, 
6 feet 2 inches wide, and 5 feet 3 inches high, on each side form the side 
tombs, and the floor is divided into 12 compartments, G feet 0^ inch long, 
2 feet 9i inches wide, and 2 feet 7 inches high, by dwarf walls, 10 inches 
thick, thus forming the floor tombs. The entrance at the east end has 
Ave steps, which end abruptly at the face of the wall. The masonry of 
the stair walls is diagonally bedded, parallel to the rake of the steps, the 
upper course being the springing coarse of a sloping vault, which must 
have intersected the main vault at the broken part. At the west end is 
n small opening (now built up), measuring 3 feet by 12 inches, abutting 
up to the apex of the vault. The cell is partly cut out of the solid rock 
and partly built. In the lower part the rock has been faced up and 
made good in cement and stones, but in the upper part of the recesses 
the natural rock jjrojects slightly forward. The masonry is flne pick 
dressed, with chiselled margins well set and close jointed with fine 
trowel-keyed pointing, courses averaging 15 inches high. The floor 
tombs must have been covered with stone slabs, although no signs of 
them now remain. Broken parts show that the fronts of the tombs had 
been formed by a thin division or slab of very strong concrete, made of 
lime, pottery, and small stones 4 inches thick and 2 feet 6 inches high, 
bonded into the side piers at the small checks shown on plan. Stone 
slabs would seem to one to be the most natural and simple method of 
construction, but in every tomb where any remains of the fronts 
existed I observed the same peculiarity, the check heads being in many 
cases broken ofl", evidently when the tombs were destroyed. No remains 
of the covers exist, but it is probable that they were of slabs resting on 
the concrete wall, and the 4-inch projection at the back of the recess. 
The bottoms are made up of the same character of concrete as I have 
already described. 

Not a vestige of the contents of these toiaibs remains, although it is 
certain that they were almost all used, from the way in which the edges 
and checks of the piers have been destroyed and the fronts broken off", 
as well as from the cement beds and joints which can be seen on the 
bearings for the covers. Kecess No. 10 appears for some reason or other 
to have been unused, as there are no checks in the piers and no evidence 
to show that its orignal form has been disturbed. The ruthless hand of 
the robber seems to have confined itself to the tombs and their contents 
as all the other parts of the building are in perfect preservation, and the 
whole structure looks as fresh and new as the day it was built. Indeed, 
although it is probable that it has existed since Byzantine times, were 
it not for the blackened stones above the lamp-rings hanging from the 
apex of the vault, it would be difficult to believe that one was not 
measuring up a recently-completed building to satisfy the demands of a 
nineteenth century builder. It is curious that such a building could have 



remained so complete, when only 3 feet of debris protected it from the 
ravages of tlie Arab. 

A study of the sarroundiiig gi-ound above shows that the tombs may 
have been under a larger building of some sort, situated within a quad- 
rangle, measuring, roughly speaking, about 70 yards square. At 
the north-east, just on the verge of the descending rock, can be seen 
two courses of masonry, which might have been the corner of the 
enclosure. The east wall is also distinctly traceable for some distance, 
running exactly at right angles to the tombs. The south and west lines 
of walls are inferred from the ridges of debris and fallen stones, there 
being a distinct rise of ground everywhere inside these lines. JS o hewn 
.stones are seen above the tombs, or to the north of the enclosure. There 
is a large rock-cut and jilaster cistern within the enclosure to the north- 
east of the tonabs, with a Latin cross modelled on the plaster. 

The site is entirely surrounded by deep valleys, excej^t at the south- 
west, where it is connected by a narrow neck to the adjoining hill. A 
bright autunui day gave us a splendid view of the surrounding country. 
The Frank mountain loomed and Bethlehem glittered on the south, 
while tlie sjjarkling Mount of Olives and the interesting but dismal 
village of Bethany attracted the eye to the north. The hill village of 
Sfu- Bahir, ragged and picturesque on the west, linked the circle of view, 
which on the east was completed by the barren sandy " knowes" leading 
to the Dead Sea, with the intense blue belt of water beyond, terminating 
in the clear, soft tones of the indescribable, unpaintable blue mountains 
of Moab. 


DEAD SEA, 1895. 

By Gray Hill, Esq. 

[All rights reseri-cd.] 

We desired to reach Petva from the north. No European has, so far as 
I know, visited this most interesting place either from the north or the 
south for a good many years, and it has hitherto been very difficult of 
approach from the north. We made an attempt wliich failed in 1890. 
It is fully described in my book, " With the Beduins." We tried again in 
1891 and in 1893 under the charge of Sheikh Haziih of the Beni Sakh